Orbital eccentricity

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An elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic Kepler orbit:

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elliptic (eccentricity = 0.7)

parabolic (eccentricity = 1)

hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity = 1.3) Kepler orbits.svg
An elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic Kepler orbit:
  elliptic (eccentricity = 0.7)
  parabolic (eccentricity = 1)
  hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity = 1.3)
Elliptic orbit by eccentricity

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0.8 Animation of Orbital eccentricity.gif
Elliptic orbit by eccentricity
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The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a dimensionless parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette orbit through the galaxy.

Contents

Definition

Binary system orbit q=3 e=0.gif
e=0
Binary system orbit q=3 e=0.5.gif
e=0.5
Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e. (NB: + is barycentre)

In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit. The eccentricity of this Kepler orbit is a non-negative number that defines its shape.

The eccentricity may take the following values:

The eccentricity e is given by

where E is the total orbital energy, L is the angular momentum, mred is the reduced mass, and α the coefficient of the inverse-square law central force such as gravity or electrostatics in classical physics:

(α is negative for an attractive force, positive for a repulsive one; see also Kepler problem)

or in the case of a gravitational force:

where ε is the specific orbital energy (total energy divided by the reduced mass), μ the standard gravitational parameter based on the total mass, and h the specific relative angular momentum (angular momentum divided by the reduced mass).

For values of e from 0 to 1 the orbit's shape is an increasingly elongated (or flatter) ellipse; for values of e from 1 to infinity the orbit is a hyperbola branch making a total turn of 2 arccsc e, decreasing from 180 to 0 degrees. The limit case between an ellipse and a hyperbola, when e equals 1, is parabola.

Radial trajectories are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic based on the energy of the orbit, not the eccentricity. Radial orbits have zero angular momentum and hence eccentricity equal to one. Keeping the energy constant and reducing the angular momentum, elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits each tend to the corresponding type of radial trajectory while e tends to 1 (or in the parabolic case, remains 1).

For a repulsive force only the hyperbolic trajectory, including the radial version, is applicable.

For elliptical orbits, a simple proof shows that arcsin(⁠) yields the projection angle of a perfect circle to an ellipse of eccentricity e. For example, to view the eccentricity of the planet Mercury (e = 0.2056), one must simply calculate the inverse sine to find the projection angle of 11.86 degrees. Next, tilt any circular object (such as a coffee mug viewed from the top) by that angle and the apparent ellipse projected to your eye will be of that same eccentricity.

Etymology

The word "eccentricity" comes from Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ἔκκεντροςekkentros "out of the center", from ἐκ-ek-, "out of" + κέντρονkentron "center". "Eccentric" first appeared in English in 1551, with the definition "...a circle in which the earth, sun. etc. deviates from its center".[ citation needed ] By five years later, in 1556, an adjectival form of the word had developed.

Calculation

The eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from the orbital state vectors as the magnitude of the eccentricity vector:

where:

For elliptical orbits it can also be calculated from the periapsis and apoapsis since rp = a(1 − e) and ra = a(1 + e), where a is the semimajor axis.

where:

The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit can also be used to obtain the ratio of the periapsis to the apoapsis:

For Earth, orbital eccentricity ≈ 0.0167, apoapsis is aphelion, and periapsis is perihelion relative to sun.

For Earth's annual orbit path, ra/rp ratio = longest_radius / shortest_radius ≈ 1.034 relative to center point of path.

Examples

Gravity Simulator plot of the changing orbital eccentricity of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars over the next 50000 years. The arrows indicate the different scales used, as the eccentricities of Mercury and Mars are much greater than those of Venus and Earth. The 0 point on this plot is the year 2007. Eccentricity rocky planets.jpg
Gravity Simulator plot of the changing orbital eccentricity of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars over the next 50000 years. The arrows indicate the different scales used, as the eccentricities of Mercury and Mars are much greater than those of Venus and Earth. The 0 point on this plot is the year 2007.
Eccentricities of Solar System bodies
Objecteccentricity
Triton 0.00002
Venus 0.0068
Neptune 0.0086
Earth 0.0167
Titan 0.0288
Uranus 0.0472
Jupiter 0.0484
Saturn 0.0541
Moon 0.0549
1 Ceres 0.0758
4 Vesta 0.0887
Mars 0.0934
10 Hygiea 0.1146
Makemake 0.1559
Haumea 0.1887
Mercury 0.2056
2 Pallas 0.2313
Pluto 0.2488
3 Juno 0.2555
324 Bamberga 0.3400
Eris 0.4407
Nereid 0.7507
Sedna 0.8549
Halley's Comet 0.9671
Comet Hale-Bopp 0.9951
Comet Ikeya-Seki 0.9999
C/1980 E1 1.057
ʻOumuamua 1.20 [lower-alpha 1]
C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) 3.5 [lower-alpha 2]

