1919 in Italy

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Years in Italy: 1916   1917   1918   1919   1920   1921   1922
Centuries: 19th century  ·  20th century  ·  21st century
Decades: 1880s   1890s   1900s   1910s   1920s   1930s   1940s
Years: 1916   1917   1918   1919   1920   1921   1922

See also: 1918 in Italy, other events of 1919, 1920 in Italy.

See also: 1917 in Italy, other events of 1918, 1919 in Italy.


1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events from the year 1920 in Italy.

Contents


Events from the year 1919 in Italy .

Kingdom of Italy

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy King of Italy from 1900–1946

Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he held the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941) and King of the Albanians (1939–1943). During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism.

Prime Minister of Italy head of government of the Italian Republic

The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic, commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Italian Parliament to stay in office.

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Italian diplomat

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino. He was also known as "Premier of Victory" for defeating the Central Powers along with the Entente in World War I. He was also member and president of the Constitutional Assembly that changed the Italian form of government into a Republic. Aside from his prominent political role Orlando is also known for his writings, over a hundred works, on legal and judicial issues; Orlando was a professor of law.

Events

The years 1919 and 1920 were known as the Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium"): a two-year period of intense social conflict and political unrest in Italy, following the First World War. The revolutionary period and nationalist agitation on the Mutilated victory and the failure to obtain territorial concessions in Dalmatia at the end of World War I to fulfil Italy’s irrendentist claims, was followed by the violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and eventually by the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini in 1922.

Biennio Rosso

The Biennio Rosso was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War. The revolutionary period was followed by the violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and eventually by the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini in 1922.

Kingdom of Italy kingdom on the Appenine Peninsula between 1861 and 1946

The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

The heads of the "Big Four" nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson. Big four.jpg
The heads of the "Big Four" nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson.

January

Paris Peace Conference, 1919 peace conference 1919-1920

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

The Big Four (World War I)

The Big Four or The Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919. The Big Four is also known as the Council of Four. It was composed of Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, and Georges Clemenceau of France.

Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He also led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism."

March

The platform of Fasci italiani di combattimento, as published in "Il Popolo d'Italia" on 6 June 1919. Fasci di combattimento.jpg
The platform of Fasci italiani di combattimento, as published in "Il Popolo d'Italia" on 6 June 1919.
Benito Mussolini Duce and President of the Council of Ministers of Italy. Leader of the National Fascist Party and subsequent Republican Fascist Party

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party. He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943; he constitutionally led the country until 1925, when he dropped the pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship.

Sansepolcrismo is a term used to refer to the movement led by Benito Mussolini that preceded Fascism. The Sansepolcrismo takes its name from the rally organized by Mussolini at Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, where he proclaimed the principles of Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, and then published them in the newspaper he co-founded, Il Popolo d'Italia, on June 6, 1919.

Milan Italian city

Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan area has a population of 3,244,365. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.

April

Trieste Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.

Ljubljana Capital city in City Municipality of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It has been the cultural, educational, economic, political, and administrative centre of independent Slovenia since 1991.

Učka mountain range

The Učka is a mountain range in northwestern Croatia. It rises behind the Opatija riviera, on the eastern side of the Istrian peninsula.

May

June

Fiume residents cheering D'Annunzio and his raiders, September 1919 Fiume cheering D'Annunzio.jpg
Fiume residents cheering D'Annunzio and his raiders, September 1919

July

September

Gabriele D'Annunzio (in the middle with the stick) with some legionaries in Fiume in 1919. To the right of D'Annunzio, facing him, Lt. Arturo Avolio. Foto Fiume.jpg
Gabriele D'Annunzio (in the middle with the stick) with some legionaries in Fiume in 1919. To the right of D'Annunzio, facing him, Lt. Arturo Avolio.

October

November

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Gabriele DAnnunzio Italian writer, poet, journalist and playwright

General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese, sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924. He was often referred to under the epithets Il Vate or Il Profeta. Some of his ideas and aesthetics influenced Italian fascism and the style of Benito Mussolini and, thereby, Adolf Hitler; he has been described as "the father of Fascism".

Aftermath of World War I Period after the conclusion of World War I

The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were established, and many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in people's minds.

Giovanni Giolitti Italian politician

Giovanni Giolitti was an Italian statesman. He was the Prime Minister of Italy five times between 1892 and 1921. He is the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Benito Mussolini. He was a prominent leader of the Historical Left and the Liberal Union. Giolitti is widely considered one of the most powerful and important politicians in Italian history and, due to his dominant position in Italian politics, he was accused by critics of being a parliamentary dictator.

