Timeline of the far future

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Artist's concept of the Earth 5-7.5 billion years from now, when the Sun has become a red giant Red Giant Earth warm.jpg
Artist's concept of the Earth 5–7.5 billion years from now, when the Sun has become a red giant

While the future cannot be predicted with certainty, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of some far-future events, if only in the broadest outline. [1] [2] [3] [4] These fields include astrophysics, which studies how planets and stars form, interact, and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales; evolutionary biology, which studies how life evolves over time; plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia; and sociology, which examines how human societies and cultures evolve.

Contents

These timelines begin at the start of the 4th millennium in 3001 CE, and continue until the furthest reaches of future time. They include alternative future events that address unresolved scientific questions, such as whether humans will become extinct, whether the Earth survives when the Sun expands to become a red giant and whether proton decay will be the eventual end of all matter in the Universe.

Lists

Keys

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg Astronomy and astrophysics
Noun project 528.svg Geology and planetary science
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg Biology
Psi (greek letter).svg Particle physics
Greek lc pi icon.svg Mathematics
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg Technology and culture

Earth, the Solar System, and the Universe

All projections of the future of Earth, the Solar System, and the universe must account for the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy, or a loss of the energy available to do work, must rise over time. [5] Stars will eventually exhaust their supply of hydrogen fuel via fusion and burn out. The Sun will likely expand sufficiently to overwhelm most of the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, possibly Earth), but not the giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Afterwards, the Sun would be reduced to the size of a white dwarf, and the outer planets and their moons would continue orbiting this diminutive solar remnant. This future situation may be similar to the white dwarf star MOA-2010-BLG-477L and the Jupiter-sized exoplanet orbiting it. [6] [7] [8]

Long after the death of the solar system, physicists expect that matter itself will eventually disintegrate under the influence of radioactive decay, as even the most stable materials break apart into subatomic particles. [9] Current data suggest that the universe has a flat geometry (or very close to flat), and thus will not collapse in on itself after a finite time. [10] This infinite future allows for the occurrence of even massively improbable events, such as the formation of Boltzmann brains. [11]

Key.svg Years from nowEvent
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1,000Due to the lunar tides decelerating the Earth's rotation, the average length of a solar day will be 130 SI second longer than it is today. To compensate, either a leap second will have to be added to the end of a day multiple times during each month, or one or more consecutive leap seconds will have to be added at the end of some or all months. [12]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1,100As Earth's poles precess, Gamma Cephei replaces Polaris as the northern pole star. [13]
Noun project 528.svg 10,000If a failure of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin "ice plug" in the next few centuries were to endanger the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, it would take up to this long to melt completely. Sea levels would rise 3 to 4 metres. [14] One of the potential long-term effects of global warming, this is separate from the shorter-term threat to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 10,000 – 1 million [note 1] The red supergiant stars Betelgeuse and Antares will likely have exploded as supernovae. For a few months, the explosions should be easily visible on Earth in daylight. [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 11,700As Earth's poles precess, Vega, the fifth-brightest star in the sky, becomes the northern pole star. [20] Although Earth cycles through many different naked eye northern pole stars, Vega is the brightest.
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 11,000–15,000By this point, halfway through Earth's precessional cycle, Earth's axial tilt will be mirrored, causing summer and winter to occur on opposite sides of Earth's orbit. This means that the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere will be less extreme than they are today, as it will be facing away from the Sun at Earth's perihelion and towards the Sun at aphelion, while the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere, which experiences more pronounced seasonal variation due to a higher percentage of land, will be more extreme. [21]
Noun project 528.svg 15,000According to the Sahara pump theory, the oscillating tilt of Earth's poles will move the North African Monsoon far enough north to change the climate of the Sahara back into a tropical one such as it had 5,000–10,000 years ago. [22] [23]
Noun project 528.svg 17,000 [note 1] The best-guess recurrence rate for a "civilization-threatening" supervolcanic eruption large enough to eject one teratonne (one trillion tonnes) of pyroclastic material. [24] [25]
Noun project 528.svg 25,000Mars' northern polar ice cap could recede as Mars reaches a warming peak of the northern hemisphere during the c. 50,000-year perihelion precession aspect of its Milankovitch cycle. [26] [27]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 36,000The small red dwarf Ross 248 will pass within 3.024 light-years of Earth, becoming the closest star to the Sun. [28] It will recede after about 8,000 years, making first Alpha Centauri (again) and then Gliese 445 the nearest stars [28] (see timeline).
Noun project 528.svg 50,000According to Berger and Loutre (2002), the current interglacial period will end, [29] sending the Earth back into a glacial period of the current ice age, regardless of the effects of anthropogenic global warming.

However, according to more recent studies in 2016, anthropogenic climate change, if left unchecked, may delay this otherwise expected glacial period by as much as an additional 50,000 years, potentially skipping it entirely. [30]

Niagara Falls will have eroded the remaining 32 km to Lake Erie, and will therefore cease to exist. [31]

