Circle

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Circle
Circle-withsegments.svg
A circle (black), which is measured by its circumference (C), diameter (D) in cyan, and radius (R) in red; its centre (O) is in magenta.

A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, thecentre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted.

Contents

Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a disc.

A circle may also be defined as a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci are coincident and the eccentricity is 0, or the two-dimensional shape enclosing the most area per unit perimeter squared, using calculus of variations.

Euclid's definition

A circle is a plane figure bounded by one curved line, and such that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within it to the bounding line, are equal. The bounding line is called its circumference and the point, its centre.

Euclid, Elements , Book I [1] :4

Topological definition

In the field of topology, a circle isn't limited to the geometric concept, but to all of its homeomorphisms. Two topological circles are equivalent if one can be transformed into the other via a deformation of R3 upon itself (known as an ambient isotopy). [2]

Terminology

All of the specified regions may be considered as open, that is, not containing their boundaries, or as closed, including their respective boundaries.

Chord, secant, tangent, radius, and diameter CIRCLE LINES.svg
Chord, secant, tangent, radius, and diameter
Arc, sector, and segment Circle slices.svg
Arc, sector, and segment

History

The compass in this 13th-century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of Creation. Notice also the circular shape of the halo. God the Geometer.jpg
The compass in this 13th-century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of Creation. Notice also the circular shape of the halo.

The word circle derives from the Greek κίρκος/κύκλος (kirkos/kuklos), itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος (krikos), meaning "hoop" or "ring". [3] The origins of the words circus and circuit are closely related.

Circular piece of silk with Mongol images IlkhanateSilkCircular.jpg
Circular piece of silk with Mongol images
Circles in an old Arabic astronomical drawing. Shatir500.jpg
Circles in an old Arabic astronomical drawing.

The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. Natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, Sun, and a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand. The circle is the basis for the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern machinery possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry, astronomy and calculus.

Early science, particularly geometry and astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, and many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles. [4] [5]

Some highlights in the history of the circle are:

Tughrul Tower from inside Toghrol Tower looking up.jpg
Tughrul Tower from inside

Analytic results

Circumference

The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is π (pi), an irrational constant approximately equal to 3.141592654. Thus the circumference C is related to the radius r and diameter d by:

Area enclosed

Area enclosed by a circle = p x area of the shaded square Circle Area.svg
Area enclosed by a circle = π × area of the shaded square

As proved by Archimedes, in his Measurement of a Circle, the area enclosed by a circle is equal to that of a triangle whose base has the length of the circle's circumference and whose height equals the circle's radius, [8] which comes to π multiplied by the radius squared:

Equivalently, denoting diameter by d,

that is, approximately 79% of the circumscribing square (whose side is of length d).

The circle is the plane curve enclosing the maximum area for a given arc length. This relates the circle to a problem in the calculus of variations, namely the isoperimetric inequality.

Equations

Cartesian coordinates

Circle of radius r = 1, centre (a, b) = (1.2, -0.5) Circle center a b radius r.svg
Circle of radius r = 1, centre (a, b) = (1.2, −0.5)
Equation of a circle

In an xy Cartesian coordinate system, the circle with centre coordinates (a, b) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such that

This equation, known as the equation of the circle, follows from the Pythagorean theorem applied to any point on the circle: as shown in the adjacent diagram, the radius is the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle whose other sides are of length |xa| and |yb|. If the circle is centred at the origin (0, 0), then the equation simplifies to

Parametric form

The equation can be written in parametric form using the trigonometric functions sine and cosine as

where t is a parametric variable in the range 0 to 2π, interpreted geometrically as the angle that the ray from (a, b) to (x, y) makes with the positive x axis.

An alternative parametrisation of the circle is

In this parameterisation, the ratio of t to r can be interpreted geometrically as the stereographic projection of the line passing through the centre parallel to the x axis (see Tangent half-angle substitution). However, this parameterisation works only if t is made to range not only through all reals but also to a point at infinity; otherwise, the leftmost point of the circle would be omitted.

