1863

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1863 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1863
MDCCCLXIII
Ab urbe condita 2616
Armenian calendar 1312
ԹՎ ՌՅԺԲ
Assyrian calendar 6613
Baháʼí calendar 19–20
Balinese saka calendar 1784–1785
Bengali calendar 1270
Berber calendar 2813
British Regnal year 26  Vict. 1   27  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2407
Burmese calendar 1225
Byzantine calendar 7371–7372
Chinese calendar 壬戌年 (Water  Dog)
4559 or 4499
     to 
癸亥年 (Water  Pig)
4560 or 4500
Coptic calendar 1579–1580
Discordian calendar 3029
Ethiopian calendar 1855–1856
Hebrew calendar 5623–5624
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1919–1920
 - Shaka Samvat 1784–1785
 - Kali Yuga 4963–4964
Holocene calendar 11863
Igbo calendar 863–864
Iranian calendar 1241–1242
Islamic calendar 1279–1280
Japanese calendar Bunkyū 3
(文久3年)
Javanese calendar 1791–1792
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4196
Minguo calendar 49 before ROC
民前49年
Nanakshahi calendar 395
Thai solar calendar 2405–2406
Tibetan calendar 阳水狗年
(male Water-Dog)
1989 or 1608 or 836
     to 
阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1990 or 1609 or 837

1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1863rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 863rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 63rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1863, the Gregorian calendar was 12days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

Events

January 8: First transcontinental railroad Transcontinental railroad route.png
January 8: First transcontinental railroad

January–March

February 7: HMS Orpheus sinks. HMS Orpheus.jpg
February 7: HMS Orpheus sinks.

AprilJune

May 17: Manet's Le dejeuner sur l'herbe exhibited. Edouard Manet - Luncheon on the Grass - Google Art Project.jpg
May 17: Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe exhibited.

JulySeptember

July: Battle of Gettysburg. Battle of Gettysburg.jpg
July: Battle of Gettysburg.

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryMarch

Helen Dortch Longstreet Helen Dortch Longstreet.jpg
Helen Dortch Longstreet

AprilJune

JulySeptember

Hugo Winckler Winckler, Hugo.jpg
Hugo Winckler
Amelie Rives Troubetzkoy Amelie Rives 001.jpg
Amélie Rives Troubetzkoy
Henry Ford Henry ford 1919.jpg
Henry Ford
Carlos I of Portugal King Carlos I of Portugal - National Portrait Gallery.png
Carlos I of Portugal

OctoberDecember

Edvard Munch Edvard Munch 1921.jpg
Edvard Munch

Date unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Antonio Valero de Bernabe Antonio Valero Bernabe.gif
Antonio Valero de Bernabé

JulyDecember

Eugene Delacroix Felix Nadar 1820-1910 portraits Eugene Delacroix restored.jpg
Eugène Delacroix
Jacob Grimm JacobGrimm.jpg
Jacob Grimm

In fiction

Related Research Articles

1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1861st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 861st year of the 2nd millennium, the 61st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1861, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1862 (MDCCCLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1862nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 862nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1862, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Army of the Tennessee</span> Unit of the Union Army during the American Civil War

The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Army of the Cumberland</span> Principal Union army unit in the Western Theater of the American Civil War

The Army of the Cumberland was one of the principal Union armies in the Western Theater during the American Civil War. It was originally known as the Army of the Ohio.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Turning point of the American Civil War</span> Overview about the turning point of the American Civil War

There is widespread disagreement among historians about the turning point of the American Civil War. A turning point in this context is an event that occurred during the conflict after which most modern scholars would agree that the eventual outcome was inevitable. While the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 is the event most widely cited as the military climax of the American Civil War, there were several other decisive battles and events throughout the war which have been proposed as turning points. These events are presented here in chronological order. Only the positive arguments for each are given.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gordon Granger</span> American military officer (1821–1876)

Gordon Granger was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War, where he distinguished himself at the Battle of Chickamauga.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">XVII Corps (Union Army)</span> Division of the Union Army during the American Civil War

XVII Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was organized December 18, 1862 as part of Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee. It was most notably commanded by Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson and Maj. Gen. Francis P. Blair II, and served in the Western Theater.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Troop engagements of the American Civil War, 1863</span>

The following engagements took place in the year 1863 during the American Civil War. During the year, Union forces captured the Confederate cities of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, giving them complete control over the Mississippi River, while forcing Confederates out of the North following the Battle of Gettysburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Ringgold Gap</span> Battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Ringgold Gap was fought November 27, 1863, outside the town of Ringgold, Georgia, by the Confederate and Union armies during the American Civil War. Part of the Chattanooga Campaign, it followed a heavy Confederate loss at the Battle of Missionary Ridge from which General Braxton Bragg's artillery and wagon trains were forced to retreat south. The five hour Battle of Ringgold Gap resulted in the Confederate victory of Major General Patrick R. Cleburne and gave the Army of Tennessee safe passage to retreat through the Ringgold Gap mountain pass.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western theater of the American Civil War</span> American Civil War area of operations

The western theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River. Operations on the coasts of these states, except for Mobile Bay, are considered part of the Lower Seaboard Theater. Most other operations east of the Appalachian Mountains are part of the eastern theater. Operations west of the Mississippi River took place in the trans-Mississippi theater.

The Mississippi River campaigns, within the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War, were a series of military actions by the Union Army during which Union troops, helped by Union Navy gunboats and river ironclads, took control of the Cumberland River, the Tennessee River, and the Mississippi River, a main north-south avenue of transport.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Knoxville campaign</span> 1863 campaign in the American Civil War

The Knoxville campaign was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863 designed to secure control of the city of Knoxville and with it the railroad that linked the Confederacy east and west, and position the First Corps under Longstreet for return to the Army of Northern Virginia. Union Army forces under Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside occupied Knoxville, Tennessee, and Confederate States Army forces under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet were detached from Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee at Chattanooga to prevent Burnside's reinforcement of the besieged Federal forces there. Ultimately, Longstreet's Siege of Knoxville ended when Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman led elements of the Army of the Tennessee and other troops to Burnside's relief after Union troops had broken the Confederate siege of Chattanooga. Although Longstreet was one of Gen. Robert E. Lee's best corps commanders in the East in the Army of Northern Virginia, he was unsuccessful in his attempt to penetrate the Knoxville defenses and take the city.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the American Civil War:

Events from the year 1862 in the United States.

Events from the year 1863 in the United States.

Events from the year 1864 in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulysses S. Grant and the American Civil War</span> Wartime career of the prominent Union General.

Ulysses S. Grant was the most acclaimed Union general during the American Civil War and was twice elected president. Grant began his military career as a cadet at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1839. After graduation he went on to serve with distinction as a lieutenant in the Mexican–American War. Grant was a keen observer of the war and learned battle strategies serving under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. After the war Grant served at various posts especially in the Pacific Northwest; he was forced to retire from the service in 1854 due to accusations of drunkenness. He was unable to make a success of farming and on the onset of the Civil War in April 1861, Grant was working as a clerk in his father's leather goods store in Galena, Illinois. When the war began his military experience was needed, and Congressman Elihu B. Washburne became his patron in political affairs and promotions in Illinois and nationwide.

1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1864th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 864th year of the 2nd millennium, the 64th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1864, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Chattanooga, Tennessee, was a major rail center and a strategic vantage-point, with high ground competed-for by both sides. When Union forces were besieged in the town, General Ulysses S. Grant forced a supply-route, earning him Lincoln's particular gratitude.

References

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further reading