The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is currently about 0.0167; the Earth's orbit is nearly circular. Venus and Neptune have even lower eccentricities. Over hundreds of thousands of years, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit varies from nearly 0.0034 to almost 0.058 as a result of gravitational attractions among the planets (see graph). [1]

The table lists the values for all planets and dwarf planets, and selected asteroids, comets, and moons. Mercury has the greatest orbital eccentricity of any planet in the Solar System (e = 0.2056). Such eccentricity is sufficient for Mercury to receive twice as much solar irradiation at perihelion compared to aphelion. Before its demotion from planet status in 2006, Pluto was considered to be the planet with the most eccentric orbit (e = 0.248). Other Trans-Neptunian objects have significant eccentricity, notably the dwarf planet Eris (0.44). Even further out, Sedna, has an extremely high eccentricity of 0.855 due to its estimated aphelion of 937 AU and perihelion of about 76 AU.

Most of the Solar System's asteroids have orbital eccentricities between 0 and 0.35 with an average value of 0.17. [2] Their comparatively high eccentricities are probably due to the influence of Jupiter and to past collisions.

The Moon's value is 0.0549, the most eccentric of the large moons of the Solar System. The four Galilean moons have eccentricity < 0.01. Neptune's largest moon Triton has an eccentricity of 1.6×10−5 (0.000016), [3] the smallest eccentricity of any known moon in the Solar System;[ citation needed ] its orbit is as close to a perfect circle as can be currently[ when? ] measured. However, smaller moons, particularly irregular moons, can have significant eccentricity, such as Neptune's third largest moon Nereid (0.75).

Comets have very different values of eccentricity. Periodic comets have eccentricities mostly between 0.2 and 0.7, [4] but some of them have highly eccentric elliptical orbits with eccentricities just below 1, for example, Halley's Comet has a value of 0.967. Non-periodic comets follow near-parabolic orbits and thus have eccentricities even closer to 1. Examples include Comet Hale–Bopp with a value of 0.995 [5] and comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) with a value of 1.000019. [6] As Hale–Bopp's value is less than 1, its orbit is elliptical and it will return. [5] Comet McNaught has a hyperbolic orbit while within the influence of the planets, [6] but is still bound to the Sun with an orbital period of about 105 years. [7] As of a 2010 Epoch, Comet C/1980 E1 has the largest eccentricity of any known hyperbolic comet with an eccentricity of 1.057, [8] and will leave the Solar System eventually.

ʻOumuamua is the first interstellar object found passing through the Solar System. Its orbital eccentricity of 1.20 indicates that ʻOumuamua has never been gravitationally bound to our sun. It was discovered 0.2 AU (30,000,000 km; 19,000,000 mi) from Earth and is roughly 200 meters in diameter. It has an interstellar speed (velocity at infinity) of 26.33 km/s (58,900 mph).

Mean eccentricity

The mean eccentricity of an object is the average eccentricity as a result of perturbations over a given time period. Neptune currently has an instant (current epoch) eccentricity of 0.0113, [9] but from 1800 to 2050 has a mean eccentricity of 0.00859. [10]

Climatic effect

Orbital mechanics require that the duration of the seasons be proportional to the area of the Earth's orbit swept between the solstices and equinoxes, so when the orbital eccentricity is extreme, the seasons that occur on the far side of the orbit (aphelion) can be substantially longer in duration. Today, northern hemisphere fall and winter occur at closest approach (perihelion), when the earth is moving at its maximum velocity—while the opposite occurs in the southern hemisphere. As a result, in the northern hemisphere, fall and winter are slightly shorter than spring and summer—but in global terms this is balanced with them being longer below the equator. In 2006, the northern hemisphere summer was 4.66 days longer than winter, and spring was 2.9 days longer than fall due to the Milankovitch cycles. [11] [12]

