Herculaneum

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Herculaneum
Ercolano 2012 (8019396514).jpg
The excavations of Ercolano
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
Archaeological site icon (red).svg
Shown within Italy
Alternative nameErcolano
Location Ercolano, Campania, Italy
Coordinates 40°48′22″N14°20′54″E / 40.8060°N 14.3482°E / 40.8060; 14.3482 Coordinates: 40°48′22″N14°20′54″E / 40.8060°N 14.3482°E / 40.8060; 14.3482
TypeSettlement
History
Founded6th – 7th century BC
Abandoned79 AD
Site notes
Website Herculaneum – Official website
Official nameArchaeological Areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Torre Annunziata
TypeCultural
Criteriaiii, iv, v
Designated1997 (21st session)
Reference no. 829
Region Europe and North America

Herculaneum /hɜːrkjʊˈlniəm/ (Italian : Ercolano) was an ancient town, located in the modern-day comune of Ercolano, Campania, Italy. Herculaneum was buried under volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

Contents

Like the nearby city of Pompeii, Herculaneum is famous as one of the few ancient cities to be preserved more or less intact as the ash that blanketed the town also protected it against looting and the elements. Although less well known today than Pompeii, it was the first, and for a long time the only, buried Vesuvian city to be found (in 1709), while Pompeii was only revealed from 1748 and identified in 1763. [1] Unlike Pompeii, the mainly pyroclastic material that covered Herculaneum carbonized and preserved more wood in objects such as roofs, beds, and doors, as well as other organic-based materials such as food and papyrus.

The traditional story is that the city was rediscovered by chance in 1709, during the digging of a well. Remnants of the city, however, were already found during earlier earthworks. [2] In the first years after its rediscovery, tunnels were dug at the site by treasure hunters, and many artifacts were removed. Regular excavations began in 1738, and have continued ever since, albeit intermittently. Today, only part of the ancient site has been excavated, and attention and funds have shifted to the preservation of the already excavated parts of the city, rather than focusing on uncovering more areas.

Although it was smaller than Pompeii with a population of up to 5000, [3] Herculaneum was a wealthier town. [4] It was a popular seaside retreat for the Roman elite, which is reflected in the extraordinary density of grand and luxurious houses with, for example, far more lavish use of coloured marble cladding. Famous buildings of the ancient city include the Villa of the Papyri and the so-called "boat houses", in which the skeletal remains of at least 300 people were found.

History of Herculaneum

Herculaneum plan showing the ancient site below the modern (1908) town and the 1631 "lava" flow Herculaneum, past, present and future (1908) (14596114730).jpg
Herculaneum plan showing the ancient site below the modern (1908) town and the 1631 "lava" flow

Dionysius of Halicarnassus states that the Greek hero Heracles ( Hercules in Latin) founded the city. [5] However according to Strabo, the Oscans founded the first settlement [6] and they were followed by Etruscan and then Greek control. The Greeks named the town Heraklion and used it as a trading post because of its proximity to the Gulf of Naples. In the 4th century BC, Herculaneum came under the domination of the Samnites until it became a Roman municipium in 89 BC, when, having participated in the Social War ("War of The Allies" against Rome), it was defeated by Titus Didius, a legate of Sulla.

After the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, Herculaneum was buried under approximately 20 m (66 ft) of ash. It lay hidden and largely intact until discoveries from wells and tunnels became gradually more widely known, and notably following the Prince d'Elbeuf's explorations in the early 18th century. [7] Excavations continued sporadically up to the present and today many streets and buildings are visible, although over 75% of the town remains buried. Today, the Italian towns of Ercolano and Portici lie above the site of Herculaneum. Ercolano was called Resina until 1969 when, in honour of the old city, the Italian modernisation of the ancient name was adopted.

Eruption of 79 AD

Herculaneum and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown. Mt Vesuvius 79 AD eruption 3.svg
Herculaneum and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.

