Triumphal entry into Jerusalem

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Jesus enters Jerusalem and the crowds welcome him, by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320 Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro lorenzetti.jpg
Jesus enters Jerusalem and the crowds welcome him, by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320

In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus' triumphal entry takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion.

Jesus Central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

Last Supper Final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion

The Last Supper, also known as the Passover meal is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".

Contents

Crowds gather around Jesus and believe in him in John 12:9–11 after he raised Lazarus from the dead, and the next day the multitudes that had gathered for the feast in Jerusalem welcome Jesus as he enters Jerusalem.

Raising of Lazarus Biblical episode and artistic theme

The raising of Lazarus or the resuscitation of Lazarus is a miracle of Jesus recounted only in the Gospel of John in which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial. In John, this is the last of the miracles that Jesus performs before the Passion and his own resurrection.

Jerusalem City in the Middle East

Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

In Matthew 21:1–11, Mark 11:1–11, Luke 19:28–44, and John 12:12–19, Jesus descends from the Mount of Olives towards Jerusalem, and the crowds lay their clothes on the ground to welcome him as he triumphantly enters Jerusalem.

Mount of Olives mountain

The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to Jerusalem's Old City. It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes. The southern part of the Mount was the Silwan necropolis, attributed to the ancient Judean kingdom. The mount has been used as a Jewish cemetery for over 3,000 years and holds approximately 150,000 graves, making it central in the tradition of Jewish cemeteries. Several key events in the life of Jesus, as related in the Gospels, took place on the Mount of Olives, and in the Acts of the Apostles it is described as the place from which Jesus ascended to heaven. Because of its association with both Jesus and Mary, the mount has been a site of Christian worship since ancient times and is today a major site of pilgrimage for Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants.

Christians celebrate Jesus' entry into Jerusalem as Palm Sunday, a week before Easter Sunday.

Palm Sunday Christian feast

Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in each of the four canonical Gospels.

Gospel accounts

According to the Gospels, Jesus was staying at Bethany and before entering Jerusalem. John 12:1 states that he was in Bethany six days before the passover. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus sends two disciples ahead to the nearby village of Bethphage in order to retrieve a donkey (or, in Matthew, two animals: a donkey and a colt), and if questioned, to say that the donkey was needed by the Lord. [1]

Passover Jewish holiday which begins on 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan

Passover or Pesach is a major Jewish holiday and one of the most widely celebrated Jewish holidays. Together with Shavuot and Sukkot, Passover was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals during which the entire population of the kingdom of Judah made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship.

Disciple (Christianity) followers of Jesus, Christian perspective

In Christianity, disciple primarily refers to a dedicated follower of Jesus. This term is found in the New Testament only in the Gospels and Acts. In the ancient world a disciple is a follower or adherent of a teacher. It is not the same as being a student in the modern sense. A disciple in the ancient biblical world actively imitated both the life and teaching of the master. It was a deliberate apprenticeship which made the fully formed disciple a living copy of the master.

Bethphage ancient biblical town

Bethphage or Bethsphage is a Christian religious site in Israel.

Jesus then rode the donkey into Jerusalem, with the three Synoptic gospels stating that the disciples had first put their cloaks on it (presumably to make it more comfortable). Matthew 21:7 maintains that the disciples laid their cloaks on both animals. Heinrich Meyer suggests that "they spread their outer garments upon both animals, being uncertain which of them Jesus intended to mount". [2] It is suggested that Jesus used both, one after another: the donkey representing the Jews under the burden of the law, and the colt, the untamed gentiles. [3]

Cloak long, loose overgarment fastening at the neck

A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform. Cloaks have been used by myriad historic societies; many climates favor wearing a full-body garment which is easily removed and does not constrain the wearer with sleeves. Over time cloak designs have been changed to match fashion and available textiles.

Heinrich Meyer is credited as one of the designers and authors of the first two The Guild games as part of 4HEAD Studios and co-founder of RUNEFORGE Game Studio, now a part of Vienna, Austria-based THQ Nordic and producer of The Guild 3. He has been credited with roles in the following departments of professional video games development: production, design, programming/engineering, writing, audio, quality assurance, localization and creative services.

Flevit super illam (He wept over it), by Enrique Simonet, 1892. Enrique Simonet - Flevit super illam 1892.jpg
Flevit super illam (He wept over it), by Enrique Simonet, 1892.