3-point form

The equation of the circle determined by three points not on a line is obtained by a conversion of the 3-point form of a circle equation:

Homogeneous form

In homogeneous coordinates, each conic section with the equation of a circle has the form

It can be proven that a conic section is a circle exactly when it contains (when extended to the complex projective plane) the points I(1: i: 0) and J(1: i: 0). These points are called the circular points at infinity.

Polar coordinates

In polar coordinates, the equation of a circle is

where a is the radius of the circle, are the polar coordinates of a generic point on the circle, and are the polar coordinates of the centre of the circle (i.e., r0 is the distance from the origin to the centre of the circle, and φ is the anticlockwise angle from the positive x axis to the line connecting the origin to the centre of the circle). For a circle centred on the origin, i.e. r0 = 0, this reduces to simply r = a. When r0 = a, or when the origin lies on the circle, the equation becomes

In the general case, the equation can be solved for r, giving

Note that without the ± sign, the equation would in some cases describe only half a circle.

Complex plane

In the complex plane, a circle with a centre at c and radius r has the equation

In parametric form, this can be written as

The slightly generalised equation

for real p, q and complex g is sometimes called a generalised circle. This becomes the above equation for a circle with , since . Not all generalised circles are actually circles: a generalised circle is either a (true) circle or a line.

Tangent lines

The tangent line through a point P on the circle is perpendicular to the diameter passing through P. If P = (x1, y1) and the circle has centre (a, b) and radius r, then the tangent line is perpendicular to the line from (a, b) to (x1, y1), so it has the form (x1a)x + (y1b)y = c. Evaluating at (x1, y1) determines the value of c, and the result is that the equation of the tangent is

or

If y1b, then the slope of this line is

This can also be found using implicit differentiation.

When the centre of the circle is at the origin, then the equation of the tangent line becomes

and its slope is

Properties

Chord

Tangent

Theorems

Secant-secant theorem Secant-Secant Theorem.svg
Secant–secant theorem

Inscribed angles

Inscribed-angle theorem Inscribed angle theorem.svg
Inscribed-angle theorem

An inscribed angle (examples are the blue and green angles in the figure) is exactly half the corresponding central angle (red). Hence, all inscribed angles that subtend the same arc (pink) are equal. Angles inscribed on the arc (brown) are supplementary. In particular, every inscribed angle that subtends a diameter is a right angle (since the central angle is 180°).

Sagitta

The sagitta is the vertical segment. Circle Sagitta.svg
The sagitta is the vertical segment.

The sagitta (also known as the versine) is a line segment drawn perpendicular to a chord, between the midpoint of that chord and the arc of the circle.

Given the length y of a chord and the length x of the sagitta, the Pythagorean theorem can be used to calculate the radius of the unique circle that will fit around the two lines:

Another proof of this result, which relies only on two chord properties given above, is as follows. Given a chord of length y and with sagitta of length x, since the sagitta intersects the midpoint of the chord, we know that it is a part of a diameter of the circle. Since the diameter is twice the radius, the "missing" part of the diameter is (2rx) in length. Using the fact that one part of one chord times the other part is equal to the same product taken along a chord intersecting the first chord, we find that (2rx)x = (y / 2)2. Solving for r, we find the required result.

Compass and straightedge constructions

There are many compass-and-straightedge constructions resulting in circles.

The simplest and most basic is the construction given the centre of the circle and a point on the circle. Place the fixed leg of the compass on the centre point, the movable leg on the point on the circle and rotate the compass.

Construction with given diameter

Construct a circle through points A, B and C by finding the perpendicular bisectors (red) of the sides of the triangle (blue). Only two of the three bisectors are needed to find the centre. Circunferencia 10.svg
Construct a circle through points A, B and C by finding the perpendicular bisectors (red) of the sides of the triangle (blue). Only two of the three bisectors are needed to find the centre.