Apsidal precession also slowly changes the place in the Earth's orbit where the solstices and equinoxes occur. Note that this is a slow change in the orbit of the Earth, not the axis of rotation, which is referred to as axial precession (see Precession § Astronomy). Over the next 10,000 years, the northern hemisphere winters will become gradually longer and summers will become shorter. However, any cooling effect in one hemisphere is balanced by warming in the other, and any overall change will be counteracted by the fact that the eccentricity of Earth's orbit will be almost halved. [13] This will reduce the mean orbital radius and raise temperatures in both hemispheres closer to the mid-interglacial peak.

Exoplanets

Of the many exoplanets discovered, most have a higher orbital eccentricity than planets in our planetary system. Exoplanets found with low orbital eccentricity (near-circular orbits) are very close to their star and are tidally locked to the star. All eight planets in the Solar System have near-circular orbits. The exoplanets discovered show that the solar system, with its unusually low eccentricity, is rare and unique. [14] One theory attributes this low eccentricity to the high number of planets in the Solar System; another suggests it arose because of its unique asteroid belts. A few other multiplanetary systems have been found, but none resemble the Solar System. The Solar System has unique planetesimal systems, which led the planets to have near-circular orbits. Solar planetesimal systems include the asteroid belt, Hilda family, Kuiper belt, Hills cloud, and the Oort cloud. The exoplanet systems discovered have either no planetesimal systems or one very large one. Low eccentricity is needed for habitability, especially advanced life. [15] High multiplicity planet systems are much more likely to have habitable exoplanets. [16] [17] The grand tack hypothesis of the Solar System also helps understand its near-circular orbits and other unique features. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ʻOumuamua was never bound to the Sun.
  2. C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) was never bound to the Sun.

Related Research Articles

Orbit Orbital gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in outer space; circular or elliptical path of one object around another object

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the center of mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

Apsis Either of two extreme points in an objects orbit

Apsis denotes either of the two extreme points in the orbit of a planetary body about its primary body. The plural term, "apsides," usually implies both apsis points ; apsides can also refer to the distance of the extreme range of an object orbiting a host body. For example, the apsides of Earth's orbit of the Sun are two: the apsis for Earth's farthest point from the Sun, dubbed the aphelion; and the apsis for Earth's nearest point, the perihelion. .

Orbital period Time an astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

Orbital mechanics Field of classical mechanics concerned with the motion of spacecraft

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. The motion of these objects is usually calculated from Newton's laws of motion and law of universal gravitation. Orbital mechanics is a core discipline within space-mission design and control.

Orbital speed

In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if one object is much more massive than the other bodies in the system, its speed relative to the center of mass of the most massive body.

A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite payloads orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earth's atmosphere.

Earths orbit Trajectory of Earth around the Sun

Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of 149.60 million km, and one complete orbit takes 365.256 days, during which time Earth has traveled 940 million km. Ignoring the influence of other solar system bodies, Earth's orbit is an ellipse with the Earth-Sun barycenter as one focus and a current eccentricity of 0.0167; since this value is close to zero, the center of the orbit is close, relative to the size of the orbit, to the center of the Sun.

Parabolic trajectory

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1 and is an unbound orbit that is exactly on the border between elliptical and hyperbolic. When moving away from the source it is called an escape orbit, otherwise a capture orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as a C3 = 0 orbit (see Characteristic energy).

Hyperbolic trajectory

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull. The name derives from the fact that according to Newtonian theory such an orbit has the shape of a hyperbola. In more technical terms this can be expressed by the condition that the orbital eccentricity is greater than one.

Elliptic orbit

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0. In a stricter sense, it is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1. In a wider sense, it is a Kepler's orbit with negative energy. This includes the radial elliptic orbit, with eccentricity equal to 1.