The many glacial lakes of the Canadian Shield will have been erased by post-glacial rebound and erosion. [32]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 50,000Due to lunar tides decelerating the Earth's rotation, a day on Earth is expected to be one SI second longer than it is today. In order to compensate, either a leap second will have to be added to the end of every day, or the length of the day will have to be officially lengthened by one SI second. [12]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100,000The proper motion of stars across the celestial sphere, which results from their movement through the Milky Way, renders many of the constellations unrecognizable. [33]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100,000 [note 1] The red hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris will likely have exploded in a supernova. [34]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 100,000Native North American earthworms, such as Megascolecidae, will have naturally spread north through the United States Upper Midwest to the Canada–US border, recovering from the Laurentide Ice Sheet glaciation (38°N to 49°N), assuming a migration rate of 10 metres per year, and that a possible renewed glaciation by this time has not prevented this. [35] (However, humans have already introduced non-native invasive earthworms of North America on a much shorter timescale, causing a shock to the regional ecosystem.)
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100,000–10 million [note 1] Cupid and Belinda, moons of Uranus, will likely have collided. [36]
Noun project 528.svg > 100,000As one of the long-term effects of global warming, 10% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide will still remain in a stabilized atmosphere. [37]
Noun project 528.svg 250,000 Kamaʻehuakanaloa (formerly Lōʻihi), the youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, will rise above the surface of the ocean and become a new volcanic island. [38]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg c. 300,000 [note 1] At some point in the next few hundred thousand years, the Wolf–Rayet star WR 104 may explode in a supernova. There is a small chance WR 104 is spinning fast enough to produce a gamma-ray burst, and an even smaller chance that such a GRB could pose a threat to life on Earth. [39] [40]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 500,000 [note 1] Earth will likely have been hit by an asteroid of roughly 1 km in diameter, assuming that it is not averted. [41]
Noun project 528.svg 500,000The rugged terrain of Badlands National Park in South Dakota will have eroded completely. [42]
Noun project 528.svg 1 million Meteor Crater, a large impact crater in Arizona considered the "freshest" of its kind, will have worn away. [43]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1 million [note 1] Desdemona and Cressida, moons of Uranus, will likely have collided. [44]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.35 ± 0.05 millionThe star Gliese 710 will pass as close as 0.0676 parsecs0.221 light-years (14,000 astronomical units ) [45] —to the Sun before moving away. This will gravitationally perturb members of the Oort cloud, a halo of icy bodies orbiting at the edge of the Solar System, thereafter raising the likelihood of a cometary impact in the inner Solar System. [46]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 2 millionThe estimated time for the full recovery of coral reef ecosystems from human-caused ocean acidification if such acidification goes unchecked; the recovery of marine ecosystems after the acidification event that occurred about 65 million years ago took a similar length of time. [47]
Noun project 528.svg 2 million+The Grand Canyon will erode further, deepening slightly, but principally widening into a broad valley surrounding the Colorado River. [48]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 2.7 millionThe average orbital half-life of current centaurs, that are unstable because of gravitational interaction of the several outer planets. [49] See predictions for notable centaurs.
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 3 millionDue to tidal deceleration gradually slowing Earth's rotation, a day on Earth is expected to be one minute longer than it is today. [12]
Noun project 528.svg 10 millionThe Red Sea will flood the widening East African Rift valley, causing a new ocean basin to divide the continent of Africa [50] and the African Plate into the newly formed Nubian Plate and the Somali Plate.

The Indian Plate will advance into Tibet by 180 km (110 mi). Nepali territory, whose boundaries are defined by the Himalayan peaks and on the plains of India, will cease to exist. [51]

Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 10 millionThe estimated time for full recovery of biodiversity after a potential Holocene extinction, if it were on the scale of the five previous major extinction events. [52]

Even without a mass extinction, by this time most current species will have disappeared through the background extinction rate, with many clades gradually evolving into new forms. [53] [54]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 50 millionMaximum estimated time before the moon Phobos collides with Mars. [55]
Noun project 528.svg 50 millionAccording to Christopher Scotese, the movement of the San Andreas Fault will cause the Gulf of California to flood into the Central Valley. This will form a new inland sea on the West Coast of North America, causing the current locations of Los Angeles and San Francisco to merge. [56] [ failed verification ] The Californian coast will begin to be subducted into the Aleutian Trench. [57]

Africa's collision with Eurasia will close the Mediterranean Basin and create a mountain range similar to the Himalayas. [58]

The Appalachian Mountains peaks will largely wear away, [59] weathering at 5.7 Bubnoff units, although topography will actually rise as regional valleys deepen at twice this rate. [60]

Noun project 528.svg 50–60 millionThe Canadian Rockies will wear away to a plain, assuming a rate of 60 Bubnoff units. [61] The Southern Rockies in the United States are eroding at a somewhat slower rate. [62]
Noun project 528.svg 50–400 millionThe estimated time for Earth to naturally replenish its fossil fuel reserves. [63]
Noun project 528.svg 80 millionThe Big Island will have become the last of the current Hawaiian Islands to sink beneath the surface of the ocean, while a more recently formed chain of "new Hawaiian Islands" will then have emerged in their place. [64]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100 million [note 1] Earth will likely have been hit by an asteroid comparable in size to the one that triggered the K–Pg extinction 66 million years ago, assuming this is not averted. [65]
Noun project 528.svg 100 millionAccording to the Pangaea Proxima model created by Christopher R. Scotese, a new subduction zone will open in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas will begin to converge back toward Africa. [56] [ failed verification ]