Construction through three noncollinear points

Circle of Apollonius

Apollonius' definition of a circle: d1/d2 constant Apollonius circle definition labels.svg
Apollonius' definition of a circle: d1/d2 constant

Apollonius of Perga showed that a circle may also be defined as the set of points in a plane having a constant ratio (other than 1) of distances to two fixed foci, A and B. [12] [13] (The set of points where the distances are equal is the perpendicular bisector of segment AB, a line.) That circle is sometimes said to be drawn about two points.

The proof is in two parts. First, one must prove that, given two foci A and B and a ratio of distances, any point P satisfying the ratio of distances must fall on a particular circle. Let C be another point, also satisfying the ratio and lying on segment AB. By the angle bisector theorem the line segment PC will bisect the interior angle APB, since the segments are similar:

Analogously, a line segment PD through some point D on AB extended bisects the corresponding exterior angle BPQ where Q is on AP extended. Since the interior and exterior angles sum to 180 degrees, the angle CPD is exactly 90 degrees, i.e., a right angle. The set of points P such that angle CPD is a right angle forms a circle, of which CD is a diameter.

Second, see [14] :p.15 for a proof that every point on the indicated circle satisfies the given ratio.

Cross-ratios

A closely related property of circles involves the geometry of the cross-ratio of points in the complex plane. If A, B, and C are as above, then the circle of Apollonius for these three points is the collection of points P for which the absolute value of the cross-ratio is equal to one:

Stated another way, P is a point on the circle of Apollonius if and only if the cross-ratio [A, B; C, P] is on the unit circle in the complex plane.

Generalised circles

If C is the midpoint of the segment AB, then the collection of points P satisfying the Apollonius condition

 

is not a circle, but rather a line.

Thus, if A, B, and C are given distinct points in the plane, then the locus of points P satisfying the above equation is called a "generalised circle." It may either be a true circle or a line. In this sense a line is a generalised circle of infinite radius.

Inscription in or circumscription about other figures

In every triangle a unique circle, called the incircle, can be inscribed such that it is tangent to each of the three sides of the triangle. [15]

About every triangle a unique circle, called the circumcircle, can be circumscribed such that it goes through each of the triangle's three vertices. [16]

A tangential polygon, such as a tangential quadrilateral, is any convex polygon within which a circle can be inscribed that is tangent to each side of the polygon. [17] Every regular polygon and every triangle is a tangential polygon.

A cyclic polygon is any convex polygon about which a circle can be circumscribed, passing through each vertex. A well-studied example is the cyclic quadrilateral. Every regular polygon and every triangle is a cyclic polygon. A polygon that is both cyclic and tangential is called a bicentric polygon.

A hypocycloid is a curve that is inscribed in a given circle by tracing a fixed point on a smaller circle that rolls within and tangent to the given circle.

Limiting case of other figures

The circle can be viewed as a limiting case of each of various other figures:

In other p-norms

Illustrations of unit circles (see also superellipse) in different p-norms (every vector from the origin to the unit circle has a length of one, the length being calculated with length-formula of the corresponding p). Vector-p-Norms qtl1.svg
Illustrations of unit circles (see also superellipse) in different p-norms (every vector from the origin to the unit circle has a length of one, the length being calculated with length-formula of the corresponding p).

Defining a circle as the set of points with a fixed distance from a point, different shapes can be considered circles under different definitions of distance. In p-norm, distance is determined by

In Euclidean geometry, p = 2, giving the familiar

In taxicab geometry, p = 1. Taxicab circles are squares with sides oriented at a 45° angle to the coordinate axes. While each side would have length using a Euclidean metric, where r is the circle's radius, its length in taxicab geometry is 2r. Thus, a circle's circumference is 8r. Thus, the value of a geometric analog to is 4 in this geometry. The formula for the unit circle in taxicab geometry is in Cartesian coordinates and

in polar coordinates.

A circle of radius 1 (using this distance) is the von Neumann neighborhood of its center.