In Luke 19:41 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it (an event known as Flevit super illam in Latin), foretelling the suffering that awaits the city. [4]

The Gospels go on to recount how Jesus rode into Jerusalem, and how the people there laid down their cloaks in front of him and also laid down small branches of trees. The people sang part of Psalm 118: 25-26: Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. We bless you from the house of the Lord .... [4] [1] [5] [6]

Events in the
Life of Jesus
according to the Gospels
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On his entry into the city, Matthew's account suggests that Jesus evoked great excitement - "all the city was moved". The people of the city asked "Who is this?" and "the multitudes" (Greek : οἱ ὄχλοι, hoi óchloi) answered, "This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee”. [7] The word "moved" in the Greek text is "ἐσείσθη" (eseísthē), derived from the verb σείω (seíō, "shake, quake"). The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges suggests "the word in the original is forcible, “convulsed” or “stirred” as by an earthquake, or by a violent wind". [8] Matthew uses the same word in 27:15 when he suggests that the earth "quaked" at the time of Jesus' death.

In the Synoptic Gospels, this episode is followed by the Cleansing of the Temple episode and, in all four Gospels, Jesus performs various healings and teaches by way of parables while in Jerusalem until the Last Supper. [4] [1]

The Synoptics (Gospel of Mark chapter 14; Gospel of Matthew 26) refers to Jesus visiting the home of an unknown woman of Bethany, where she anoints him with a precious oil, in forecast of his burial. The event was placed in the house of Simon the Leper (Simon in Luke), and dated after the entry in Jerusalem (Mk 11), before sunset and preceding Passover. However, the John 12, which names Mary, sister of Lazarus, as anointing the feet of Jesus at a dinner in his honour in her home, places it earlier, on the day before first Jesus' entry in Jerusalem (less than two miles from Bethany.

Significance

Prince of Peace

Bethany was located east of Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives. Zechariah 14:4 states that the Messiah would come to Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives: [5] [9] Matthew 21:1-11 refers to a passage from Book of Zechariah (9:9) and states: "All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass." [5] Though Jesus had been to Jerusalem several times to celebrate the feasts, his final entry into Jerusalem had a special meaning. He was solemnly entering as a humble King of peace. [3] Traditionally, entering the city on a donkey symbolizes arrival in peace, rather than as a war-waging king arriving on a horse. [6] [10]

The Golden gate is located in the north section of the east wall of the Temple Mount. In Jewish belief the gate, is called 'The Gate of Mercy' (sha'ar harakhamim), and is considered to be the place from which the Messiah will enter in the end of days. According to Jewish tradition, the Shekhinah (שכינה) (Divine Presence) used to appear through the eastern Gate, and will appear again when the Anointed One (Messiah) comes (Ezekiel 44:1–3) [11] The gate is believed to be the place from which Christ entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, thus implying his own messianic status. [12]

Sacrificial Lamb

Jesus traveled by way of Bethphage. Usually the paschal lamb was brought from Bethphage and led to the Temple mount. [3]

Old Testament parallels

Entry into Jerusalem, by Giotto, 14th century. Giotto - Scrovegni - -26- - Entry into Jerusalem2.jpg
Entry into Jerusalem, by Giotto, 14th century.

The triumphal entry and the palm branches, resemble the celebration of Jewish liberation in 1 Maccabees (13:51) which states: "And entered into it ... with thanksgiving, and branches of palm trees, and with harps, and cymbals, and with viols, and hymns, and songs." [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Gospel of Matthew Books of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

Mary of Bethany figure described in the Gospels of John and Luke; sister of Lazarus and Martha, living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem; traditionally identified with Mary Magdalene

Mary of Bethany is a biblical figure described in the Gospels of John and Luke in the Christian New Testament. Together with her siblings Lazarus and Martha, she is described by John as living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem; in Luke only the two sisters, living in an unnamed village, are mentioned. Most Christian commentators have been ready to assume that the two sets of sisters named as Mary and Martha are the same, though this is not conclusively stated in the Gospels, and the proliferation of New Testament "Marys" is notorious.

The Olivet Discourse or Olivet prophecy is a biblical passage found in the Synoptic Gospels in Matthew 24 and 25, Mark 13, and Luke 21. It is also known as the Little Apocalypse because it includes the use of apocalyptic language, and it includes Jesus' warning to his followers that they will suffer tribulation and persecution before the ultimate triumph of the Kingdom of God. The Olivet discourse is the last of the Five Discourses of Matthew and occurs just before the narrative of Jesus' passion beginning with the anointing of Jesus.

Mark 11 Gospel according to Mark, chapter 11

Mark 11 is the eleventh chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible, beginning Jesus' final week before his death as he arrives in Jerusalem for the coming Passover. It contains the stories of Jesus' entry into Jerusalem, his cursing of the fig tree, his conflict with the Temple money changers, and his argument with the chief priests and elders about his authority.

Bethany village recorded in the New Testament as the home of the siblings Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, as well as that of Simon the Leper

Bethany is recorded in the New Testament as the home of the siblings Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, as well as that of Simon the Leper. Jesus is reported to have lodged there after his entry into Jerusalem, and it could be from Bethany that he parted from his disciples at the Ascension.