In astrodynamics an orbit equation defines the path of orbiting body around central body relative to , without specifying position as a function of time. Under standard assumptions, a body moving under the influence of a force, directed to a central body, with a magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance, has an orbit that is a conic section with the central body located at one of the two foci, or the focus.

Apse line

An apse line, or line of apsides, is an imaginary line defined by an orbit's eccentricity vector. It is strictly defined for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits.

Flight dynamics (spacecraft) Application of mechanical dynamics to model the flight of space vehicles

Spacecraft flight dynamics is the application of mechanical dynamics to model how the external forces acting on a space vehicle or spacecraft determine its flight path. These forces are primarily of three types: propulsive force provided by the vehicle's engines; gravitational force exerted by the Earth and other celestial bodies; and aerodynamic lift and drag.

Bi-elliptic transfer

In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the bi-elliptic transfer is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another and may, in certain situations, require less delta-v than a Hohmann transfer maneuver.

Tidal heating Thermal effect of tidal forces

Tidal heating occurs through the tidal friction processes: orbital and rotational energy is dissipated as heat in either the surface ocean or interior of a planet or satellite. When an object is in an elliptical orbit, the tidal forces acting on it are stronger near periapsis than near apoapsis. Thus the deformation of the body due to tidal forces varies over the course of its orbit, generating internal friction which heats its interior. This energy gained by the object comes from its gravitational energy, so over time in a two-body system, the initial elliptical orbit decays into a circular orbit. Sustained tidal heating occurs when the elliptical orbit is prevented from circularizing due to additional gravitational forces from other bodies that keep tugging the object back into an elliptical orbit. In this more complex system, gravitational energy still is being converted to thermal energy; however, now the orbit's semimajor axis would shrink rather than its eccentricity.

Kepler orbit describes the motion of an orbiting body as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola

In celestial mechanics, a Kepler orbit is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space. A Kepler orbit can also form a straight line. It considers only the point-like gravitational attraction of two bodies, neglecting perturbations due to gravitational interactions with other objects, atmospheric drag, solar radiation pressure, a non-spherical central body, and so on. It is thus said to be a solution of a special case of the two-body problem, known as the Kepler problem. As a theory in classical mechanics, it also does not take into account the effects of general relativity. Keplerian orbits can be parametrized into six orbital elements in various ways.

Apsidal precession Rotation of a celestial bodys orbital line of apsides

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession is the precession of the line connecting the apsides of an astronomical body's orbit. The apsides are the orbital points closest (periapsis) and farthest (apoapsis) from its primary body. The apsidal precession is the first time derivative of the argument of periapsis, one of the six main orbital elements of an orbit. Apsidal precession is considered positive when the orbit's axis rotates in the same direction as the orbital motion. An apsidal period is the time interval required for an orbit to precess through 360°.

Semi-major and semi-minor axes semi-axis of an ellipse

In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.

This glossary of astronomy is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to astronomy and cosmology, their sub-disciplines, and related fields. Astronomy is concerned with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth. The field of astronomy features an extensive vocabulary and a significant amount of jargon.

References

  1. A. Berger & M.F. Loutre (1991). "Graph of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit". Illinois State Museum (Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years). Archived from the original on 6 January 2018.
  2. Asteroids Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  3. David R. Williams (22 January 2008). "Neptunian Satellite Fact Sheet". NASA.
  4. Lewis, John (2 December 2012). Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System. Academic Press. ISBN   9780323145848.
  5. 1 2 "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)" (2007-10-22 last obs). Retrieved 5 December 2008.
  6. 1 2 "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: C/2006 P1 (McNaught)" (2007-07-11 last obs). Retrieved 17 December 2009.
  7. "Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) – facts and figures". Perth Observatory in Australia. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011.
  8. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: C/1980 E1 (Bowell)" (1986-12-02 last obs). Retrieved 22 March 2010.
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  11. Data from United States Naval Observatory
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  13. Arizona U., Long Term Climate
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  17. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Planetesimals in Debris Disks, by Andrew N. Youdin and George H. Rieke, 2015
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  24. Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael; Sloan, David (August 2016). "Relative Likelihood for Life as a Function of Cosmic Time". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. 2016 (8): 040. arXiv: 1606.08448 . Bibcode:2016JCAP...08..040L. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/08/040.
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Further reading