Christian Democracy (Italy)

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Christian Democracy

Democrazia Cristiana
AbbreviationDC
Secretaries Alcide De Gasperi
Amintore Fanfani
Aldo Moro
Mariano Rumor
Giulio Andreotti
Francesco Cossiga
Arnaldo Forlani
Benigno Zaccagnini
Flaminio Piccoli
Ciriaco De Mita
Mino Martinazzoli
Founded15 December 1943
Dissolved16 January 1994
Preceded by Italian People's Party [1]
Succeeded by Italian People's Party
(legal successor)
Christian Democratic Centre
(split)
Headquarters Piazza del Gesù, Rome
NewspaperIl Popolo
Youth wing Christian Democracy Youth Movement
Women's wingChristian Democracy Women Movement [2]
Membership (1990)2,109,670 [3]
Ideology Christian democracy [4]
Popularism [5]
Social conservatism [6] [7]
Political position Centre [8]
National affiliation C.L.N. (1943–47)
Centrism (1947–58)
Organic Centre-left (1962–76)
Historic Compromise (1976–80)
Pentapartito [9] (1980–93)
European affiliation European People's Party
International affiliation Christian Democrat International
European Parliament group European People's Party
Colors     White (official)
     Light blue (customary)[ citation needed ]
Party flag
Christian Democracy flag.png

Christian Democracy (Italian : Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic [4] [10] political party in Italy.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism. Christian democratic political ideology advocates for a commitment to social market principles and qualified interventionism. It was conceived as a combination of modern democratic ideas and traditional Christian values, incorporating the social teachings espoused by the Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Pentecostal traditions in various parts of the world. After World War II, the Protestant and Catholic movements of the Social Gospel and Neo-Thomism, respectively, played a role in shaping Christian democracy. Christian democracy continues to be influential in Europe and Latin America, although it is also present in other parts of the world.

Contents

The DC was founded in 1943 (in Nazi-occupied Italy) as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield (scudo crociato). A Catholic-inspired, centrist, [11] catch-all party [5] [12] comprising both right- and left-leaning political factions, the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, from its inception in 1944 until its final demise in 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals. The party was nicknamed the White Whale (Balena bianca), due to party's huge organization and to its official color. [13]

Italian Social Republic puppet state of Nazi Germany

The Italian Social Republic, popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò, was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

Italian Peoples Party (1919) Former Italian political party

The Italian People's Party, sometimes called Italian Popular Party, was a Christian-democratic political party in Italy inspired by Catholic social teaching. It was active in the 1920s, but fell apart because it was deeply deep split between the pro-and anti-fascist elements. Its platform called for an elective Senate, proportional representation, corporatism, agrarian reform, women's suffrage, political decentralization, independence of the Catholic Church, and social legislation.

Catholic Church Christian church led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

From 1946 until 1994 the DC was the largest party in Parliament, governing in successive coalitions. It originally supported governments based on liberal-conservative political positions, before moving to centre-left coalitions.

Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on economic, social and ethical issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.

Centre-left politics or center-left politics, also referred to as moderate-left politics, are political views that lean to the left-wing on the left–right political spectrum, but closer to the centre than other left-wing politics. Those on the centre-left believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice. The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity. The centre-left has promoted luck egalitarianism, which emphasizes the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents as well as social responsibility in areas outside control by the individual person in their abilities or talents.

The party was succeeded by a string of smaller parties, including the Italian People's Party, the Christian Democratic Centre, the United Christian Democrats, and the still active Union of the Centre. Former Christian Democrats are also spread among other parties, including the centre-right Forza Italia and the centre-left Democratic Party.

Italian Peoples Party (1994) Italian political party (1994–2002)

The Italian People's Party was a Christian-democratic, centrist, Christian-leftist political party in Italy. The party was a member of the European People's Party (EPP).

Christian Democratic Centre political party

The Christian Democratic Centre was a Christian-democratic political party in Italy from 1994 to 2002. The CCD was a member of the European People's Party (EPP).

United Christian Democrats political party

The United Christian Democrats was a minor Christian democratic political party in Italy. The CDU was a member of the European People's Party from 1995 until 2002.

The DC was a founding member of the European People's Party in 1976.

European Peoples Party European political party

The European People's Party (EPP) is a European political party with conservative and liberal-conservative member parties. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.