Upper estimate for lifespan of the rings of Saturn in their current state. [66]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 110 millionThe Sun's luminosity will have increased by 1%. [67]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 180 millionDue to the gradual slowing of Earth's rotation, a day on Earth will be one hour longer than it is today. [12]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 240 millionFrom its present position, the Solar System completes one full orbit of the Galactic Center. [68]
Noun project 528.svg 250 millionAccording to Christopher R. Scotese, due to the northward movement of the West Coast of North America, the coast of California will collide with Alaska. [56] [ failed verification ]
Noun project 528.svg 250–350 millionAll the continents on Earth may fuse into a supercontinent. [56] [69] Four potential arrangements of this configuration have been dubbed Amasia, Novopangaea, Pangaea Proxima, and Aurica. This will likely result in a glacial period, lowering sea levels and increasing oxygen levels, further lowering global temperatures. [70] [71]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg > 250 millionRapid biological evolution may occur due to the formation of a supercontinent causing lower temperatures and higher oxygen levels. [71] Increased competition between species due to the formation of a supercontinent, increased volcanic activity and less hospitable conditions due to global warming from a brighter Sun could result in a mass extinction event from which plant and animal life may not fully recover. [72]
Noun project 528.svg 300 millionDue to a shift in the equatorial Hadley cells to roughly 40° north and south, the amount of arid land will increase by 25%. [72]
Noun project 528.svg 300–600 millionThe estimated time for Venus's mantle temperature to reach its maximum. Then, over a period of about 100 million years, major subduction occurs and the crust is recycled. [73]
Noun project 528.svg 350 millionAccording to the extroversion model first developed by Paul F. Hoffman, subduction ceases in the Pacific Ocean Basin. [69] [74]
Noun project 528.svg 400–500 millionThe supercontinent (Pangaea Ultima, Novopangaea, Amasia, or Aurica) will likely have rifted apart. [69] This will likely result in higher global temperatures, similar to the Cretaceous period. [71]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 500 million [note 1] The estimated time until a gamma-ray burst, or massive, hyperenergetic supernova, occurs within 6,500 light-years of Earth; close enough for its rays to affect Earth's ozone layer and potentially trigger a mass extinction, assuming the hypothesis is correct that a previous such explosion triggered the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have such effect. [75]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 600 million Tidal acceleration moves the Moon far enough from Earth that total solar eclipses are no longer possible. [76]
Noun project 528.svg 500–600 millionThe Sun's increasing luminosity begins to disrupt the carbonate–silicate cycle; higher luminosity increases weathering of surface rocks, which traps carbon dioxide in the ground as carbonate. As water evaporates from the Earth's surface, rocks harden, causing plate tectonics to slow and eventually stop once the oceans evaporate completely. With less volcanism to recycle carbon into the Earth's atmosphere, carbon dioxide levels begin to fall. [77] By this time, carbon dioxide levels will fall to the point at which C3 photosynthesis is no longer possible. All plants that use C3 photosynthesis (≈99 percent of present-day species) will die. [78] The extinction of C3 plant life is likely to be a long-term decline rather than a sharp drop. It is likely that plant groups will die one by one well before the critical carbon dioxide level is reached. The first plants to disappear will be C3 herbaceous plants, followed by deciduous forests, evergreen broad-leaf forests and finally evergreen conifers. [72]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 500–800 millionAs Earth begins to warm and carbon dioxide levels fall, plants—and, by extension, animals—could survive longer by evolving other strategies such as requiring less carbon dioxide for photosynthetic processes, becoming carnivorous, adapting to desiccation, or associating with fungi. These adaptations are likely to appear near the beginning of the moist greenhouse. [72] The decrease in plant life will result in less oxygen in the atmosphere, allowing for more DNA-damaging ultraviolet radiation to reach the surface. The rising temperatures will increase chemical reactions in the atmosphere, further lowering oxygen levels. Plant and animal communities become increasingly sparse and isolated as the Earth becomes more barren. Flying animals would be better off because of their ability to travel large distances looking for cooler temperatures. [79] Many animals may be driven to the poles or possibly underground. These creatures would become active during the polar night and aestivate during the polar day due to the intense heat and radiation. Much of the land would become a barren desert, and plants and animals would primarily be found in the oceans. [79]
Noun project 528.svg 500–800 millionAs pointed out by Peter Ward and Donald Brownlee in their book The Life and Death of Planet Earth , according to NASA Ames scientist Kevin Zahnle, this is the earliest time for plate tectonics to eventually stop, due to the gradual cooling of the Earth's core, which could potentially turn the Earth back into a waterworld. This would, in turn, likely cause the extinction of animal life on Earth. [79]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 800–900 millionCarbon dioxide levels will fall to the point at which C4 photosynthesis is no longer possible. [78] Without plant life to recycle oxygen in the atmosphere, free oxygen and the ozone layer will disappear from the atmosphere allowing for intense levels of deadly UV light to reach the surface. Animals in food chains that were dependent on live plants will disappear shortly afterward. [72] At most, animal life could survive about 3 to 100 million years after plant life dies out. Just like plants, the extinction of animals will likely coincide with the loss of plants. It will start with large animals, then smaller animals and flying creatures, then amphibians, followed by reptiles, and finally, invertebrates. [77] In the book The Life and Death of Planet Earth, authors Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee state that some animal life may be able to survive in the oceans. Eventually, however, all multicellular life will die out. [80] The first sea animals to go extinct will be large fish, followed by small fish, and then finally, invertebrates. [77] The last animals to go extinct will be animals that do not depend on living plants, such as termites, or those near hydrothermal vents, such as worms of the genus Riftia . [72] The only life left on the Earth after this will be single-celled organisms.
Noun project 528.svg 1 billion [note 2] 27% of the ocean's mass will have been subducted into the mantle. If this were to continue uninterrupted, it would reach an equilibrium where 65% of present-day surface water would be subducted. [81]
Noun project 528.svg 1.1 billionThe Sun's luminosity will have increased by 10%, causing Earth's surface temperatures to reach an average of around 320 K (47 °C; 116 °F). The atmosphere will become a "moist greenhouse", resulting in a runaway evaporation of the oceans. [77] [82] This would cause plate tectonics to stop completely, if not already stopped before this time. [83] Pockets of water may still be present at the poles, allowing abodes for simple life. [84] [85]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 1.2 billionHigh estimate until all plant life dies out, assuming some form of photosynthesis is possible despite extremely low carbon dioxide levels. If this is possible, rising temperatures will make any animal life unsustainable from this point on. [86] [87] [88]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 1.3 billion Eukaryotic life dies out on Earth due to carbon dioxide starvation. Only prokaryotes remain. [80]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.5 billion Callisto is captured into the mean–motion resonance of the other Galilean moons of Jupiter, completing the 1:2:4:8 chain. (Currently only Io, Europa, and Ganymede participate in the 1:2:4 resonance.) [89]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.5–1.6 billionThe Sun's rising luminosity causes its circumstellar habitable zone to move outwards; as carbon dioxide rises in Mars's atmosphere, its surface temperature rises to levels akin to Earth during the ice age. [80] [90]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.5–4.5 billionTidal acceleration moves the Moon far enough from the Earth to the point where it can no longer stabilize Earth's axial tilt. As a consequence, Earth's true polar wander becomes chaotic and extreme, leading to dramatic shifts in the planet's climate due to the changing axial tilt. [91]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 1.6 billionLower estimate until all remaining life, which by now had been reduced to colonies of unicellular organisms in isolated microenvironments such as high-altitude lakes and caves, goes extinct. [77] [80] [92]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg < 2 billionThe first close passage of the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way. [93]
Noun project 528.svg 2 billionHigh estimate until the Earth's oceans evaporate if the atmospheric pressure were to decrease via the nitrogen cycle. [94]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 2.55 billionThe Sun will have reached a maximum surface temperature of 5,820 K (5,550 °C; 10,020 °F). From then on, it will become gradually cooler while its luminosity will continue to increase. [82]
Noun project 528.svg 2.8 billionEarth's surface temperature will reach around 420 K (147 °C; 296 °F), even at the poles. [77] [92]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 2.8 billionHigh estimate until all remaining Earth life goes extinct. [77] [92]
Noun project 528.svg 3–4 billionThe Earth's core freezes if the inner core continues to grow in size, based on its current growth rate of 1 mm (0.039 in) in diameter per year. [95] [96] [97] Without its liquid outer core, Earth's magnetosphere shuts down, [98] and solar winds gradually deplete the atmosphere. [99]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg c. 3 billion [note 1] There is a roughly 1-in-100,000 chance that the Earth will be ejected into interstellar space by a stellar encounter before this point, and a 1-in-300-billion chance that it will be both ejected into space and captured by another star around this point. If this were to happen, any remaining life on Earth could potentially survive for far longer if it survived the interstellar journey. [100]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 3.3 billion [note 1] There is a roughly 1% chance that Jupiter's gravity may make Mercury's orbit so eccentric as to cross Venus's orbit by this time, sending the inner Solar System into chaos. Other possible scenarios include Mercury colliding with the Sun, being ejected from the Solar System, or colliding with Venus or Earth. [101] [102]
Noun project 528.svg 3.5–4.5 billionThe Sun's luminosity will have increased by 35–40%, causing all water currently present in lakes and oceans to evaporate, if it had not done so earlier. The greenhouse effect caused by the massive, water-rich atmosphere will result in Earth's surface temperature rising to 1,400 K (1,130 °C; 2,060 °F)—hot enough to melt some surface rock. [83] [94] [103] [104]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 3.6 billion Neptune's moon Triton falls through the planet's Roche limit, potentially disintegrating into a planetary ring system similar to Saturn's. [105]
Noun project 528.svg 4.5 billionMars reaches the same solar flux the Earth did when it first formed, 4.5 billion years ago from today. [90]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg < 5 billionThe Andromeda Galaxy will have fully merged with the Milky Way, forming a galaxy dubbed "Milkomeda". [93] There is also a small chance of the Solar System being ejected. [93] [106] The planets of the Solar System will almost certainly not be disturbed by these events. [107] [108] [109]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 5.4 billionThe sun, having now exhausted its hydrogen supply, leaves the main sequence and begins evolving into a red giant. [110]
Noun project 528.svg 6.5 billionMars reaches the same solar radiation flux as Earth today, after which it will suffer a similar fate to the Earth as described above. [90]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 6.6 billionThe Sun may experience a helium flash, resulting in its core becoming as bright as the combined luminosity of all the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. [111]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 7.5 billionEarth and Mars may become tidally locked with the expanding red giant Sun. [90]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 7.59 billionThe Earth and Moon are very likely destroyed by falling into the Sun, just before the Sun reaches the top of its red giant phase. [110] [note 3] Before the final collision, the Moon possibly spirals below Earth's Roche limit, breaking into a ring of debris, most of which falls to the Earth's surface. [112]