A circle of radius r for the Chebyshev distance (L metric) on a plane is also a square with side length 2r parallel to the coordinate axes, so planar Chebyshev distance can be viewed as equivalent by rotation and scaling to planar taxicab distance. However, this equivalence between L1 and L metrics does not generalize to higher dimensions.

Squaring the circle

Squaring the circle is the problem, proposed by ancient geometers, of constructing a square with the same area as a given circle by using only a finite number of steps with compass and straightedge.

In 1882, the task was proven to be impossible, as a consequence of the Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem, which proves that pi (π) is a transcendental number, rather than an algebraic irrational number; that is, it is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients.

Significance in art and symbolism

From the time of the earliest known civilisations – such as the Assyrians and ancient Egyptians, those in the Indus Valley and along the Yellow River in China, and the Western civilisations of ancient Greece and Rome during classical Antiquity – the circle has been used directly or indirectly in visual art to convey the artist’s message and to express certain ideas. However, differences in worldview (beliefs and culture) had a great impact on artists’ perceptions. While some emphasised the circle’s perimeter to demonstrate their democratic manifestation, others focused on its centre to symbolise the concept of cosmic unity. In mystical doctrines, the circle mainly symbolises the infinite and cyclical nature of existence, but in religious traditions it represents heavenly bodies and divine spirits. The circle signifies many sacred and spiritual concepts, including unity, infinity, wholeness, the universe, divinity, balance, stability and perfection, among others. Such concepts have been conveyed in cultures worldwide through the use of symbols, for example, a compass, a halo, the vesica piscis and its derivatives (fish, eye, aureole, mandorla, etc.), the ouroboros, the Dharma wheel, a rainbow, mandalas, rose windows and so forth. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

Ellipse Plane curve: conic section

In mathematics, an ellipse is a plane curve surrounding two focal points, such that for all points on the curve, the sum of the two distances to the focal points is a constant. As such, it generalizes a circle, which is the special type of ellipse in which the two focal points are the same. The elongation of an ellipse is measured by its eccentricity , a number ranging from to .

Hyperbola Plane curve: conic section

In mathematics, a hyperbola is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, called connected components or branches, that are mirror images of each other and resemble two infinite bows. The hyperbola is one of the three kinds of conic section, formed by the intersection of a plane and a double cone. If the plane intersects both halves of the double cone but does not pass through the apex of the cones, then the conic is a hyperbola.

Parabola Plane curve: conic section

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves.

Sphere geometrical object that is the surface of a ball

A sphere is a geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a ball.

Tangent In mathematics, straight line touching a plane curve without crossing it

In geometry, the tangent line to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. More precisely, a straight line is said to be a tangent of a curve y = f(x) at a point x = c if the line passes through the point (c, f ) on the curve and has slope f'(c), where f' is the derivative of f. A similar definition applies to space curves and curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space.

Perpendicular Relationship between two lines that meet at a right angle (90 degrees)

In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle. The property extends to other related geometric objects.

Incircle and excircles of a triangle Circles tangent to all three sides of a triangle

In geometry, the incircle or inscribed circle of a triangle is the largest circle contained in the triangle; it touches the three sides. The center of the incircle is a triangle center called the triangle's incenter.

In geometry, inversive geometry is the study of inversion, a transformation of the Euclidean plane that maps circles or lines to other circles or lines and that preserves the angles between crossing curves. Many difficult problems in geometry become much more tractable when an inversion is applied.

Poincaré half-plane model Upper-half plane model of hyperbolic non-Euclidean geometry

In non-Euclidean geometry, the Poincaré half-plane model is the upper half-plane, denoted below as H, together with a metric, the Poincaré metric, that makes it a model of two-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

Concyclic points

In geometry, a set of points are said to be concyclic if they lie on a common circle. All concyclic points are at the same distance from the center of the circle. Three points in the plane that do not all fall on a straight line are concyclic, but four or more such points in the plane are not necessarily concyclic.