History

Early years

The party was founded as the revival of the Italian People's Party (PPI), a political party created in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, a Catholic priest. [14] The PPI won over 20% of the votes in the 1919 and 1921 general elections, but was declared illegal by the Fascist dictatorship in 1925 despite the presence of some Popolari in Benito Mussolini's first government.

Luigi Sturzo Italian politician

Luigi Sturzo was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and prominent politician. He was known in his lifetime as a "clerical socialist" and is considered one of the fathers of the Christian democratic platform. He was also the founder of the Luigi Sturzo Institute in 1951. Sturzo was one of the founders of the Partito Popolare Italiano in 1919, but was forced into exile in 1924 with the rise of Italian fascism. In exile in London he published over 400 articles critical of fascism and later the post-war Christian Democrats.

Italian Fascism Fascist ideology as developed in Italy

Italian Fascism, also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Revolutionary Fascist Party (PFR) founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) which was renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945. Italian Fascism is also associated with the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.

Benito Mussolini Duce and President of the Council of Ministers of Italy. Leader of the National Fascist Party and subsequent Republican Fascist Party

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy from his golpe in 1922 to 1943, and Duce of Fascism from 1919 to his execution in 1945 during the Italian civil war. As dictator of Italy and founder of fascism, Mussolini inspired several totalitarian rulers such as Adolf Hitler.

As World War II was ending, the Christian Democrats started organizing post-Fascist Italy in coalition with all the other mainstream parties, including the Italian Communist Party (PCI), the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), the Italian Liberal Party (PLI), the Italian Republican Party (PRI), the Action Party (Pd'A) and the Labour Democratic Party (PDL). In December 1945 Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi was appointed Prime Minister of Italy.

The Christian Democratic Party was used in response to Fascist Italy and used as a mechanism of opposition to communism. The April 18 elections in 1948 were used for and against Communism and the Marshall Plan. The people of Italy were voting based on a way of life, not just a political party. [15] Christian ideals were usually paired with the idea of freedom. [16] The Party found itself in great trouble because if they were to take an extremist stance on communism then they would be seen as pro-fascism. The Christian Democrats then knew they needed to be a center party while also opposing communism. [16] Ultimately, it was not about party success, but about the success of a lifestyle in opposition to the ideals of communism. [16] [17]

In the 1946 general election the DC won 35.2% of the vote.

De Gasperi and centrism

Alcide De Gasperi Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg
Alcide De Gasperi

In May 1947 De Gasperi broke decisively with his Communist and Socialist coalition partners under pressure from U.S. President Harry Truman. This opened the way for a centrist coalition that included the Italian Workers' Socialist Party (PSLI), a centrist break-away from the PSI, as well as its usual allies, the PLI and the PRI.

In the 1948 general election the DC went on to win a decisive victory, with the support of the Catholic Church and the United States, and obtained 48.5% of the vote, its best result ever. Despite his party's absolute majority in the Italian Parliament, De Gasperi continued to govern at the head of the centrist coalition, which was successively abandoned by the Liberals, who hoped for more right-wing policies, in 1950 and the Democratic Socialists, who hoped for more leftist policies, in 1951.

Under De Gasperi, major land reforms were carried out in the poorer rural regions in the early postwar years, with farms appropriated from the large landowners and parcelled out to the peasants. In addition, during its years in office, Christian Democrats passed a number of laws safeguarding employees from exploitation, established a national health service, and initiated low-cost housing in Italy’s major cities. [18]

De Gasperi served as Prime Minister until 1953 and would die a year later. No Christian Democrat would match his longevity in office and, despite the fact that DC's share of vote was always between 38 and 43% from 1953 to 1979, the party was more and more fractious. As a result, Prime Ministers changed more frequently.

Centre-left governments

Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani Senato.jpg
Amintore Fanfani
Aldo Moro Aldo Moro headshot.jpg
Aldo Moro

From 1954 the DC was led by progressive Christian Democrats, such as Amintore Fanfani, Aldo Moro and Benigno Zaccagnini, supported by the influential left-wing factions. In the 1950s the party formed centrist or moderately centre-left coalitions, and even a short-lived government led by Fernando Tambroni relying on parliamentary support from the Italian Social Movement (MSI), the post-fascist party.