Based on archaeological excavations and on two letters of Pliny the younger to the Roman historian Tacitus, the course of the eruption can be reconstructed. [8]

At around 1:00 pm, Mount Vesuvius began spewing volcanic material thousands of metres into the sky. When it reached the tropopause, the top of the column flattened, prompting Pliny to describe it to Tacitus as a stone pine tree. The prevailing winds at the time blew toward the southeast, causing the volcanic material to fall primarily on the city of Pompeii and the surrounding area. Since Herculaneum lay to the west of Vesuvius, it was only mildly affected by the first phase of the eruption. While roofs in Pompeii collapsed under the weight of falling debris, only a few centimetres of ash fell on Herculaneum, causing little damage but nonetheless prompting most inhabitants to flee.

At 1:00 am the next day, the eruptive column, which had risen into the stratosphere, collapsed onto Vesuvius and its flanks. The first pyroclastic surge, formed by a mixture of ash and hot gases, flowed down the mountain and through the mostly evacuated town of Herculaneum at 160 km/h (100 mph). A succession of six flows and surges buried the city's buildings to approximately 20 m depth, causing little damage in some areas and preserving structures, objects and victims almost intact. However, in other areas there was significant damage, knocking down walls, tearing away columns and other large objects; [9] a marble statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus near the baths was blown 15 m away and a carbonised skeleton was found lifted 2.5 m above ground level in the garden of the House of the Relief of Telephus. [10]

The date of the eruption has been shown to be on or after 17 October. [11] Support for an October/November eruption has long been known in several respects: buried people in the ash were wearing heavier clothing than the light summer clothes typical of August; fresh fruit and vegetables in the shops are typical of October – and conversely the summer fruit typical of August was already being sold in dried, or conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed, which would have happened around the end of October; coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the ash include one with a 15th imperatorial acclamation among the emperor's titles and could not have been minted before the second week of September. [12]

Recent multidisciplinary research on the lethal effects of the pyroclastic surges in the Vesuvius area showed that in the vicinity of Pompeii and Herculaneum, heat was the main cause of the death of people who had previously been thought to have died by ash suffocation. This study shows that exposure to the surges, measuring at least 250 °C (480 °F) even at a distance of 10 kilometres from the vent, was sufficient to cause the instant death of all residents, even if they were sheltered within buildings. [13]

Archaeology

Herculaneum Pano.jpg
Small Herculaneum Woman (Dresden) Pergamon Museum Pompeii exhibit.jpg
Small Herculaneum Woman (Dresden)

The Prince d'Elbeuf began building a villa at nearby Granatello and to furnish it became interested in local stories of wells revealing ancient statues and works of art. [14] In 1709 he purchased the land of a recent well and proceeded to tunnel out from the bottom of the well, collecting any statues they could find. The well revealed some exceptional statues at the lowest levels which were found to be the site of the theatre. Among the earliest statues recovered were the two superbly sculpted Herculaneum Women [15] now in the Dresden Skulpturensammlung. [16] The excavation was stopped in 1711 for fear of collapse of buildings above.

Major excavation was resumed in 1738 under the patronage of Charles III of Spain when he started construction of his nearby palace at Portici. He employed Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre to oversee the intensive new work. The resulting elaborate publication of Le Antichità di Ercolano ("The Antiquities of Herculaneum") had an effect on incipient European Neoclassicism out of all proportion to its limited circulation; in the later 18th century, motifs from Herculaneum began to appear on stylish furnishings, from decorative wall-paintings and tripod tables to perfume burners and teacups. However, excavation ceased after strong criticism in 1762 by Winckelmann of the treasure-hunting methods employed, and once the nearby town of Pompeii was discovered which was significantly easier to excavate because of the thinner layer of debris covering the site (4 m as opposed to Herculaneum's 20 m).