Cardioid

A cardioid is a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same radius. It can also be defined as an epicycloid having a single cusp. It is also a type of sinusoidal spiral, and an inverse curve of the parabola with the focus as the center of inversion.

Pedal curve

The pedal curve results from the orthogonal projection of a fixed point on the tangent lines of a given curve. More precisely, for a plane curve C and a given fixed pedal pointP, the pedal curve of C is the locus of points X so that the line PX is perpendicular to a tangent T to the curve passing through the point X. Conversely, at any point R on the curve C, let T be the tangent line at that point R; then there is a unique point X on the tangent T which forms with the pedal point P a line perpendicular to the tangent T – the pedal curve is the set of such points X, called the foot of the perpendicular to the tangent T from the fixed point P, as the variable point R ranges over the curve C.

Ultraparallel theorem

In hyperbolic geometry, two lines may intersect, be ultraparallel, or be limiting parallel.

Circumscribed circle Circle that passes through all the vertices of a polygon

In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle that passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of this circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius.

Radical axis

In geometry, the radical axis of two non-concentric circles is a line defined from the two circles, perpendicular to the line connecting the centers of the circles. If the circles cross, their radical axis is the line through their two crossing points, and if they are tangent, it is their line of tangency. For two disjoint circles, the radical axis is the locus of points at which tangents drawn to both circles have equal lengths.

Beltrami–Klein model

In geometry, the Beltrami–Klein model, also called the projective model, Klein disk model, and the Cayley–Klein model, is a model of hyperbolic geometry in which points are represented by the points in the interior of the unit disk and lines are represented by the chords, straight line segments with ideal endpoints on the boundary sphere.

Circular arc

A circular arc is the arc of a circle between a pair of distinct points. If the two points are not directly opposite each other, one of these arcs, the minor arc, will subtend an angle at the centre of the circle that is less than π radians, and the other arc, the major arc, will subtend an angle greater than π radians.

Homothetic center

In geometry, a homothetic center is a point from which at least two geometrically similar figures can be seen as a dilation or contraction of one another. If the center is external, the two figures are directly similar to one another; their angles have the same rotational sense. If the center is internal, the two figures are scaled mirror images of one another; their angles have the opposite sense.

In Euclidean plane geometry, a tangent line to a circle is a line that touches the circle at exactly one point, never entering the circle's interior. Tangent lines to circles form the subject of several theorems, and play an important role in many geometrical constructions and proofs. Since the tangent line to a circle at a point P is perpendicular to the radius to that point, theorems involving tangent lines often involve radial lines and orthogonal circles.

Poincaré disk model

In geometry, the Poincaré disk model, also called the conformal disk model, is a model of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which the points of the geometry are inside the unit disk, and the straight lines consist of all circular arcs contained within that disk that are orthogonal to the boundary of the disk, plus all diameters of the disk.

References

  1. OL   7227282M
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  12. Harkness, James (1898). "Introduction to the theory of analytic functions". Nature. 59 (1530): 30. Bibcode:1899Natur..59..386B. doi:10.1038/059386a0. Archived from the original on 2008-10-07.
  13. Ogilvy, C. Stanley, Excursions in Geometry, Dover, 1969, 14–17.
  14. Altshiller-Court, Nathan, College Geometry, Dover, 2007 (orig. 1952).
  15. Incircle – from Wolfram MathWorld Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine . Mathworld.wolfram.com (2012-04-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-03.
  16. Circumcircle – from Wolfram MathWorld Archived 2012-01-20 at the Wayback Machine . Mathworld.wolfram.com (2012-04-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-03.
  17. Tangential Polygon – from Wolfram MathWorld Archived 2013-09-03 at the Wayback Machine . Mathworld.wolfram.com (2012-04-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-03.
  18. Jean-François Charnier, "The Circle from East to West", The Louvre Abu Dhabi: A World Vision of Art, October 29, 2019

Further reading