In 1963 the party, under Prime Minister Aldo Moro, formed a coalition with the PSI, which returned to ministerial roles after 16 years, the PSDI and the PRI. Similar "Organic Centre-left" governments became usual through the 1960s and the 1970s. [19]

Historic Compromise

From 1976 to 1979 the DC governed with the external support of the PCI, through the Historic Compromise. Moro, who was the party main leader and who had inspired the Compromise, was abducted and murdered by the Red Brigades.

The event was a shock for the party. When Moro was abducted, the government, at the time led by Giulio Andreotti, immediately took a hardline position stating that the "State must not bend" on terrorist demands. This was a very different position from the one kept in similar cases before (such as the kidnapping of Ciro Cirillo, a Campanian DC member Ciro Cirillo, for whom a ransom was paid, thanks to the local ties of the party with Camorra). It was however supported by all the mainstream parties, including the PCI, with the two notable exceptions of the PSI and the Radicals. In the trial for Mafia allegations against Andreotti, it was said that he took the chance of getting rid of a dangerous political competitor by sabotaging all of the rescue options and ultimately leaving the captors with no option but killing him. [20] During his captivity Moro wrote a series of letters, at times very critical of Andreotti. [21] Later the memorial written by Moro during his imprisonment was subject to several plots, including the assassination of journalist Mino Pecorelli and general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa. [22]

The Pentapartito

Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti, ca 1987.jpg
Giulio Andreotti

At the beginning of the 1980s the DC had lost part of its support over Italian voters.

In 1981 Giovanni Spadolini of the PRI was the first non-Christian Democrat to lead a government since 1944, at the head of a coalition comprising the DC, the PSI, the PSDI, the PRI and the PLI, the so-called Pentapartito . In the successive 1983 general election DC suffered one of its largest declines in terms of votes at that point, receiving only 32.5% of the vote cast (-5.8%). Subsequently, Bettino Craxi (leader of the rising PSI) reclaimed for himself the post of Prime Minister, again at the head of a Pentapartito government.

DC re-gained the post of Prime Minister in 1987, after a mild recovery in the 1987 general election (34.2%), and the Pentapartito coalition governed Italy almost continuously until 1993. While Italy experienced continuous economic progress in the 1980s, the Italian economy was being undermined by constant devaluation of the Italian lira and the issuing of excessive amounts of high-interest treasury bonds, so that, between 1982 and 1992, the excessive budget deficit built half of the debt still plaguing the country today.

Dissolution

In 1992 the Mani pulite investigation was started in Milan, uncovering the so-called Tangentopoli scandals (endemic corruption practices at the highest levels), and causing (often controversial) arrests and resignations. After the dismal result in the 1992 general election (29.7%), also due to the rise of Lega Nord in northern Italy, and two years of mounting scandals (which included several Mafia investigations which notably touched Andreotti), the party was disbanded in 1994. In the 1990s most of the politicians prosecuted during those investigations were acquitted, sometimes however on the basis of legal formalities or on the basis of statutory time limit rules.

The DC suffered heavy defeats in the 1993 provincial and municipal elections and the subsequent split of the Mario Segni's Pact, and polling suggested heavy losses in the upcoming 1994 general election. In hopes of changing the party's image, the DC's last secretary, Mino Martinazzoli decided to change the name of the party into Italian People's Party (PPI). Pier Ferdinando Casini, representing the right-wing faction of the party (previously led by Forlani) decided to launch a new party called Christian Democratic Centre and form an alliance with Silvio Berlusconi's new party, Forza Italia (FI). The left-wing factions stayed within the new PPI (albeit a minority which had formed the Social Christians in 1993 and would join forces with the post-communist Democratic Party of the Left), while some right-wingers joined National Alliance. In 1995 the PPI split in two, the PPI and the centre-right United Christian Democrats, which were led by Rocco Buttiglione and also entered in alliance with FI. In the following years, most Christian Democrats joined FI, which became the party with the most ex-DC members in absolute terms and joined the European People's Party.

Ideology

Propaganda posters of the DC: they described to potential voters the party's commitment to anti-communism (in the left poster), traditionalism (in the centre poster), and family values (in the right poster). Note the use of symbols, especially the crossed shield (representing the DC) protecting Italy (represented by Italia Turrita) from the communist hammer and sickle symbol being used as a weapon in the left poster. Propaganda Dc.jpg
Propaganda posters of the DC: they described to potential voters the party's commitment to anti-communism (in the left poster), traditionalism (in the centre poster), and family values (in the right poster). Note the use of symbols, especially the crossed shield (representing the DC) protecting Italy (represented by Italia Turrita) from the communist hammer and sickle symbol being used as a weapon in the left poster.