In 1828 under the new king Francis I, new excavations were begun in order to expose the remains to the open air and land was purchased, though this was stopped in 1837. Under the Italian government in 1868 further purchases of land were made and excavations proceeded eastwards till 1875. [17]

From 1927 until 1942 a new campaign of excavations was begun by Amedeo Maiuri under the Mussolini regime, which exposed about four hectares of the ancient city in the archaeological park that is visible today.

Excavation resumed briefly in the town in 1980–81 on the ancient shoreline following which the skeletons in the so-called "boat houses" were found.

From 1996–99 the large area to the north-west of the site was excavated and exposed, including part of the Villa of the Papyri, the north-west baths, [18] the House of the Dionysian Reliefs [19] and a large collapsed monument. This area was left in a chaotic state and from 2000–7 further work on conservation of this area was done.

Many public and private buildings, including the forum complex, are yet to be excavated.

Site

Insulae numbers Herculanum plan fouilles.jpg
Insulae numbers

The classical street layout separates the city into blocks ( insulae ), defined by the intersection of the east–west (cardi) and north–south (decumani) streets. Hence Insula II – Insula VII run counterclockwise from Insula II. To the east are two additional blocks: Orientalis I (oI) and Orientalis II (oII). To the south of Orientalis I (oI) lies one additional group of buildings known as the "Suburban District" (SD). Individual buildings having their own entrance number. For example, the House of the Deer is labelled (Ins IV, 3).

The Forum, temples, theatre, numerous houses and necropolises are still buried in Herculaneum.

The town was surrounded by walls from 2 to 3 metres thick, dating to the second century BC, and built mainly with large pebbles, except along the coast, where they were in opus reticulatum. As in Pompeii, the walls lost their defensive function after the Social War and were incorporated into buildings in their vicinity, for example the House of the Inn.

A single main drain was found, along cardo III, which collected water from the Forum and from house impluviums, latrines and kitchens that overlooked this street, while other drains emptied directly into the street, except those of the latrines that were equipped with a cess pit. For water supply the city was directly connected to the Serino aqueduct, built in the Augustan age, which brought water to houses through a series of lead pipes under the roads, regulated by valves; previously, wells had been used which found water at a depth of between eight and ten metres.

Herculaneum lay just above sea level, but now areas of the ancient city lie as much as 4 metres below sea level due to bradyseism which affects the whole Vesuvius area. [20]


The House of Aristides (Ins II, 1)

Cupids playing with a lyre, Roman fresco from Herculaneum Herculaneum - Lyre and Cupids.jpg
Cupids playing with a lyre, Roman fresco from Herculaneum

The first building in insula II is the House of Aristides. The entrance opens directly onto the atrium, but the remains of the house are not particularly well preserved due to damage caused by previous excavations. The lower floor was probably used for storage.

The House of Argus (Ins II, 2)

The second house in insula II got its name from a fresco of Argus and Io which once adorned a reception room off the large peristyle. The fresco is now lost, but its name lives on. This building must have been one of the finer villas in Herculaneum. The discovery of the house in the late 1820s was notable because it was the first time a second floor had been unearthed in such detail. The excavation revealed a second floor balcony overlooking Cardo III, as well as wooden shelving and cupboards; however, with the passing of time, these elements have been lost.

The House of the Genius (Ins II, 3)

To the north of the House of Argus lies the House of the Genius. It has been only partially excavated but it appears to have been a spacious building. The house derives its name from the statue of a cupid that formed part of a candlestick. In the centre of the peristyle are the remains of a rectangular basin.

The House of the Alcove (Ins IV)

The house is actually two buildings joined together. As a consequence of this it is a mixture of plain and simple rooms combined with some highly decorated ones.

The atrium is covered, so lacks the usual impluvium. It retains its original flooring of opus tesselatum and opus sectile. Off the atrium is a biclinium richly decorated with frescoes in the fourth style and a large triclinium which originally had a marble floor. A number of other rooms, one of which is the apsed alcove after which the house was named, can be reached via a hall which gets its light from a small courtyard.