Life of Jesus in the New Testament life of Jesus as told in the New Testament

The life of Jesus in the New Testament is primarily outlined in the four canonical gospels, which includes his genealogy and nativity, public ministry, passion, resurrection and ascension. Other parts of the New Testament – such as the Pauline epistles which were likely written within 20–30 years of each other, and which include references to key episodes in Jesus' life, such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles, (1:1–11) which includes more references to the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels - also expound upon the life of Jesus. In addition to these biblical texts, there are extra-biblical texts that Christians believe make reference to certain events in the life of Jesus, such as Josephus on Jesus and Tacitus on Christ.

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New Testament places associated with Jesus

The New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus refers to a number of locations in the Holy Land and a Flight into Egypt. In these accounts the principal locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities also taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria.

Ministry of Jesus

In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. A chronology of Jesus typically has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36.

John 12 Gospel according to John, chapter 12

John 12 is the twelfth chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the triumphal entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that John composed this Gospel.

Confession of Peter

In Christianity, the Confession of Peter refers to an episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ. The proclamation is described in the three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 16:13-20, Mark 8:27–30 and Luke 9:18–20. Specifically, Peter declares, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God."

Anointing of Jesus

The anointing of Jesus’s head or feet are events recorded in the four gospels. The account in Matthew 26, Mark 14, and John 12 has as its location the city of Bethany in the south and involves Mary the sister of Martha and Lazarus. The event in Luke features an unknown sinful woman, and is in the northern region, as Luke 7 indicates Jesus was ministering in the northern regions of Nain and Capernaum. The honorific anointing with perfume is an action frequently mentioned in other literature from the time; however, using long hair to dry Jesus's feet, as in John and Luke, is not recorded elsewhere, and should be regarded as an exceptional gesture. Considerable debate has discussed the identity of the woman, the location, timing, and the message.

Sanhedrin trial of Jesus The trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin

In the New Testament, the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin following his arrest in Jerusalem and prior to his dispensation by Pontius Pilate. It is an event reported by all four canonical gospels of the New Testament, although John's Gospel does not explicitly mention a Sanhedrin trial in this context.

The New Testament frequently cites Jewish scripture to support the claim of the Early Christians that Jesus is the Messiah, and to support faith in Jesus as the Christ and his imminent expected Second Coming. The majority of these quotations and references are taken from the Book of Isaiah, but they range over the entire corpus of Jewish writings. People of the Jewish faith do not regard any of these as having been fulfilled by Jesus, and in some cases do not regard them as messianic prophecies at all. These either were not prophecies or the verses do not explicitly refer to the Messiah.

Simon the Leper person mentioned in the Gospels according to Matthew (26:6–13) and Mark (14:3–9); sometimes identified with Simon the Pharisee

Simon the Leper is a biblical figure mentioned by the Gospels according to Matthew and Mark. These two books narrate how Jesus made a visit to the house of Simon the Leper at Bethany during the course of which a woman anoints the head of Jesus with costly ointment. Bethany was the home of Simon the Leper as well as Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.

Jesus predicts his death

There are several references in the Synoptic Gospels to Jesus predicting his own death, the first two occasions building up to the final prediction of his crucifixion. Matthew's Gospel adds a prediction, before he and his disciples enter Jerusalem, that he will be crucified there.

Acts 1 Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1

Acts 1 is the first chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke. This chapter functions as a transition from the "former account" with a narrative prelude, repeated record of the ascension of Jesus Christ with more detail and the meeting of Jesus' followers, until before Pentecost.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Evans, Craig A., The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1, 2003 ISBN   0-7814-3868-3 page 381-395
  2. Meyer's NT Commentary on Matthew 21, accessed 7 February 2017
  3. 1 2 3 Mutholath, Abraham. "Jesus' Triumphal entry into Jerusalem", St. Thomas SyroMalabar Diocese of Chicago, March 21, 2018
  4. 1 2 3 Boring, M. Eugene and Craddock, Fred B., The People's New Testament Commentary, 2004 ISBN   0-664-22754-6 pages 256-258
  5. 1 2 3 Majerník, Ján, Ponessa, Joesph and Manhardt, Laurie Watson. The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke, 2005 ISBN   1-931018-31-6 pages 133-134
  6. 1 2 John 12-21 by John MacArthur 2008 ISBN   978-0-8024-0824-2 pages 17-18
  7. Matthew 21:10-11
  8. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on Matthew 21, accessed 8 February 2017
  9. Also see Josephus, Flavius, Bellum Judaicum, II,13,5 and Antiquitates Judaicae, XX,8,6
  10. Davies, William David and Allison, Dale C., Matthew 19-28, 2004 ISBN   0-567-08375-6 p. 120
  11. "Sha'ar Harahamim", Agency for Jewish Education, 1995
  12. "Bab al-Dhahabi", Archnet
  13. The Bible knowledge background commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation by Craig A. Evans ISBN   0-7814-4228-1 pages 114-118