The party's ideological sources were principally to be found in Catholic social teaching, the Christian democratic doctrines developed from the 19th century and on (see Christian democracy), the political thought of Romolo Murri and Luigi Sturzo and ultimately in the tradition of the defunct Italian People's Party. Two Papal encyclicals, Rerum novarum (1891) of Pope Leo XIII, and Quadragesimo anno (1931) of Pope Pius XI, offered a basis for social and political doctrine.

In economics the DC preferred competition to cooperation, supported the model of social market economy and rejected the Marxist's idea of class struggle. The party thus advocated collaboration between social classes and was basically a catch-all party which aimed to represent all Italian Catholics, both right-wing and left-wing, under the principle of the "political unity of Catholics" against socialism, communism and anarchism. It ultimately represented the majority of Italians who were opposed to the Italian Communist Party. The party was however originally equidistant between the Communists and the hard right represented by the Italian Social Movement.

As a catch-all party, the DC differed from other European Christian Democratic parties, such as the Christian Democratic Union of Germany that were mainly conservative parties, with DC comprising conservative as well as social-democratic and liberal elements. The party was thus divided in many factions and party life was characterised by factionalism and by the double adherence of members to the party and the factions, often identified with individual leaders.

Factions

The DC was characterised by a number of factions, spanning from left to right and evolving all the time. [23]

The original centrist and liberal-conservative leadership of Alcide De Gasperi, Giuseppe Pella, Ezio Vanoni and Mario Scelba, was soon replaced by the progressives led by Amintore Fanfani. They were opposed to a right wing whose main leader was Antonio Segni. The party's left wing, with its roots in the left of the late Italian People's Party (Giovanni Gronchi, Achille Grandi and controversial Fernando Tambroni), was reinforced by new leaders such as Giuseppe Dossetti, Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Lazzati and Fanfani himself. Most of them were social democrats by European standards.

The party was often led by centrist figures unaffiliated to any faction such as Aldo Moro, Mariano Rumor (both closer to the centre-left) and Giulio Andreotti (closer to the centre-right). Moreover, often, if the government was led by a centre-right Christian Democrat, the party was led by a left-winger and vice versa. This was what happened in the 1950s when Fanfani was party secretary and the government was led by centre-right figures such as Scelba and Segni and in the late 1970s when Benigno Zaccagnini, a progressive, led the party and Andreotti the government: this custom, in clear contrast with the principles of a Westminster system, deeply weakened DC-led governments, that even with great majorities were de facto unable to conciliate the several factions of the party, and ultimately the office of Prime Minister (defined by the Constitution of Italy as a primus inter pares among ministers), turning the Italian party system into a particracy (partitocrazia).

From the 1980s the party was divided between the centre-right led by Arnaldo Forlani (supported also by the party's right wing) and the centre-left led by Ciriaco de Mita (whose supporters included trade unionists and the internal left), with Andreotti holding the balance. De Mita, who led the party from 1982 to 1989, curiously tried to transform the party into a mainstream "conservative party" in line with the European People's Party in order to preserve party unity. He was replaced by Forlani in 1989, after that becoming Prime Minister in 1988. Disagreements between de Mita and Forlani brought Andreotti back to prime-ministership from 1989 to 1992.

With the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of great ideologies and ultimately the Tangentopoli scandals, the heterogeneous nature of the party led it to its collapse. The bulk of the DC joined the new Italian People's Party (PPI), but immediately several centre-right elements led by Pier Ferdinando Casini joined the Christian Democratic Centre (CCD), while others directly joined Forza Italia. A split from the PPI, the United Christian Democrats (CDU), joined Forza Italia and the CCD in the centre-right Pole of Freedoms coalition (later becoming the Pole for Freedoms), while the PPI was a founding member of The Olive Tree centre-left coalition in 1996.

In its early years the party was stronger in Northern Italy, and especially in eastern Lombardy and Veneto, due to the strong Catholic roots of that areas, than in the South, where the Liberal establishment that had governed Italy for decades before the rise of Benito Mussolini had still a grip on voters, as also the Monarchist National Party and the Common Man's Front did. The DC was very weak in Emilia-Romagna and Central Italy, where the Italian Communist Party was the dominant political force.