College of the Augustales

A marble tablet from Herculaneum showing women playing knucklebones, depicting Phoebe, Leto, Niobe, Hilearia, and Agle, painted and signed by an artist named "Alexander of Athens", now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples) Giocatrici-di-astragali.JPG
A marble tablet from Herculaneum showing women playing knucklebones, depicting Phoebe, Leto, Niobe, Hilearia, and Agle, painted and signed by an artist named "Alexander of Athens", now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples)

Temple of the augustales or priests of the Imperial cult.

Central Thermae

The Central Thermae were bath houses built around the first century AD. Bath houses were very common at that time, especially in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Per common practice, there were two different bath areas, one for men and the other for women. These houses were extremely popular, attracting many visitors daily. This cultural hub was also home to several works of art, which can be found in various areas of the Central Thermae site.

Villa of the Papyri

A fresco depicting Theseus, from Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy, 45-79 AD Affreschi romani - Ercolano - Teseo liberatore1.JPG
A fresco depicting Theseus, from Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy, 45–79 AD

The most famous of the luxurious villas at Herculaneum is the "Villa of the Papyri." It was once identified as the magnificent seafront retreat for Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, Julius Caesar's father-in-law; however, the objects thought to be associated with Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesonius correspond more closely to a greatly standardized assemblage, and cannot indicate, with certainty, the owner of the villa. [21] The villa stretches down towards the sea in four terraces. Piso, a literate man who patronized poets and philosophers, built a fine library there, the only one to survive intact from antiquity.

Between 1752 and 1754 a number of blackened unreadable papyrus scrolls were serendipitously recovered from the Villa of the Papyri by workmen. These scrolls became known as the Herculaneum papyri or scrolls, the majority of which are today stored at the National Library, Naples. The scrolls are badly carbonized, but a large number have been unrolled, with varying degrees of success. Computer-enhanced multi-spectral imaging, in the infra-red range, helps make the ink legible. There is now a real prospect that it will be possible to read the unopened rolls using X-rays. [22] The same techniques could be applied to the rolls waiting to be discovered in the as-yet unexcavated part of the villa, eliminating the need for potentially damaging the rolls by unrolling them. In a later attempt to better read the writings on the scrolls, scientists put the scrolls through a CT scan. From this scan, scientists were able to see the structure of the scrolls' fiber, and see the sand and other dirt that had gotten into the scrolls through the years. Knowing the scrolls' structure made it easier to unroll without breaking. However, the text on the scrolls was still illegible. [23]

A team spent a month in summer 2009, making numerous X-ray scans of two of the rolls that are stored at the French National Academy in Paris. They hoped that computer processing would convert the scans into digital images showing the interiors of the rolls and revealing the ancient writing. They had hoped that re-scanning the rolls with more powerful X-ray equipment would reveal the text. The main fear, however, was that the Roman writers might have used carbon-based inks, which would be essentially invisible to the scans. That fear has turned out to be fact. [24] However, subsequent X-rays produced nothing legible. [25]

In 2015, a group of researchers headed by Italian physicist Vito Mocella used the method of X-ray phase-contrast tomography, which allowed scientists to increase the contrast between the carbon ink and the carbon-based papyrus so that the words could be read along the outer surface of the papyrus. Scientists were able to read the words written in Greek on the scrolls, marking the beginning of "a revolution for papyrologists". While researchers can identify certain words on the scrolls, there is still a long way to go before the stories on the scrolls are unlocked. [26]

Boathouses and the Shore

"Boat houses" where skeletons were found Herculaneum Bootshaeuser.jpg
"Boat houses" where skeletons were found
"Boat houses" with skeletons Herculaneum - Ercolano - Campania - Italy - July 9th 2013 - 32.jpg
"Boat houses" with skeletons
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum. Ring Lady.JPG
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum.

