Juche calendar

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In chronology and periodization, an epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

<i>Juche</i> State ideology of North Korea

Juche, officially the Juche idea, is the state ideology of North Korea and the official ideology of the Workers' Party of Korea. North Korean sources attribute its conceptualization to Kim Il Sung, the country's founder and first leader. Juche was originally regarded as a variant of Marxism–Leninism until Kim Jong Il, Kim Il Sung's son and successor, declared it a distinct ideology in the 1970s. Kim Jong Il further developed Juche in the 1980s and 1990s by making ideological breaks from Marxism–Leninism and increasing the importance of his father's ideas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Korean calendar</span> Traditional lunisolar calendar

The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian, and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.

Korean era names were titles adopted in historical Korea for the purpose of year identification and numbering. Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Various Korean regimes officially adopted the era names of Chinese dynasties.

A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, it is the year 2023 as per the Gregorian calendar, which numbers its years in the Western Christian era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Korean Central News Agency</span> North Korean state news agency

The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) is the state news agency of North Korea. The agency portrays the views of the North Korean government for both domestic and foreign consumption. It was established on December 5, 1946, and now features online coverage.

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. Regnal years considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eternal leaders of North Korea</span> Practice of granting posthumous titles to deceased leaders of North Korea

The Eternal leaders of North Korea, officially the Eternal leaders of Juche Korea, refers to the practice of granting posthumous titles to deceased leaders of North Korea. The official title was established by a line in the preamble to the Constitution, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic of China calendar</span> Calendar used in Taiwan

The Republic of China calendar, often shortened to the ROC calendar or the Minguo calendar, is a calendar used in Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. The calendar uses 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC) in Nanjing, as the first year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Workers' Party of Korea</span> Sole ruling party of North Korea

The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the sole ruling party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea. Founded in 1949 from the merger of the Workers' Party of North Korea and the Workers' Party of South Korea, the WPK is the oldest active party in Korea. It also controls the Korean People's Army, North Korea's armed forces. The WPK is the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly and coexists with two other legal parties making up the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea. However, these minor parties are completely subservient to the WPK and must accept the WPK's "leading role" as a condition of their existence. The WPK is banned in the Republic of Korea under the National Security Act and is sanctioned by the United Nations, the European Union, Australia, and the United States.

The award system of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was initially created less than one month after the foundation of the Republic. During the years of Japanese occupation of Korea, many of the future leaders fled to the Soviet Union. During World War II many if not close to all party leaders and Korean People's Army commanders served in the Soviet Army and as such adopted many of the Soviet awards criteria for their own. During the late 1940s and until the Sino-Soviet Split in late 1958, orders and titles were made in the Soviet Money Mints in Moscow or Leningrad. Soviet made awards were modeled after Soviet orders and made of sterling silver. Initially the orders were attached to clothing with a screw-plate, but after Soviet production stopped, production was moved to North Korea. The screwback was replaced with a pin and the silver content was replaced with cheap tin. With the exception of a few examples of modern orders, Soviet and Czech KPA awards are the most sought after in current militaria markets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Korean cult of personality</span> Veneration of the ruling Kim family

The North Korean cult of personality surrounding its ruling family, the Kim family, has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture. Although not acknowledged by the North Korean government, many defectors and Western visitors state there are often stiff penalties for those who criticize or do not show "proper" respect for the former leaders of the country, Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il, officially referred to as "eternal leaders of Korea". The personality cult began soon after Kim Il Sung took power in 1948, and was greatly expanded after his death in 1994.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kim Il Sung bibliography</span> Once leader of North Korea, between 1948 and 1994

Kim Il Sung was the leader of North Korea for 46 years, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adoption of the Gregorian calendar</span> Transition to the "New Style" dating system

The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the early modern history of most cultures and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system – the Gregorian calendar – that is widely used around the world today. Some states adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, others did so at various dates between. A few still have not, but except for these, the Gregorian calendar is now the world's civil calendar universally, although in many places an old style calendar remains used in religious or traditional contexts During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms "Old Style" and "New Style" when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Day of the Sun</span> National holiday on April 15 in North Korea

The Day of the Sun is an annual public holiday in North Korea on 15 April, the birth anniversary of Kim Il Sung, founder and Eternal President of North Korea. It is the most important national holiday in the country, and is considered to be the North Korean equivalent of Christmas. Kim's birthday, which had been an official holiday since 1968, was renamed Day of the Sun in 1997, three years after his death. The name takes its significance from his name: Il-sung.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Day of the Shining Star</span> Annual observance in North Korea celebrating the birth of Kim Jong-il

The Day of the Shining Star is a public holiday in North Korea falling on 16 February, the anniversary of the birth of the country's second leader, Kim Jong Il. Along with the Day of the Sun, the birthday of his father Kim Il Sung, it is the most important public holiday in the country.

The International Kim Il Sung Prize is an award conferred for contributions in the study and proliferation of the Juche idea. It is named in honor of Kim Il Sung, the first supreme leader of the North Korea, credited with creation of the Juche idea.

Day of <i>Songun</i> Public holiday in North Korea (25 August)

The Day of Songun is a public holiday in North Korea celebrated on 25 August annually to commemorate the beginning of Kim Jong Il's Songun (military-first) leadership in 1960.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kim Jong Un bibliography</span> Bibliography on North Koreas current leader, Kim Jong-Un

Kim Jong Un has been the supreme leader of North Korea since the death of Kim Jong Il, the previous leader and his father.

Dermot Hudson is a British communist political activist with close relations with North Korea. He is the Chairman of the British Group for the Study of the Juche Idea, Chairman of United Kingdom Korean Friendship Association, and President of the British Association for the Study of Songun Politics.

References

  1. Andrew Logie (17 September 2012). The Answers: North Korea: How do you solve a problem like North Korea?. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 57. ISBN   978-981-4398-90-9.
  2. 1 2 Hy-Sang Lee (2001). North Korea: A Strange Socialist Fortress. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN   978-0-275-96917-2.
  3. Martin K. Dimitrov (31 July 2013). Why Communism Did Not Collapse: Understanding Authoritarian Regime Resilience in Asia and Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN   978-1-107-03553-9.
  4. "Juche era available in Korea". KCNA. 10 September 1997. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  5. 1 2 "Rules on use of Juche Era adopted". KCNA. 25 August 1997. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  6. 北朝鮮で高コスパ土産として人気のカレンダー3種類を徹底解析. Korea World Times (in Japanese). 31 March 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
Juche calendar
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A Juche calendar for Juche 99 (2010)