In the 1948 general election the party had its best result ever (48.5%) and the absolute majority in the Italian Parliament. The party won 66.8% in eastern Lombardy (73.6% in the Province of Bergamo), 60.5% in Veneto (71.9% in the Province of Vicenza), 69.6% in Trentino and 57.8% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, that is to say where the late Italian People's Party had its strongholds. In the Centre-South the DC gained more than 50% of the vote in Lazio (51.9%), Abruzzo (53.7%) and Campania (50.5%).

From the late 1950s the DC started to move South and by the 1980s it was stronger in the South than in the North, with the exception of Veneto, which remained one of the party's strongholds. In the 1983 general election the party suffered a dramatic decrease in term of votes and its electoral geography was very different from 30 or even 10 years before, as the region where it obtained the best result was Apulia (46.0%).

In the 1992 general election the shift was even more evident as the party was over the 40% mark only in some Southern regions (41.1% in Campania, 44.5 in Basilicata and 41.2% in Sicily), while it barely reached 20-25% of the vote in the North. As a result of the rise of Lega Nord, which was stronger precisely in the traditional Christian Democratic heartlands, the DC was reduced to 21.0% in Piedmont (with the League at 16.3%), 32.1% in western Lombardy (League at 25.2%), 31.7% in Veneto (League at 17.3%) and 28.0% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (League at 17.0%).

As the DC's role was ended, the 1919 PPI strongholds and the DC's traditional heartlands were to become Lega Nord's power base, while the successor parties of the DC continued to be key political actors only in the South, where the clientelistic way of government practised by the Christian Democrats and their allies had left a mark. In the 1996 general election the League gained 7 out of 8 single-seat constituencies in the Province of Bergamo and 5 out of 6 in the Province of Vicenza, winning well over 40%, while the combined score of the three main post-DC parties (the new PPI, the CCD and the CDU) was highest in Campania (22.3%). In the 1996 Sicilian regional election the combined score of those parties was 26.4%. [24] [25]

The electoral results of the DC in general (Chamber of Deputies) and European Parliament elections since 1946 are shown in the chart below.

Christian Democracy (Italy)

Controversies

DC election poster for Mafia boss Giuseppe Genco Russo. Genco Russo DC2.jpg
DC election poster for Mafia boss Giuseppe Genco Russo.

Having ruled Italy for over 40 years with no alternative other than the Italian Communist Party, DC members had ample opportunity to abuse their power, and some did. In the 1960s scandals involved frauds such as huge illegal profits in the administration of banana import quotas, and preferential allocation of purposely misprinted (and, therefore, rare) postage stamps. Giovanni Leone was forced to resign as President of the Italian Republic in 1978, after the Lockheed bribery scandals. He was later acquitted.

The party was also invested, like the other parties of the Pentapartito, in the Tangentopoli scandals and in the subsequent Mani pulite . Moreover, as in the 1970s and the 1980s Southern Italy had become the party's stronghold, it was likely that Mafia and dishonest politicians may try to collaborate. DC was the party most associated with Mafia among the public. Leaders such as Antonio Gava, Calogero Mannino, Vito Ciancimino, Salvo Lima and especially Giulio Andreotti were perceived by many to belong to a grey zone between simple corruption and mafia business, even if most of them were later acquitted.

