Millennium

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A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period of one thousand years, [1] sometimes called a kiloyear. Sometimes, the word is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1") and at later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after the start point. The term can also refer to an interval of time beginning on any date. Millennia sometimes have religious or theological implications (see millenarianism).

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The word millennium derives from the Latin mille, thousand, and annus, year.

Debate over millennium celebrations

There was widespread public debate leading up to the celebrations of the year 2000 as to whether the beginning of that year should be understood (and celebrated) as the beginning of "the" new millennium. Historically, there has been debate around the turn of previous decades, centuries and millennia. The issue arises from the difference between the convention of using ordinal numbers to count years and millennia (as in "the third millennium"), or cardinally using "the two thousands". The first convention is common in English-speaking countries, but the latter is favoured in, for example, Sweden (tvåtusentalet, which translates literally as the two thousands period). Those holding that the arrival of the new millennium should be celebrated in the transition from 2000 to 2001 (i.e., December 31, 2000 to January 1, 2001) argued that the Gregorian calendar has no year zero, and therefore the millennia should be counted from the year 1. Thus, the first millennium was from the year 1 to the end of the year 1000, the second millennium from 1001 to the end of 2000, and so on. The "year 2000" has been a popular phrase referring to an often utopian future, or a year when stories in such a future were set, adding to its cultural significance. There was also media and public interest in the Y2K computer bug. The change from 1999 to 2000 was compared to the "rolling over" of zeroes on an odometer. Some people [2] argued that the change of the hundreds digit in the year number, and the zeroes rolling over, created a sense that a new century had begun. This is analogous to the common demarcation of decades by their 'tens' digit, e.g. naming the period 1980 to 1989 as "the 1980s" or "the eighties". The ISO 8601 standard is superficially similar to this second viewpoint, but as ISO 8601 includes a "year 0" it is not strictly relevant to the discussion.

Stephen Jay Gould argued that the choice between them is arbitrary, and, since the question revolves around rules made by people, rather than a natural phenomenon that is subject to experimental measurement, the matter cannot be resolved. [3] Gould, in his essay Dousing Diminutive Dennis' Debate (or DDDD = 2000) ( Dinosaur in a Haystack ), discussed the "high" versus "pop" culture interpretation of the transition. Gould noted that the high culture, strict construction had been the dominant viewpoint at the 20th century's beginning, but that the pop culture viewpoint dominated at its end. Gould also included comments on adjustments to the calendar, such as those by Dionysius Exiguus (the eponymous "Diminutive Dennis") and the timing of celebrations over different transitional periods.

The popular [4] approach was to treat the end of 1999 as the end of "a millennium" and to hold millennium celebrations at midnight between December 31, 1999, and January 1, 2000, as per viewpoint 2, with the cultural and psychological significance of the events listed above combining to cause celebrations to be observed one year earlier than the formal Gregorian date. [4] However, this does not establish that insistence on the formal Gregorian date is "incorrect". Some event organisers hedged their bets by calling their 1999 celebrations things like "Click" referring to the odometer-like rolling over of the nines to zeroes; another, pragmatic approach was to celebrate "a new millennium" twice.

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A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. The word century comes from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred. Century is sometimes abbreviated as c.

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ISO 8601Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data is transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times.

Week Time unit equal to seven days

A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar.

2nd millennium Millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000

The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000.

Millenarianism, from Latin mīllēnārius "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming fundamental transformation of society, after which "all things will be changed". Millenarianism exists in various cultures and religions worldwide, with various interpretations of what constitutes a transformation.

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year that begins on Friday, 1 January, and ends on Friday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is C. The most recent year of such kind was 2010 and the next one will be 2021 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2011 and 2022 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1700, was also a common year starting on Friday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in August. Leap years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another one in February.

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013, 2019, and 2030 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The most recent year was 2019 and the next one will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday shares of this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is E. The most recent year of such kind was 2014, and the next one will be 2025 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2009, 2015, and 2026 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1800, was also a common year starting on Wednesday in the Gregorian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in June. Leap years starting on Tuesday share this characteristic.

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. The most recent year of such kind was 2011 and the next one will be 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.

A millennium is a period of 1,000 years.

The year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (AD) system commonly used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by AD 1. However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering and in ISO 8601:2004, as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars.

The ISO week date system is effectively a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) since 1988 and, before that, it was defined in ISO (R) 2015 since 1971. It is used (mainly) in government and business for fiscal years, as well as in timekeeping. This was previously known as "Industrial date coding". The system specifies a week year atop the Gregorian calendar by defining a notation for ordinal weeks of the year.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.

The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian calendar backward to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. In countries that adopted the Gregorian calendar later, dates occurring in the interim are sometimes "Gregorianized" as well. For example, George Washington was born on February 11, 1731, as Great Britain and its possessions were using the Julian calendar with English years starting on March 25 until September 1752. After the switch, that day became February 22, 1732, which is the date commonly given as Washington's birthday.

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) adopted ISO 8601 with EN 28601, now EN ISO 8601. As a European Norm, CEN and CENELEC member states are obligated to adopt the standard as national standard without alterations as well.

References

  1. "Millennium", Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford University Press, 2016).
  2. "When Does the New Millennium Begin?" January 1, 1999.
  3. Gould, Stephen Jay, Questioning the Millennium (New York: Harmony Books, 1997), part 2.
  4. 1 2 Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.