In 1980–82 excavations initially turned up more than 55 skeletons on the ancient beach (which was just in front of the town walls) and in the first six so-called boat sheds. [27] Because all of the excavations in the town had revealed only a few skeletons, it was long thought that nearly all of the inhabitants had managed to escape, but this surprising discovery led to a change of view. The last inhabitants waiting for rescue from the sea were apparently killed instantly by the intense heat of the pyroclastic flow, despite being sheltered from direct impact. Study of victims' postures and the effects on their skeletons seemed to indicate that the first surge caused instant death as a result of fulminant shock due to a temperature of about 500 °C (930 °F). The intense heat caused contraction of hands and feet and possibly fracture of bones and teeth. [28]

After a period of mismanagement of the finds and deterioration of skeletons [29] further excavations in the 1990s appeared to reveal a total of 296 skeletons huddled close together in 9 of the 12 stone vaults facing the sea and also on the beach, while the town was almost completely evacuated. The "Ring Lady" (see image), named for the rings on her fingers, was discovered in 1982.

Eventually 340 bodies were identified in this area. [30] Analysis of the skeletons suggest it was mainly men who died on the beach, while women and children sheltered and died in the boat houses.

Research on the skeletons is continuing. Chemical analysis of the remains has led to greater insight into the health and nutrition of the Herculaneum population. [31]

Casts of skeletons were also produced, to replace the original bones after taphonomic study, scientific documentation and excavation. In contrast to Pompeii, where casts resembling the body features of the victims were produced by filling the body imprints in the ash deposit with plaster, the shape of corpses at Herculaneum could not be preserved, due to the rapid vaporisation and replacement of the flesh of the victims by the hot ash (ca. 500 °C). A cast of the skeletons unearthed within chamber 10 is on display at the Museum of Anthropology in Naples. [32]

Of exceptional interest is the recent analysis of one of the skeletons (no. 26) discovered in 1982 on the beach next to a naval boat (on display in the boat pavilion) which has identified it as that of a military officer (with an elaborate dagger and belt) perhaps involved in a mission to rescue residents. [33]

New excavations starting in 2021 will attempt to expose the western side of the ancient beach where more skeletons may be found. [34]

Issues of conservation

Herculaneum, Ercolano, and Vesuvius Ercolano.JPG
Herculaneum, Ercolano, and Vesuvius

The volcanic ash and debris covering Herculaneum, along with the extreme heat, left it in a remarkable state of preservation for over 1600 years. However, once excavations began, exposure to the elements began the slow process of deterioration. This was not helped by the methods of archaeology used earlier in the town's excavation, which generally centered on recovering valuable artifacts rather than ensuring the survival of all artifacts. In the early 1980s and under the direction of Dr. Sara C. Bisel, preservation of the skeletal remains became a high priority. The carbonised remains of organic materials, when exposed to the air, deteriorated over a matter of days, and destroyed many of the remains until a way of preserving them was formed.

Today, tourism and vandalism have damaged many of the areas open to the public, and water damage coming from the modern Ercolano has undermined many of the foundations of the buildings. Reconstruction efforts have often proved counterproductive. However, in modern times conservation efforts have been more successful. Today excavations have been temporarily discontinued, in order to direct all funding to help save the city.

A large number of artifacts from Herculaneum are preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum.

Modern conservation

After years of mismanagement, Herculaneum fell into a dire state. However, in 2001, the Packard Humanities Institute began the Herculaneum Conservation Project, a private-public partnership. Initially the project set out to provide financial aid to the local authorities and address the truly critical areas of the site. Over time the goal changed to not only providing financial aid but to providing resources and skilled experts who could better tend to the site. The team went from addressing emergency conservation issues to creating a formula for the long term betterment of the site. Since 2001, the Herculaneum Conservation Project has been involved in multiple pilot conservation projects and has partnered with the British School in Rome to actively teach students how to maintain the site. [35]

One of the pilot projects started by the Conservation Project was on the tablinum that had been conserved by Maiuri's team in 1938. Over time water had managed to seep into the wall causing the paint to attach to the previously applied wax and curl away from the wall, stripping it of its color. However, after working in tandem with the Getty Museum, conservators have managed to create a technique where a series of solvents can be used to remove some of the wax and lessen the amount of buildup on the walls so that the paint no longer chips off of the walls. [36]