During this era, Saturn's moon Titan may reach surface temperatures necessary to support life. [113]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 7.9 billionThe Sun reaches the top of the red-giant branch of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, achieving its maximum radius of 256 times the present-day value. [114] In the process, Mercury, Venus, and Earth are likely destroyed. [110]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 8 billionThe Sun becomes a carbon–oxygen white dwarf with about 54.05% of its present mass. [110] [115] [116] [117] At this point, if the Earth survives, temperatures on the surface of the planet, as well as the other planets in the Solar System, will begin dropping rapidly, due to the white dwarf Sun emitting much less energy than it does today.
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 22.3 billionThe estimated time until the end of the universe in a Big Rip, assuming a model of dark energy with w = −1.5. [118] [119] If the density of dark energy is less than −1, then the Universe's expansion will continue to accelerate and the Observable Universe will grow ever sparser. Around 200 million years before the Big Rip, galaxy clusters like the Local Group or the Sculptor Group would be destroyed. Sixty million years before the Big Rip, all galaxies will begin to lose stars around their edges and will completely disintegrate in another 40 million years. Three months before the Big Rip, star systems will become gravitationally unbound, and planets will fly off into the rapidly expanding universe. Thirty minutes before the Big Rip, planets, stars, asteroids and even extreme objects like neutron stars and black holes will evaporate into atoms. One hundred zeptoseconds (10−19 seconds) before the Big Rip, atoms would break apart. Ultimately, once the Rip reaches the Planck scale, cosmic strings would be disintegrated as well as the fabric of spacetime itself. The universe would enter into a "rip singularity" when all non-zero distances become infinitely large. Whereas a "crunch singularity" involves all matter being infinitely concentrated, in a "rip singularity", all matter is infinitely spread out. [120] However, observations of galaxy cluster speeds by the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest that the true value of w is c. −0.991, meaning the Big Rip is unlikely to occur. [121]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 50 billionIf the Earth and Moon are not engulfed by the Sun, by this time they will become tidally locked, with each showing only one face to the other. [122] [123] Thereafter, the tidal action of the white dwarf Sun will extract angular momentum from the system, causing the lunar orbit to decay and the Earth's spin to accelerate. [124]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 65 billionThe Moon may collide with the Earth or be torn apart to form an orbital ring due to the decay of its orbit, assuming the Earth and Moon are not engulfed by the red giant Sun. [125]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100 billion–1012 (1 trillion)All the ≈47 galaxies [126] of the Local Group will coalesce into a single large galaxy—an expanded "Milkomeda"/"Milkdromeda"; the last galaxies of the Local Group coalescing will mark the effective completion of its evolution. [9]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 100–150 billionThe Universe's expansion causes all galaxies beyond the former Milky Way's former Local Group to disappear beyond the cosmic light horizon, removing them from the observable universe. [127] [128]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 150 billionThe universe will have expanded by a factor of 6,000, and the cosmic microwave background will have cooled by the same factor to around 4.5×10−4 K. The temperature of the background will continue to cool in proportion to the expansion of the universe. [128]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 325 billionThe estimated time by which the expansion of the universe isolates all gravitationally bound structures within their own cosmological horizon. At this point, the universe has expanded by a factor of more than 100 million from today, and even individual exiled stars are isolated. [129]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 800 billionThe expected time when the net light emission from the combined "Milkomeda" galaxy begins to decline as the red dwarf stars pass through their blue dwarf stage of peak luminosity. [130]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1012 (1 trillion)A low estimate for the time until star formation ends in galaxies as galaxies are depleted of the gas clouds they need to form stars. [9]

