Timeline of Medina

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Medina, Saudi Arabia.


Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mecca</span> Holiest city in Islam, Saudi Arabias provincial capital

Mecca is the capital of Mecca Province in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia and is considered the holiest city in Islam. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Saudi Arabia</span>

The history of Saudi Arabia as a nation state began with the emergence of the Al Saud dynasty in central Arabia in 1727 and the subsequent establishment of the Emirate of Diriyah. Pre-Islamic Arabia, the territory that constitutes modern Saudi Arabia, was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations; the prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medina</span> City in Medina Province, Saudi Arabia

Medina, officially Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the capital of Medina Province in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. One of the most sacred cities in Islam, the estimated population as of 2020 is 1,488,782, making it the fifth-most populous city in the country. Located at the core of the Medina Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 km2 (227 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz Mountains, empty valleys, agricultural spaces and older dormant volcanoes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hejaz</span> Region of Saudi Arabia

The Hejaz is a region which includes the majority of the west of Saudi Arabia, which includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Yanbu, Taif and Baljurashi. It is thus known as the "Western Province", and is bordered in the west by the Red Sea, in the north by Jordan, in the east by the Najd, and in the south by the Region of 'Asir. It is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula. Its largest city is Jeddah, which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, with Mecca and Medina respectively being the fourth and fifth largest cities in the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques</span> Islamic title of later Abbasid era used by Ayyubid, Ottomans and Saudi dynasties

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques or Protector of the Two Holy Cities, is a royal style that has been used by many Muslim rulers, including the Ayyubids, the Mamluk sultans of Egypt, the Ottoman sultans, Kings of Hejaz and in the modern age, Saudi Arabian kings. The title was sometimes regarded to denote the de facto Caliph of Islam, but it mainly refers to the ruler taking the responsibility of guarding and maintaining the two holiest mosques in Islam: Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina, both of which are in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. The Custodian has been named the most powerful and influential person in Islam and the Sunni branch of Islam by the Muslim 500, as well as the most powerful Muslim and Arab ruler in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prophet's Mosque</span> Historic mosque in Medina, Saudi Arabia

The Prophet's Mosque or Mosque of the Prophet, is the second mosque built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, after that of Quba, as well as the second largest mosque and holiest site in Islam, after the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, in the Saudi region of the Hejaz. The mosque is located at the heart of Medina, and is a major site of pilgrimage that falls under the purview of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al-Baqi Cemetery</span> First Islamic cemetery of Medina, Saudi Arabia

Jannat al-Baqīʿ is the oldest and the first Islamic cemetery of Medina in the Hejazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is located to the southeast of the Prophet's Mosque, which contains the graves of some of the prophet Muhammad's family and friends. It is also known as Baqīʿ al-Gharqad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holiest sites in Islam</span> Sites of great importance in Islam

The holiest sites in Islam are predominantly located in the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant. While the significance of most places typically varies depending on the Islamic sect, there is a consensus across all mainstream branches of the religion that affirms three cities as having the highest degree of holiness, in descending order: Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem. Mecca's Al-Masjid al-Haram, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, and Al-Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem are all revered by Muslims as sites of great importance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Ayyub</span> Imam, Qari and Islamic scholar in al-Medina, Saudi Arabia

Muhammad Ayyub ibn Muhammad Yusuf ibn Sulaiman `Umar was a Saudi Arabian Imam, Qari, and Islamic scholar known for his recitation of the Quran. He was an Imam of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, Saudi Arabia. He was also a faculty member of the Department of Tafsir in the Faculty of the Holy Qur'an and Islamic Studies at the Islamic University of Madinah and a member of the Scholarly Committee of the King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran. His death occurred on 16 April 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia</span>

The destruction of heritage sites associated with early Islam is an ongoing phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, particularly around the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina. The demolition has focused on mosques, burial sites, homes and historical locations associated with the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his companions, and many of the founding personalities of early Islamic history by the Saudi government. In Saudi Arabia, many of the demolitions have officially been part of the continued expansion of the Masjid al-Haram at Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina and their auxiliary service facilities in order to accommodate the ever-increasing number of Muslims performing the pilgrimage (hajj).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Green Dome</span> Architectural dome on the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina, Saudi Arabia