Election results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election yearVotes%Seats+/−Leader
1946 8,101,004 (1st)35.2
207 / 556
Alcide De Gasperi
1948 12,740,042 (1st)48.5
305 / 574
Increase2.svg 98
Alcide De Gasperi
1953 10,862,073 (1st)40.1
263 / 590
Decrease2.svg 42
Alcide De Gasperi
1958 12,520,207 (1st)42.4
273 / 596
Increase2.svg 10
Amintore Fanfani
1963 11,773,182 (1st)38.3
260 / 630
Decrease2.svg 13
Aldo Moro
1968 12,441,553 (1st)39.1
266 / 630
Increase2.svg 6
Mariano Rumor
1972 12,919,270 (1st)38.7
266 / 630
Arnaldo Forlani
1976 14,218,298 (1st)38.7
263 / 630
Decrease2.svg 3
Benigno Zaccagnini
1979 14,046,290 (1st)38.3
262 / 630
Decrease2.svg 1
Benigno Zaccagnini
1983 12,153,081 (1st)32.9
225 / 630
Decrease2.svg 37
Ciriaco De Mita
1987 13,241,188 (1st)34.3
234 / 630
Increase2.svg 9
Ciriaco De Mita
1992 11,637,569 (1st)29.7
206 / 630
Decrease2.svg 28
Arnaldo Forlani
Senate of the Republic
Election yearVotes%Seats+/−Leader
1948 10,899,640 (1st)48.1
131 / 237
Alcide De Gasperi
1953 10,862,073 (1st)40.7
116 / 237
Decrease2.svg 15
Alcide De Gasperi
1958 12,520,207 (1st)41.2
123 / 246
Increase2.svg 7
Amintore Fanfani
1963 10,032,458 (1st)36.6
129 / 315
Increase2.svg 6
Aldo Moro
1968 10,965,790 (1st)38.3
135 / 315
Increase2.svg 6
Mariano Rumor
1972 11,466,701 (1st)38.1
135 / 315
Arnaldo Forlani
1976 12,226,768 (1st)38.9
135 / 315
Benigno Zaccagnini
1979 12,018,077 (1st)38.3
138 / 315
Increase2.svg 3
Benigno Zaccagnini
1983 10,081,819 (1st)32.4
120 / 315
Decrease2.svg 18
Ciriaco De Mita
1987 10,897,036 (1st)33.6
125 / 315
Increase2.svg 5
Ciriaco De Mita
1992 9,088,494 (1st)27.3
107 / 315
Decrease2.svg 18
Arnaldo Forlani

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election yearVotes%Seats+/−Leader
1979 12,774,320 (1st)36.5
29 / 81
Benigno Zaccagnini
1984 11,583,767 (2nd)33.0
26 / 81
Decrease2.svg 3
Ciriaco De Mita
1989 11,451,053 (1st)32.9
26 / 81
Arnaldo Forlani

Leadership

Symbols

Further reading

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1983 Italian general election

General elections were held in Italy on 26 June 1983, to select the Ninth Republican Parliament. The Pentaparty formula, the governative alliance between five centrist parties, caused unexpected problems to Christian Democracy. The alliance was fixed and universal, extended both to the national government and to the local administrations. Considering that the election result did not longer depend by the strength of the DC, but by the strength of the entire Pentapartito, centrist electors began to look at the Christian Democratic vote as not necessary to prevent a Communist success. More, voting for one of the four minor parties of the alliance was seen as a form of moderate protest against the government without giving advantages to the PCI. Other minor effects of this election were a reduction of the referendarian Radical Party and the appearance of some regional forces.

Benigno Zaccagnini Italian politician

Benigno Zaccagnini was an Italian politician and Pediatrics.

1994 Italian general election

A snap national general election was held in Italy on 27–28 March 1994 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Silvio Berlusconi's centre-right alliance won a large majority in the Chamber, but just missed winning a majority in the Senate. The Italian People's Party, the renamed Christian Democrats, which had dominated Italian politics for almost half a century, was decimated. It took only 29 seats versus 206 for the DC two years earlier-easily the worst defeat a sitting government in Italy has ever suffered, and one of the worst ever suffered by a Western European governing party.

Guido Bodrato Member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies

Guido Bodrato is an Italian politician.

Remo Gaspari Italian politician

Remo Gaspari was an Italian politician, who was several times minister of the Italian Republic.

The Pentapartito, commonly shortened to CAF refers to the coalition government of five Italian political parties that formed between June 1981 and April 1991. The coalition comprised the Christian Democracy (DC) party and four secular parties: the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI), Italian Liberal Party (PLI) and Italian Republican Party (PRI).

The centre-left coalition is a political alliance of political parties in Italy active, under several forms and names, since 1995 when The Olive Tree was formed under the leadership of Romano Prodi. The centre-left coalition ruled the country for more than twelve years between 1996 and 2018.

The Organic Centre-left, was a coalition of four Italian political parties that formed governments throughout the 1960s and the middle 1970s. The word “organic” meant that the Socialist Party was fully part of the governement, it was within the organization of the cabinet, differently from other centre-left governments in the early 1960s, where the PSI gave an external support only.

Centrism was a centrist anti-communist coalition of four Italian political parties that formed governments throughout the 1940s and the late 1950s. This period is known as "The Years of Centrism". The founder of this coalition was Alcide De Gasperi, Christian Democratic leader and Prime Minister of Italy. Another key figures of the Centrist coalition was the Liberal Luigi Einaudi, who was elected President of Italy in 1948 and remained in office until 1955.

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