Sidney Sonnino Italian politician

Sidney Costantino, Baron Sonnino was an Italian statesman, 19th Prime Minister of Italy and twice served briefly as one, in 1906 and again from 1909 to 1910. He also was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during the First World War, representing Italy at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Francesco Saverio Nitti Italian economist and political figure

Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paolo Nitti was an Italian economist and political figure. A Radical, he served as Prime Minister of Italy between 1919 and 1920.

Italian irredentism

Italian irredentism was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.

Tommaso Tittoni Prime Minister of Italy

Tommaso Tittoni was an Italian diplomat, politician and Knight of the Annunziata. He was Italy's Foreign Minister from 1903 until 1909, except for a five-month period. He also was interim Prime Minister for about a month in March 1905.

Free State of Fiume former state between 1920 and 1924

The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924. Its territory of 28 km2 (11 sq mi) comprised the city of Fiume and rural areas to its north, with a corridor to its west connecting it to Italy.

Italian Regency of Carnaro former country

The Italian Regency of Carnaro was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920. It is also known by its lyrical name in Italian: Fiume Endeavour.

Democratic Liberal Party (Italy)

The Democratic Liberal Party, or simply Liberal Democracy, was a social-liberal political party active in Italy in the earlier decades of the 20th century. Initially, the party was an alliance between progressive liberals, called Liberals–Democrats–Radicals.

The mutilated victory was a term coined by a famous Italian poet, Gabriele D'Annunzio, to describe dissatisfaction with the aftermath of World War I for Italy, because the Treaty of London (1915) signed by Italy before entering the conflict was not fully carried out at the end of it. It fueled the rhetoric of Italian irredentism and Italian nationalism before World War II and was a key point in the propaganda of Fascist Italy.

The Bloody Christmas of 1920 was a series of clashes in Fiume, which led to the conclusion of the Fiume campaign carried out by Italian poet and adventurer, Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1920.

In the aftermath of the First World War, the Adriatic Question or Adriatic Problem concerned the fate of the territories along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea that formerly belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The roots of the dispute lay in the secret Treaty of London, signed during the war, and in growing nationalism, especially Italian irredentism and Yugoslavism, which led ultimately to the creation of Yugoslavia. The question was a major barrier to agreement at the Paris Peace Conference, but was partially resolved by the Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia on 12 November 1920.

See also: 1916 in Italy, other events of 1917, 1918 in Italy.


<i>A Peace Conference at the Quai dOrsay</i> painting by William Orpen

A Peace Conference at the Quai d'Orsay is an oil-on-canvas painting by Irish artist William Orpen, completed in 1919. It was one the paintings commissioned from Orpen to commemorate the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The work is held by the Imperial War Museum in London.

<i>The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors</i> painting by William Orpen

The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919 is an oil-on-canvas painting by Irish artist William Orpen, completed in 1919. It was one the paintings commissioned from Orpen to commemorate of the Peace Conference at Versailles in 1919. The work is held by the Imperial War Museum in London.

References

  1. MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. xxviii
  2. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1.
  3. MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 274
  4. 1 2 3 Burgwyn, Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940, p. 12-14
  5. 1 2 Gilbert & Nilsson, The A to Z of Modern Italy, p. 328
  6. Lauren, Power And Prejudice, p. 92
  7. 1 2 "The Peace Conference and the Adriatic Question", Edinburgh Review, 231:472 (1920), pp. 224-26
  8. Danesi, Encyclopedia of Media and Communication, p. 488
  9. Bellamy & Schecter, Gramsci and the Italian State, p. 28
  10. Cut Food Prices To Check Rioting, The New York Times, July 7, 1919
  11. "General Strike" Complete Failure; Day Set by Socialists Passes Quietly, Very Few Men Leaving Their Work, The New York Times Company, July 23, 1919
  12. D'Annunzio in Fiume With Armed Forces, The New York Times, September 14, 1919
  13. Italian 6th Corps Disobeys Orders, The New York Times, September 15, 1919
  14. Italy To Starve Out D'Annunzio; Blockade of Fiume to Bring Insurgents to Terms, The New York Times, September 18, 1919
  15. Nation To Decide Fiume Question; Italian Parliament Is Dissolved, The New York Times, September 30, 1919
  16. Elections Absorb Italy; Catholics for First Time to Have Their Own Candidates, The New York Times, October 3, 1919
  17. Italy Faces Winter With Apprehension; Coal Shortage Sends Price of Gas Up to Three Times Its Former Cost, The New York Times, October 8, 1919
  18. Cfr. Gabriele D'Annunzio, in an editorial in Corriere della Sera, October 24, 1918, Vittoria nostra, non sarai mutilata ("Our victory will not be mutilated").