The Green Dome is a green-coloured dome built above the tombs of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the early Rashidun Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar, which used to be Aisha's chamber. The dome is located in the southeast corner of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Millions visit it every year, since it is a tradition to visit the mosque after or before the pilgrimage to Mecca.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holiest sites in Shia Islam</span>

Both Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims agree on the three holiest sites in Islam being, respectively, the Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca; the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, in Medina; and the Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, in Jerusalem.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holiest sites in Sunni Islam</span>

Both Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims agree on the three Holiest sites in Islam being, respectively, the Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca; the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, in Medina; and Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, in Jerusalem.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sharifian Caliphate</span> 1924–25 unrecognized Islamic government on the Peninsula

The Sharifian Caliphate of the Hejaz was an Arab Muslim caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of the Hashemite Kingdom of the Hejaz in 1924, in lieu of the Ottoman Caliphate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sharifate of Mecca</span> State in the Arabian Peninsula from 968 to 1925

The Sharifate of Mecca or Emirate of Mecca was a state, non-sovereign for much of its existence, ruled by the Sharifs of Mecca. A sharif is a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, Muhammad's grandson. In Western sources, the prince of Mecca was known as Grand Sherif, but Arabs have always used the appellation "Emir".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hejaz vilayet</span> Province of the Ottoman Empire from 1872 to 1916

The Vilayet of the Hejaz refers to the Hejaz region of Arabia when it was administered as a first-level province (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, it reportedly had an area of 96,500 square miles (250,000 km2). The Hejaz included all land from the southern border of the Vilayet of Syria, south of the city of Ma‛an, to the northern border of the Vilayet of Yemen, north of the city of Al Lith.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">King of Saudi Arabia</span> Head of state of Saudi Arabia

The king of Saudi Arabia, officially the king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is the monarchial head of state, head of government and ruler of Saudi Arabia who holds absolute power. He is the head of the Saudi Arabian royal family, the House of Saud. The king is the supreme commander-in-chief of the Royal Saudi Armed Forces and the head of the Saudi national honors system. The king is called the "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques", a title that signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina. The title has been used many times through the history of Islam. The first Saudi king to use the title was Faisal; however, King Khalid did not use the title after him. In 1986, King Fahd replaced "His Majesty" with the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, and it has been ever since used by both King Abdullah and King Salman. The king has been named the most powerful and influential Muslim and Arab leader in the world according to the Muslim 500.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mosque of Al-Ghamama</span> Historic mosque in Medina, Saudi Arabia

Mosque of Al-Ghamamah is one of the oldest mosques in Medina, Saudi Arabia, located in the place believed to be where the Islamic prophet Muhammad performed an Eid prayer in the year 631. It is also narrated that Muhammad offered Salat ul-Istasqa when the city of Madina faced a shortage of rain. For a while, this mosque was closed for daily prayers because of its proximity to the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi. However quite recently it has been reopened for the worshipers for praying. Five times prayers are held in this mosque now with an internal sound system to avoid the clash of sounds from the Prophet's Mosque. The mosque is one of the historical relics of Medina.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Seven Mosques</span> Complex of six historic mosques in Medina, Saudi Arabia

The Seven Mosques is a complex of six small historic and often visited mosques in the city of Medina, Saudi Arabia. The complex consists of six mosques in spite of the name "Sab'ah" means "seven", because Saudis demolished one. Although the mosque is often visited by pilgrims, Saudi sources claim that there are no accounts in the order from the Islamic prophet Muhammad or in Sharia regarding the virtue of visiting these mosques. The prophet said: "You do not force yourself for preparation of visiting except these three mosques: Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Masjid al-Haram, and Al-Aqsa. But recently there is a push towards saving this as cultural and religious heritage. Like referred below for Masjid Ali bin Abu Talib.


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Published in 19th century
Published in 20th century
Published in 21st century