While the conservation efforts are still ongoing, Herculaneum has gone from one of the worst preserved UNESCO sites at risk of being put on the endangered list to becoming "a textbook case of successful archeological conservation". [37]

Photos

Documentaries

Notes

  1. Ozgenel, Lalo (15 April 2008). "A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of Ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum". Journal of the Faculty of Archaeology. 2008, Ankara: Middle East Technical University. 25 (1): 1–25. http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2008/cilt25/sayi_1/1-25.pdf
  2. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9. p47
  3. De Ligt et al. (2012). The Album of Herculaneum and a model of the town’s demography. Journal of Roman Archaeology, 25, 69-94. doi:10.1017/S1047759400001148
  4. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9. p55
  5. Antiquitates Romanae 1.44
  6. Strabo, Geography V, 4, 8
  7. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9.
  8. Available at the University of Arizona: Pliny the Younger, Letters 6.16 and 6.20 to Cornelius Tacitus and in Project Gutenberg: Letter LXV — To Tacitus, Letter LXVI — To Cornelius Tacitus
  9. http://www.herculaneum.ox.ac.uk/files/newsletters/harchissue2.pdf p 3
  10. "House of the Relief of Telephus – AD79eruption". sites.google.com.
  11. "Pompeii's destruction date could be wrong". BBC News. 16 October 2018.
  12. Stefani, Grete (October 2006). La vera data dell'eruzione. Archeo
  13. Mastrolorenzo, G; Petrone, P; Pappalardo, L; Guarino, FM (15 June 2010). "Lethal thermal impact at periphery of pyroclastic surges: evidences at Pompeii". PLOS ONE. 5 (6): e11127. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511127M. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011127 . PMC   2886100 . PMID   20559555.
  14. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9. p 47
  15. THE LARGE AND THE SMALL HERCULANEUM WOMAN, Universita Ca' Foscari, Venezia, Doctoral Thesis 2014–2015, Angeliki Ntontou
  16. The Herculaneum Women: And the Origins of Archaeology (J. Paul Getty Museum) – 7 Feb 2008, Daehner
  17. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9. p62
  18. "Northwest Baths – AD79eruption". sites.google.com.
  19. "House of the Dionysian Reliefs – AD79eruption". sites.google.com.
  20. Cinque, A. and Irollo, G. (2008) "Lapaleogeografia dell’antica Herculaneum e lefluttuazioni, di origine bradisismica, dellasua linea di costa". In P. G. Guzzo andM. P. Guidobaldi, eds., Nuove ricerche archeologiche nell’area Vesuviana (scavi 2003–2006): 425–38
  21. The World of Pompeii. Edited by John J. Dobbins and Pedar W. Foss 2008
  22. "Digital Exploration: Unwrapping the Secrets of Damaged Manuscripts". www.research.uky.edu. Archived from the original on 1 February 2006. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  23. Banerji, Robin (20 December 2013). "Unlocking the scrolls of Herculaneum". BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  24. "UK scientists stymied in effort to read ancient scrolls". kentucky. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  25. "UK scientists stymied in effort to read ancient scrolls". kentucky. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  26. Hammer, Joshua. "The Fall and Rise and Fall of Pompeii". Smithsonian. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  27. S. C. Bisel, "The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy", in B. A. Purdy (ed.), Wet Site Archaeology, Caldwell, NJ, 1988, pp. 207–18
  28. Mastrolorenzo, G.; Petrone, P.P.; Pagano, M.; Incoronato, A.; Baxter, P.J.; Canzanella, A.; Fattore, L. (2001). "Herculaneum Victims of Vesuvius in AD 79". Nature. 410 (6830): 769–770. Bibcode:2001Natur.410..769M. doi:10.1038/35071167. PMID   11298433. S2CID   205015839.
  29. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (2011). Herculaneum: Past and Future. p. 126 ISBN   978-0-7112-3142-9
  30. Martyn, R. et al. (2020). A re-evaluation of manner of death at Roman Herculaneum following the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius. Antiquity, 94(373), 76-91. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.215
  31. High-resolution dietary reconstruction of victims of the 79 CE Vesuvius eruption at Herculaneum by compound-specific isotope analysis: Silvia Soncin et al., University of York, Science Advances 25 Aug 2021: Vol. 7, no. 35, eabg5791, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abg5791
  32. Capasso, Luigi (2001). I fuggiaschi di Ercolano. Paleobiologia delle vittime dell' eruzione vesuviana del 79 d.C. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider.
  33. "Ercolano riscopre l'ufficiale di Plinio il Vecchio, morì per aiutare - Arte". 9 May 2021.
  34. "Herculaneum to unearth ancient beach buried for nearly 2,000 years". 28 January 2021.
  35. Project, Herculaneum Conservation. "The Herculaneum Conservation Project: an introduction".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. "Herculaneum Project". www.getty.edu. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  37. Povoledo, Elisabetta (14 November 2012). "Herculaneum's Ruins Are Revived by Philanthropy". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  38. Walker, Susan; Higgs, Peter (2001), "Painting with a portrait of a woman in profile", in Walker, Susan; Higgs, Peter (eds.), Cleopatra of Egypt: from History to Myth, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (British Museum Press), pp.  314–315, ISBN   9780691088358.
  39. Fletcher, Joann (2008). Cleopatra the Great: The Woman Behind the Legend. New York: Harper. ISBN   978-0-06-058558-7, image plates and captions between pp. 246-247.
  40. "Pagina non trovata • DocLab".
  41. Herculaneum: DVD: Diaries of Light and Darkness. WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center, Inc. OCLC   277147385.
  42. "Terra X Dokumentationen und Kurzclips".
  43. Secrets of the Dead: Herculaneum Uncovered
  44. Out of the Ashes: Recovering the Lost Library of Herculaneum
  45. The Other Pompeii: Life and Death in Herculaneum
  46. Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time