The Universe's expansion, assuming a constant dark energy density, multiplies the wavelength of the cosmic microwave background by 1029, exceeding the scale of the cosmic light horizon and rendering its evidence of the Big Bang undetectable. However, it may still be possible to determine the expansion of the universe through the study of hypervelocity stars. [127]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.05×1012 (1.05 trillion)The estimated time by which the Universe will have expanded by a factor of more than 1026, reducing the average particle density to less than one particle per cosmological horizon volume. Beyond this point, particles of unbound intergalactic matter are effectively isolated, and collisions between them cease to affect the future evolution of the Universe. [129]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.4×1012 (1.4 trillion)The estimated time by which the cosmic background radiation cools to a floor temperature of 10−30 K and does not decline further. This residual temperature comes from horizon radiation, which does not decline over time. [128]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 2×1012 (2 trillion)The estimated time by which all objects beyond our former Local Group are redshifted by a factor of more than 1053. Even gamma rays that they emit are stretched so that their wavelengths are greater than the physical diameter of the horizon. The resolution time for such radiation will exceed the physical age of the universe. [131]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 4×1012 (4 trillion)The estimated time until the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun at a distance of 4.25 light-years, leaves the main sequence and becomes a white dwarf. [132]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1013 (10 trillion)The estimated time of peak habitability in the universe, unless habitability around low-mass stars is suppressed. [133]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.2×1013 (12 trillion)The estimated time until the red dwarf VB 10, as of 2016 the least-massive main sequence star with an estimated mass of 0.075 M, runs out of hydrogen in its core and becomes a white dwarf. [134] [135]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 3×1013 (30 trillion)The estimated time for stars (including the Sun) to undergo a close encounter with another star in local stellar neighborhoods. Whenever two stars (or stellar remnants) pass close to each other, their planets' orbits can be disrupted, potentially ejecting them from the system entirely. On average, the closer a planet's orbit to its parent star the longer it takes to be ejected in this manner, because it is gravitationally more tightly bound to the star. [136]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1014 (100 trillion)A high estimate for the time by which normal star formation ends in galaxies. [9] This marks the transition from the Stelliferous Era to the Degenerate Era; with too little free hydrogen to form new stars, all remaining stars slowly exhaust their fuel and die. [137] By this time, the universe will have expanded by a factor of approximately 102554. [129]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.1–1.2×1014 (110–120 trillion)The time by which all stars in the universe will have exhausted their fuel (the longest-lived stars, low-mass red dwarfs, have lifespans of roughly 10–20 trillion years). [9] After this point, the stellar-mass objects remaining are stellar remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) and brown dwarfs.

Collisions between brown dwarfs will create new red dwarfs on a marginal level: on average, about 100 stars will be shining in what was once the Milky Way. Collisions between stellar remnants will create occasional supernovae. [9]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1015 (1 quadrillion)The estimated time until stellar close encounters detach all planets in star systems (including the Solar System) from their orbits. [9]

By this point, the Sun will have cooled to 5 K (−268.15 °C; −450.67 °F). [138]

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1019 to 1020
(10–100 quintillion)
The estimated time until 90–99% of brown dwarfs and stellar remnants (including the Sun) are ejected from galaxies. When two objects pass close enough to each other, they exchange orbital energy, with lower-mass objects tending to gain energy. Through repeated encounters, the lower-mass objects can gain enough energy in this manner to be ejected from their galaxy. This process eventually causes "Milkomeda"/"Milkdromeda" to eject the majority of its brown dwarfs and stellar remnants. [9] [139]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1020 (100 quintillion)The estimated time until the Earth collides with the black dwarf Sun due to the decay of its orbit via emission of gravitational radiation, [140] if the Earth is not ejected from its orbit by a stellar encounter or engulfed by the Sun during its red giant phase. [140]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1023 (100 sextillion)Around this timescale most stellar remnants and other objects are ejected from the remains of their galactic cluster. [141]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1030 (1 nonillion)The estimated time until most or all of the remaining 1–10% of stellar remnants not ejected from galaxies fall into their galaxies' central supermassive black holes. By this point, with binary stars having fallen into each other, and planets into their stars, via emission of gravitational radiation, only solitary objects (stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, ejected planetary-mass objects, black holes) will remain in the universe. [9]
Psi (greek letter).svg 2×1036 (2 undecillion)The estimated time for all nucleons in the observable universe to decay, if the hypothesized proton half-life takes its smallest possible value (8.2 × 1033 years). [142] [143] [note 4]
Psi (greek letter).svg 1036–1038 (1–100 undecillion)Estimated time for all remaining planets and stellar-mass objects, including the Sun, to disintegrate if proton decay can occur. [9]
Psi (greek letter).svg 3×1043 (30 tredecillion)Estimated time for all nucleons in the observable universe to decay, if the hypothesized proton half-life takes the largest possible value, 1041 years, [9] assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over anti-baryons in the early Universe makes protons decay. [143] [note 4] By this time, if protons do decay, the Black Hole Era, in which black holes are the only remaining celestial objects, begins. [9] [137]
Psi (greek letter).svg 3.14×1050 (314 quindecillion)The estimated time until a micro black hole of 1 Earth mass decays into subatomic particles by the emission of Hawking radiation. [144]
Psi (greek letter).svg 1065 (100 vigintillion)Assuming that protons do not decay, estimated time for rigid objects, from free-floating rocks in space to planets, to rearrange their atoms and molecules via quantum tunneling. On this timescale, any discrete body of matter "behaves like a liquid" and becomes a smooth sphere due to diffusion and gravity. [140]
Psi (greek letter).svg 1.16×1067 (11.6 unvigintillion)The estimated time until a black hole of 1 solar mass decays by Hawking radiation. [144]
Psi (greek letter).svg 1.54×1091–1.41×1092 (15.4 –141 novemvigintillion)The estimated time until the resulting supermassive black hole of "Milkomeda"/"Milkdromeda" from the merger of Sagittarius A* and the P2 concentration during the collision of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies [145] vanishes by Hawking radiation, [144] assuming it does not accrete any additional matter nor merge with other black holes—though it is most likely that this supermassive black hole will nonetheless merge with other supermassive black holes during the gravitational collapse towards "Milkomeda"/"Milkdromeda" of other Local Group galaxies. [146] This supermassive black hole might be the very last entity from the former Local Group to disappear—and the last evidence of its existence.
Psi (greek letter).svg 10106 – 2.1 × 10109The estimated time until supermassive black holes of 1014 (100 trillion) solar masses, predicted to form during the gravitational collapse of galaxy superclusters, [147] decay by Hawking radiation. [144] This marks the end of the Black Hole Era. Beyond this time, if protons do decay, the universe enters the Dark Era, in which all physical objects have decayed to subatomic particles, gradually winding down to their final energy state in the heat death of the universe. [9] [137]
Psi (greek letter).svg 10161A 2018 estimate of Standard Model lifetime before collapse of a false vacuum; 95% confidence interval is 1065 to 101383 years due in part to uncertainty about the top quark's mass. [148] [note 5]
Psi (greek letter).svg 10200The highest estimate for the time it would take for all nucleons in the observable universe to decay, if they do not decay via the above process, but instead through any one of many different mechanisms allowed in modern particle physics (higher-order baryon non-conservation processes, virtual black holes, sphalerons, etc.) on time scales of 1046 to 10200 years. [137]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 101100–32000The estimated time for black dwarfs of 1.2 solar masses or more to undergo supernovae as a result of slow siliconnickel iron fusion, as the declining electron fraction lowers their Chandrasekhar limit, assuming protons do not decay. [149]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 101500Assuming protons do not decay, estimated time until all baryonic matter in stellar remnants, planets, and planetary-mass objects has either fused together via muon-catalyzed fusion to form iron-56 or decayed from a higher mass element into iron-56 to form iron stars. [140]
Psi (greek letter).svg [note 6] [note 7] A low estimate for the time until all iron stars collapse via quantum tunnelling into black holes, assuming no proton decay or virtual black holes, and that Planck-scale black holes can exist. [140]

