1860s Last updated January 13, 2019
1860s was the ten-year period from the years 1860 to 1869.
abolition of Slavery in the United States led to the breakdown of the Atlantic slave trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and 1830s. In the United States, civil war between the Confederate States of America and the Union states led to massive deaths and the destruction of cities such as Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Richmond, Virginia; and Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman's March to the Sea was one of the first times America experienced total war, and advancements in military technology, such as iron and steel warships, and the development and initial deployment of early machine guns added to the destruction. After the American Civil War, turmoil continued in the Reconstruction era, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and the issue of granting Civil Rights to Freedmen. Politics and wars Emperor Maximilian being executed (1867), marking the end of the Second Mexican Empire Wars French occupation of Mexico (1863–1867). Replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez (1861–1863) at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (1863–1864) and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico (1864–1867) with the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire. Juárez eventually manages to recover his position (1867–1872). On 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865.  The Paraguayan War (1864–1870) starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance ( Empire of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). It will kill almost 60% of the country's population. The main phase of the New Zealand Wars between British colonials and the Māori population begins with the First Taranaki War in 1860. The most significant campaign is the Invasion of Waikato in 1863, which sees some 14,000 British and colonial troops engaged. The Kingdom of Prussia under Bismarck invaded Denmark in 1864, which ended in the division of Schleswig, the location of a pro-German revolt, between Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Though Prussia and Austria had both fought side by side in this war, Prussia later attacked Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. The technological and logistical superiority of Prussia's armed forces obliterated Austria and its allies, the former also having to deal with Prussia's ally Italy in Venice. By the end of these conflicts, Prussia was seen as the most powerful state in Germany, and had total hegemony over the other German states. The NGF was formed after the Austro-Prussian war, uniting the states of north Germany, and Prussia soon led it into another conflict with France. The Bhutan War between the British Empire and Bhutan lasted from 1864 to 1865. It ended in a British victory and the loss of some Bhutanese territory to British India. Prominent political events Science and technology Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Sweden, patenting it in 1867 The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is completed in 1869. The Suez Canal in Egypt is opened in 1869. The , the first mechanically powered Plongeur submarine in the world, is launched in 1863 after three years of construction. Carl Wilhelm Borchardt discovers and proves Cayley's formula in graph theory in 1860. The first transatlantic telegraph cable is successfully laid in 1866, enabling almost instant communication between America and Europe. Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Sweden, patenting it in 1867. James Clerk Maxwell publishes his equations that quantify the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and shows that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation Joseph Lister develops antiseptic methods for use in surgery in 1867, introducing carbolic acid as an antiseptic, turning it into the first widely used surgical antiseptic in surgery, and publishing . As a result, deaths from infections due to surgery greatly decrease. Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery  Gregor Mendel formulates Mendel's laws of inheritance, the basis for genetics, in a two-part paper written in 1865 and published in 1866, although it is largely ignored until 1900. Dmitri Mendeleev develops the modern periodic table Helium was first detected during the total solar eclipse of August 18, 1868, in parts of India. It was the first eclipse expedition in which a spectroscope was used. J. Norman Lockyer and Pierre Janssen are honored for their discovery of the nature of the Sun's prominences. They were the first to notice bright spectral emission lines when viewing the limb of the Sun without the aid of a total solar eclipse. 1862 International Exhibition in London, England and 1867 International Exposition in Paris. Popular culture Fashion The Victorian era and its culture largely thrived from 1860 until 1901. The culture of the Victorian era comes to America and remains in place until around the turn of the 20th century, where the year it ends is disputed as to whether it ended with the rise of progressivism in 1896 or with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. People Famous and infamous personalities Further reading Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events: 1861 (1864) online . New York: D. Appleton & Company. 1863. p. Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year: 1862 i. , thorough coverage of the events of 1863 Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 3 1863 (1864) The American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1867 American Annual Cyclopedia (1869), ... 1868 online American Annual Cyclopedia (1870) ... for 1869 online edition External links
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