Further reading

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The Villa of the Papyri was an ancient Roman villa in Herculaneum, in what is now Ercolano, southern Italy. It is named after its unique library of papyri, discovered in 1750. The Villa was considered to be one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world. Its luxury is shown by its exquisite architecture and by the very large number of outstanding works of art discovered, including frescoes, bronzes and marble sculpture which constitute the largest collection of Greek and Roman sculptures ever discovered in a single context.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples

The National Archaeological Museum of Naples is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains. Its collection includes works from Greek, Roman and Renaissance times, and especially Roman artifacts from nearby Pompeii, Stabiae and Herculaneum. It was formerly the Real Museo Borbonico.

Amedeo Maiuri

Amedeo Maiuri was an Italian archaeologist, famous for his archaeological investigations of the Roman city of Pompeii which was destroyed in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in August of AD 79. He was the first to conduct systematic scientific excavations, analysis and publication at Pompeii and other sites around Vesuvius.

Andrew Frederic Wallace-Hadrill, is a British ancient historian, classical archaeologist, and academic. He is Professor of Roman Studies and Director of Research in the Faculty of Classics at the University of Cambridge. He was Director of the British School at Rome between 1995 and 2009, and Master of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge from August 2009 to July 2013.

Ercolano Comune in Campania, Italy

Ercolano is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania of Southern Italy. It lies at the western foot of Mount Vesuvius, on the Bay of Naples, just southeast of the city of Naples. The medieval town of Resina was built on the volcanic material left by the eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed the ancient city of Herculaneum, from which the present name is derived. Ercolano is a resort and the starting point for excursions to the excavations of Herculaneum and for the ascent of Vesuvius by bus. The town also manufactures leather goods, buttons, glass, and the wine known as Lacryma Christi.