On this vast timescale, even ultra-stable iron stars will have been destroyed by quantum-tunnelling events. At this lower end of the timescale, iron stars decay directly to black holes, as this decay mode is much more favourable than decaying into a neutron star (which has an expected timescale of years), [140] and later decaying into a black hole. The subsequent evaporation of each resulting black hole into subatomic particles (a process lasting roughly 10100 years), and subsequent shift to the Dark Era is on these timescales instantaneous.

Psi (greek letter).svg [note 1] [note 7] [note 8] The estimated time for a Boltzmann brain to appear in the vacuum via a spontaneous entropy decrease. [11]
Psi (greek letter).svg [note 7] Highest estimate for the time until all iron stars collapse via quantum tunnelling into neutron stars or black holes, assuming no proton decay or virtual black holes, and that black holes below the Chandrasekhar mass cannot form directly. [140] On these timescales, neutron stars above the Chandrasekhar mass rapidly collapse into black holes, and black holes formed by these processes instantly evaporate into subatomic particles.

This is also the highest estimated possible time for the Black Hole Era (and subsequent Dark Era) to commence. Beyond this point, it is almost certain that the universe will be an almost pure vacuum, with all baryonic matter having decayed into subatomic particles, until it reaches its final energy state, assuming it does not happen before this time.

Psi (greek letter).svg [note 7] The highest estimate for the time it takes for the universe to reach its final energy state. [11]
Psi (greek letter).svg [note 1] [note 7] Around this vast timeframe, quantum tunnelling in any isolated patch of the universe could generate new inflationary events, resulting in new Big Bangs giving birth to new universes. [150]

(Because the total number of ways in which all the subatomic particles in the observable universe can be combined is , [151] [152] a number which, when multiplied by , disappears into the rounding error, this is also the time required for a quantum-tunnelled and quantum fluctuation-generated Big Bang to produce a new universe identical to our own, assuming that every new universe contained at least the same number of subatomic particles and obeyed laws of physics within the landscape predicted by string theory.) [153] [154]

Humanity and human constructs

To date five spacecraft ( Voyager 1 , Voyager 2 , Pioneer 10 , Pioneer 11 and New Horizons ) are on trajectories which will take them out of the Solar System and into interstellar space. Barring an extremely unlikely collision with some object, the craft should persist indefinitely. [155]

Key.svg Date or years from nowEvent
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1,000The SNAP-10A nuclear satellite, launched in 1965 to an orbit 700 km (430 mi) above Earth, will return to the surface. [156] [157]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 3183 CEThe Time Pyramid , a public art work started in 1993 at Wemding, Germany, is scheduled for completion. [158]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 2,000Maximum lifespan of the data films in Arctic World Archive, a repository which contains code of open-source projects on GitHub along with other data of historical interest, if stored in optimum conditions. [159]
Psi (greek letter).svg 10,000The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, for nuclear weapons waste, is planned to be protected until this time, with a "Permanent Marker" system designed to warn off visitors through both multiple languages (the six UN languages and Navajo) and through pictograms. [160] The Human Interference Task Force has provided the theoretical basis for United States plans for future nuclear semiotics. [161]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 10,000Planned lifespan of the Long Now Foundation's several ongoing projects, including a 10,000-year clock known as the Clock of the Long Now, the Rosetta Project, and the Long Bet Project. [162]

Estimated lifespan of the HD-Rosetta analog disc, an ion beam-etched writing medium on nickel plate, a technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and later commercialized. (The Rosetta Project uses this technology, named after the Rosetta Stone.)

Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 10,000Projected lifespan of Norway's Svalbard Global Seed Vault. [163]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 10,000Most probable estimated lifespan of technological civilization, according to Frank Drake's original formulation of the Drake equation. [164]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 10,000If globalization trends lead to panmixia, human genetic variation will no longer be regionalized, as the effective population size will equal the actual population size. [165]
Greek lc pi icon.svg 10,000Humanity has a 95% probability of being extinct by this date, according to Brandon Carter's formulation of the controversial Doomsday argument, which argues that half of the humans who will ever have lived have probably already been born. [166]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 20,000According to the glottochronology linguistic model of Morris Swadesh, future languages should retain just 1 out of 100 "core vocabulary" words on their Swadesh list compared to that of their current progenitors. [167]
Psi (greek letter).svg 24,110 Half-life of plutonium-239. [168] At this point the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the 2,600-square-kilometre (1,000 sq mi) area of Ukraine and Belarus left deserted by the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, will return to normal levels of radiation. [169]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 25,000The Arecibo message, a collection of radio data transmitted on 16 November 1974, reaches the distance of its destination, the globular cluster Messier 13. [170] This is the only interstellar radio message sent to such a distant region of the galaxy. There will be a 24-light-year shift in the cluster's position in the galaxy during the time it takes the message to reach it, but as the cluster is 168 light-years in diameter, the message will still reach its destination. [171] Any reply will take at least another 25,000 years from the time of its transmission (assuming no faster-than-light communication).
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 14 September 30,828 CEMaximum system time for 64-bit NTFS-based Windows operating system. [172]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 33,800 Pioneer 10 passes within 3.4 light-years of Ross 248. [173]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 42,200 Voyager 2 passes within 1.7 light-years of Ross 248. [173]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 44,100 Voyager 1 passes within 1.8 light-years of Gliese 445. [173]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 46,600 Pioneer 11 passes within 1.9 light-years of Gliese 445. [173]
Noun project 528.svg 50,000Estimated atmospheric lifetime of tetrafluoromethane, the most durable greenhouse gas. [174]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 90,300 Pioneer 10 passes within 0.76 light-years of HIP 117795. [173]
Noun project 528.svg 100,000+Time required to terraform Mars with an oxygen-rich breathable atmosphere, using only plants with solar efficiency comparable to the biosphere currently found on Earth. [175]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 100,000 – 1 millionEstimated time by which humanity could colonize our Milky Way galaxy and become capable of harnessing all the energy of the galaxy, assuming a velocity of 10% the speed of light. [176]
Psi (greek letter).svg 250,000The estimated minimum time at which the spent plutonium stored at New Mexico's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will cease to be radiologically lethal to humans. [177]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 13 September 275,760 CEMaximum system time for the JavaScript programming language. [178]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 492,300 Voyager 1 passes within 1.3 light-years of HD 28343. [173]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 1 millionEstimated lifespan of Memory of Mankind (MOM) self storage-style repository in Hallstatt salt mine in Austria, which stores information on inscribed tablets of stoneware. [179]

Planned lifespan of the Human Document Project being developed at the University of Twente in the Netherlands. [180]

Noun project 528.svg 1 millionCurrent glass objects in the environment will be decomposed. [181]

Various public monuments composed of hard granite will have eroded one metre, in a moderate climate, assuming a rate of 1 Bubnoff unit (1 mm in 1,000 years, or ≈1 inch in 25,000 years). [182]

Without maintenance, the Great Pyramid of Giza will erode into unrecognizability. [183]

On the Moon, Neil Armstrong's "one small step" footprint at Tranquility Base will erode by this time, along with those left by all twelve Apollo moonwalkers, due to the accumulated effects of space weathering. [97] [184] (Normal erosion processes active on Earth are not present due to the Moon's almost complete lack of atmosphere.)

Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1.2 million Pioneer 11 comes within 3 light-years of Delta Scuti. [173]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 2 million Pioneer 10 passes near the bright star Aldebaran. [185]
Butterfly icon (Noun Project).svg 2 millionVertebrate species separated for this long will generally undergo allopatric speciation. [186] Evolutionary biologist James W. Valentine predicted that if humanity has been dispersed among genetically isolated space colonies over this time, the galaxy will host an evolutionary radiation of multiple human species with a "diversity of form and adaptation that would astound us". [187] This would be a natural process of isolated populations, unrelated to potential deliberate genetic enhancement technologies.
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 4 million Pioneer 11 passes near one of the stars in the constellation Aquila. [185]
Noun project 528.svg 7.2 millionWithout maintenance, Mount Rushmore will erode into unrecognizability. [188]
Greek lc pi icon.svg 7.8 millionHumanity has a 95% probability of being extinct by this date, according to J. Richard Gott's formulation of the controversial Doomsday argument. [189]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 8 millionMost probable lifespan of Pioneer 10 plaque, before the etching is destroyed by poorly understood interstellar erosion processes. [190]

The LAGEOS satellites' orbits will decay, and they will re-enter Earth's atmosphere, carrying with them a message to any far future descendants of humanity, and a map of the continents as they are expected to appear then. [191]

Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 100 millionMaximal estimated lifespan of technological civilization, according to Frank Drake's original formulation of the Drake equation. [192]
Noun project 528.svg 100 millionFuture archaeologists should be able to identify an "Urban Stratum" of fossilized great coastal cities, mostly through the remains of underground infrastructure such as building foundations and utility tunnels. [193]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 1 billionEstimated lifespan of "Nanoshuttle memory device" using an iron nanoparticle moved as a molecular switch through a carbon nanotube, a technology developed at the University of California at Berkeley. [194]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1 billionEstimated lifespan of the two Voyager Golden Records, before the information stored on them is rendered unrecoverable. [195]

Estimated time for an astroengineering project to alter the Earth's orbit, compensating for the Sun's rising brightness and outward migration of the habitable zone, accomplished by repeated asteroid gravity assists. [196] [197]

Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 292,277,026,596 CE
(292 billion)
Numeric overflow in system time for 64-bit Unix systems. [198]
Five Pointed Star Solid.svg 1020 (100 quintillion)Estimated timescale for the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft to collide with a star (or stellar remnant). [173]
Simpleicons Interface user-male-black-silhouette.svg 3×10193×1021
(30 quintillion – 3 sextillion)
Estimated lifespan of "Superman memory crystal" data storage using femtosecond laser-etched nanostructures in glass, a technology developed at the University of Southampton, at an ambient temperature of 30 °C (86 °F; 303 K). [199] [200]

Graphical timelines

For graphical, logarithmic timelines of these events, see:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 This represents the time by which the event will most probably have happened. It may occur randomly at any time from the present.
  2. Units are short scale.
  3. This has been a tricky question for quite a while; see the 2001 paper by Rybicki, K. R. and Denis, C. However, according to the latest calculations, this happens with a very high degree of certainty.
  4. 1 2 Around 264 half-lives. Tyson et al. employ the computation with a different value for half-life.
  5. Manuscript was updated after publication; lifetime numbers are taken from the latest revision at https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.08124.
  6. is 1 followed by 1026 (100 septillion) zeroes.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Although listed in years for convenience, the numbers at this point are so vast that their digits would remain unchanged regardless of which conventional units they were listed in, be they nanoseconds or star lifespans.
  8. is 1 followed by 1050 (100 quindecillion) zeroes.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copernican principle</span> Principle that humans are not privileged observers of the universe

In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle states that humans, on the Earth or in the Solar System, are not privileged observers of the universe, that observations from the Earth are representative of observations from the average position in the universe. Named for Copernican heliocentrism, it is a working assumption that arises from a modified cosmological extension of Copernicus' argument of a moving Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cosmic microwave background</span> Trace radiation from the early universe

The cosmic microwave background is microwave radiation that fills all space in the observable universe. It is a remnant that provides an important source of data on the primordial universe. With a standard optical telescope, the background space between stars and galaxies is almost completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope detects a faint background glow that is almost uniform and is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum. The accidental discovery of the CMB in 1965 by American radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Exoplanet</span> Planet outside the Solar System

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. The first possible evidence of an exoplanet was noted in 1917 but was not recognized as such. The first confirmation of the detection occurred in 1992. A different planet, initially detected in 1988, was confirmed in 2003. As of 1 February 2024, there are 5,606 confirmed exoplanets in 4,136 planetary systems, with 889 systems having more than one planet. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to discover more exoplanets, and also much more about exoplanets, including composition, environmental conditions and potential for life.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Planet</span> Large, round non-stellar astronomical object

A planet is a large, rounded astronomical body that is neither a star nor its remnant. The best available theory of planet formation is the nebular hypothesis, which posits that an interstellar cloud collapses out of a nebula to create a young protostar orbited by a protoplanetary disk. Planets grow in this disk by the gradual accumulation of material driven by gravity, a process called accretion. The Solar System has at least eight planets: the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, and the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sun</span> Star at the center of the Solar System

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a massive, hot ball of plasma, inflated and heated by energy produced by nuclear fusion reactions at its core. Part of this internal energy is emitted from its surface as light, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation, providing most of the energy for life on Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Solar System</span> The Sun and objects orbiting it

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it. The largest of these objects are the eight planets, which in order from the Sun are four terrestrial planets ; two gas giants ; and two ice giants. The Solar System developed 4.6 billion years ago when a dense region of a molecular cloud collapsed, forming the Sun and a protoplanetary disc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jupiter</span> Fifth planet from the Sun

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, and slightly less than one one-thousandth the mass of the Sun. Jupiter orbits the Sun at a distance of 5.20 AU (778.5 Gm) with an orbital period of 11.86 years. Jupiter is the third brightest natural object in the Earth's night sky after the Moon and Venus, and it has been observed since prehistoric times. It was named after Jupiter, the chief deity of ancient Roman religion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Proxima Centauri</span> Star in the constellation Centaurus

Proxima Centauri is a small, low-mass star located 4.2465 light-years (1.3020 pc) away from the Sun in the southern constellation of Centaurus. Its Latin name means the 'nearest [star] of Centaurus'. It was discovered in 1915 by Robert Innes and is the nearest-known star to the Sun. With a quiescent apparent magnitude of 11.13, it is too faint to be seen with the unaided eye. Proxima Centauri is a member of the Alpha Centauri star system, being identified as component Alpha Centauri C, and is 2.18° to the southwest of the Alpha Centauri AB pair. It is currently 12,950 AU (0.2 ly) from AB, which it orbits with a period of about 550,000 years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Solar mass</span> Standard unit of mass in astronomy

The solar mass (M) is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately 2×1030 kg. It is approximately equal to the mass of the Sun. It is often used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as stellar clusters, nebulae, galaxies and black holes. This equates to about two nonillion (short scale), two quintillion (long scale) kilograms, 2000 quettagrams, or 2 quettakilograms:

In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is uniformly isotropic and homogeneous when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act equally throughout the universe on a large scale, and should, therefore, produce no observable inequalities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Observable universe</span> All of space observable from the Earth at the present

The observable universe is a ball-shaped region of the universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth or its space-based telescopes and exploratory probes at the present time; the electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach the Solar System and Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. Initially, it was estimated that there may be 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe. That number was reduced in 2021 to only several hundred billion based on data from New Horizons. Assuming the universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe is a spherical region centered on the observer. Every location in the universe has its own observable universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Habitable zone</span> Orbits where planets may have liquid surface water

In astronomy and astrobiology, the habitable zone (HZ), or more precisely the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure. The bounds of the HZ are based on Earth's position in the Solar System and the amount of radiant energy it receives from the Sun. Due to the importance of liquid water to Earth's biosphere, the nature of the HZ and the objects within it may be instrumental in determining the scope and distribution of planets capable of supporting Earth-like extraterrestrial life and intelligence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Milky Way</span> Galaxy containing the Solar System

The Milky Way is the galaxy that includes the Solar System, with the name describing the galaxy's appearance from Earth: a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye. The term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος, meaning "milky circle". From Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe. Following the 1920 Great Debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Doust Curtis, observations by Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gliese 876 b</span> Extrasolar planet orbiting Gliese 876

Gliese 876 b is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 876. It completes one orbit in approximately 61 days. Discovered in June 1998, Gliese 876 b was the first planet to be discovered orbiting a red dwarf.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Formation and evolution of the Solar System</span> Modelling its structure and composition

There is evidence that the formation of the Solar System began about 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Location of Earth</span> Knowledge of the location of Earth

Knowledge of the location of Earth has been shaped by 400 years of telescopic observations, and has expanded radically since the start of the 20th century. Initially, Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe, which consisted only of those planets visible with the naked eye and an outlying sphere of fixed stars. After the acceptance of the heliocentric model in the 17th century, observations by William Herschel and others showed that the Sun lay within a vast, disc-shaped galaxy of stars. By the 20th century, observations of spiral nebulae revealed that the Milky Way galaxy was one of billions in an expanding universe, grouped into clusters and superclusters. By the end of the 20th century, the overall structure of the visible universe was becoming clearer, with superclusters forming into a vast web of filaments and voids. Superclusters, filaments and voids are the largest coherent structures in the Universe that we can observe. At still larger scales the Universe becomes homogeneous, meaning that all its parts have on average the same density, composition and structure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ben Moore (astrophysicist)</span> American professor of astrophysics

Ben Moore is an English professor of astrophysics, author, musician, and director of the Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology at the University of Zürich. His research is focussed on cosmology, gravity, astroparticle physics, and planet formation. He has authored in excess of 200 scientific papers on the origin of planets and galaxies, as well as dark matter and dark energy. In his research, he simulates the universe using custom-built supercomputers.

References

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