Villa Poppaea Ancient Roman villa

The Villa Poppaea is an ancient luxurious Roman seaside villa located in Torre Annunziata between Naples and Sorrento, in Southern Italy. It is also called the Villa Oplontis or Oplontis Villa A. as it was situated in the ancient Roman town of Oplontis.

Boscoreale Comune in Campania, Italy

Boscoreale is an Italian comune and town in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania, with a population of 27,457 in 2011. Located in the Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio, under the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, it is known for the fruit and vineyards of Lacryma Christi del Vesuvio. There is also a fine Vesuvian lava stone production.

Villa of the Mysteries

The Villa of the Mysteries is a well-preserved suburban ancient Roman villa on the outskirts of Pompeii, southern Italy. It is famous for the series of exquisite frescos in one room, which are usually thought to show the initiation of a young woman into a Greco-Roman mystery cult. These are now among the best known of the relatively rare survivals of Ancient Roman painting from the 1st century BC.

Pollena Trocchia Comune in Campania, Italy

Pollena Trocchia is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 11 km east of Naples.

Conservation issues of Pompeii and Herculaneum Aspect of archaeology in Pompeii and Herculaneum

Pompeii and Herculaneum were once thriving towns, 2,000 years ago, in the Bay of Naples. Both cities have rich histories influenced by Greeks, Oscans, Etruscans, Samnites and finally the Romans. They are most renowned for their destruction: both were buried in the AD 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius. For over 1,500 years, these cities were left in remarkable states of preservation underneath volcanic ash, mud and rubble. The eruption completely obliterated the towns but in doing so, was the cause of their longevity and survival over the centuries.

Pompeii in popular culture Culture

The ancient Roman city of Pompeii has been frequently featured in literature and popular culture since its modern rediscovery. Pompeii was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

Pompeii Ancient Roman city near modern Naples, Italy

Pompeii was an ancient city located in what is now the comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

Oplontis Ancient Roman archaeological site

Oplontis is an ancient Roman archaeological site located in the town of Torre Annunziata, south of Naples in the Campania region of southern Italy. The excavated site comprises two Roman villas, the best-known of which is Villa A, the so-called Villa Poppaea.

Stabiae Ancient Roman town

Stabiae was an ancient city situated near the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia and approximately 4.5 km southwest of Pompeii. Like Pompeii, and being only 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Mount Vesuvius, this seaside resort was largely buried by tephra ash in 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in this case at a smaller depth of up to five metres.

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD Eruption of a stratovolcano in southern Italy during the Roman Empire

Of the many eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, a major stratovolcano in southern Italy, the most famous is its eruption in 79 AD, which was one of the deadliest in European history.

Herculaneum papyri

The Herculaneum papyri are more than 1,800 papyri found in the Herculaneum Villa of the Papyri, in the 18th century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

The conservation and restoration of Pompeian frescoes describes the activities, methods, and techniques that have historically been and are currently being used to care for the preserved remains of the frescoes from the archeological site of Pompeii, Italy. The ancient city of Pompeii is famously known for its demise in A.D. 79 after the fatal eruption of Mount Vesuvius wiped out the population and buried the city beneath layers of compact lava material. In 1738, King Charles III or Charles of Bourbon, began explorations in Portici, Resina, Castellammare di Stabia, a Civita, where it was believed that the ancient cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, and Herculaneum were buried beneath. The first phase of the excavations at Pompeii started in 1748, which lead to the first conservation and restoration efforts of the frescoes since their burial, and in 1764, open-air excavations began at Pompeii. Pompeii has a long history of excavation and restoration that began without a strong foundation or strategy. After centuries of cronyism, recurring financial shortages, and on-again-off-again restoration, the city's frescoes and structures were left in poor condition. In 1997, Pompeii was added to the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites.

Herculaneum loaf is a stamped sourdough loaf of bread that has been partially preserved due to being carbonised. It was baked on 24 August 79 AD at Herculaneum, and later rediscovered from the archaeological site in 1930.

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