1890s

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The 1890s was the ten-year period from the years 1890 to 1899.

1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1890th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 890th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1890, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1899th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 899th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1899, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

In the United States, the 1890s were marked by a severe economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893, as well as several strikes in the industrial workforce. The decade saw much of the development of the automobile.

Panic of 1893 financial crisis

The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897. It deeply affected every sector of the economy, and produced political upheaval that led to the realigning election of 1896 and the presidency of William McKinley.

Strike action work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work

Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage, caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were quickly made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries.

History of the automobile aspect of history

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences.

The period was sometimes referred to as the "Mauve Decade" [1] – because William Henry Perkin's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion – and also as the "Gay Nineties", referring to the fact that it was full of merriment and optimism. The phrase, "The Gay Nineties," was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding[ citation needed ] to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty.

Mauve mauve colour

Mauve is a pale purple color named after the mallow flower. The first use of the word mauve as a color was in 1796–98 according to the Oxford English Dictionary, but its use seems to have been rare before 1859. Another name for the color is mallow, with the first recorded use of mallow as a color name in English in 1611.

Aniline chemical compound

Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds.

The Gay Nineties is an American nostalgic term and a periodization of the history of the United States referring to the decade of the 1890s. It is known in the United Kingdom as the Naughty Nineties, and refers there to the decade of supposedly decadent art of Aubrey Beardsley, the witty plays and trial of Oscar Wilde, society scandals and the beginning of the suffragette movement.

Overview

World empires and colonies in 1898 (just before the Spanish-American War, Boxer Rebellion and Boer War)
Britain
French
Spain
Portugal
Netherlands
Germany
Ottoman Empire
Belgium
Russia
Japan
Qing Empire (China)
Austro-Hungary
Denmark
Sweden-Norway
United States
Italy
Other nations World 1898 empires colonies territory.png
World empires and colonies in 1898 (just before the Spanish–American War, Boxer Rebellion and Boer War)
  Britain
  French
  Spain
  Portugal
  Netherlands
  Germany
  Ottoman Empire
  Belgium
  Russia
  Japan
  Qing Empire (China)
  Austro-Hungary
  Denmark
  Sweden-Norway
  United States
  Italy
  Other nations

Politics and wars

Wars

Spanish-American War Infobox collage for Spanish-American War.jpg
Spanish–American War
First Franco-Dahomean War

The First Franco-Dahomean War, which raged in 1890, was a conflict between France, led by General Alfred-Amédée Dodds, and the Dahomey under King Béhanzin. The French emerged triumphant after winning the Battle of Abomey.

Second Franco-Dahomean War

The Second Franco-Dahomean War, which raged from 1892 to 1894, was a major conflict between the French Third Republic, led by General Alfred-Amédée Dodds, and the Kingdom of Dahomey under King Béhanzin. The French emerged triumphant and incorporated Dahomey into their growing colonial territory of French West Africa.

First Sino-Japanese War war (1894–1895) between the Qing dynasty and the Empire of Japan over influence in Joseon, fought chiefly in Joseon

The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between China and Japan primarily over influence in Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.

Internal conflicts

Wounded Knee Massacre massacre

The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota.

South Dakota State of the United States of America

South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 183,200, is South Dakota's largest city.

Hotchkiss gun guns from Hotchkiss arms company

The Hotchkiss gun can refer to different products of the Hotchkiss arms company starting in the late 19th century. It usually refers to the 1.65-inch (42 mm) light mountain gun; there were also a navy (47 mm) and a 3-inch (76 mm) Hotchkiss guns. The 42 mm gun was intended to be mounted on a light carriage or packed on two mules to accompany a troop of cavalry or an army travelling in rough country.

Prominent political events

Dreyfus affair - Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged, 5 January 1895. Degradation alfred dreyfus.jpg
Dreyfus affair – Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged, 5 January 1895.
Irish nationalism Political ideology asserting the nationhood of the Irish people and their right to sovereignty on the island of Ireland

Irish nationalism is a nationalist ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation and espouses the creation of a sovereign Irish nation-state on the island of Ireland. It grew more potent during the period in which the whole of Ireland was part of United Kingdom, which ultimately lead to most of the island seceding from the UK in 1921. Politically, Irish nationalism gave way to many factions which created conflict, often violent, throughout the island. The chief division affecting nationalism in Ireland was religious. The majority of the island's population was Roman Catholic, which is the part that seceded, but a portion of the northern part has a Protestant majority that elected to stay a part of the United Kingdom. Since the partition of Ireland, the term Irish nationalism often refers to support for the island's unification. Irish nationalists assert that foreign rule has been detrimental to Irish national interests. Irish nationalism also speaks to celebration of the culture of Ireland, especially the Irish language, literature, music and sports.

Charles Stewart Parnell Irish politician

Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish nationalist politician who served from 1875 as Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and whose party held the balance of power in the House of Commons during the Home Rule debates of 1885-1890.

Dreyfus affair sociopolitical controversy in France where an Alsatian Jew was falsely convicted of treason

The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair is often seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice, and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The major role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the lasting social conflict.

Economics

A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek. Klondike mining camp.jpg
A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek.

Other significant international events

World's Columbian Exposition, 1893 Looking West From Peristyle, Court of Honor and Grand Basin, 1893.jpg
World's Columbian Exposition, 1893

Science and technology

Technology

1895 Benz Velo. Along with its contemporary Duryea Motor Wagon, those vehicles were considered the earliest standardized cars. The 1890s also saw further developments in the history of the automobile. Benz-velo.jpg
1895 Benz Velo. Along with its contemporary Duryea Motor Wagon, those vehicles were considered the earliest standardized cars. The 1890s also saw further developments in the history of the automobile.
Panhard-Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal Panhard-levassor.jpg
Panhard-Levassor (1890–1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues. KinetographKayser2bis.jpg
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.

Science

Literature and arts

First edition cover of The Time Machine (1895) Timemachinebook.JPG
First edition cover of The Time Machine (1895)

Film

Music

Sports

1896 saw the first edition of the modern Olympic Games.

Fashion

Other

1885-1913 Annie Oakley, Li'l Sure Shot performed throughout US and Europe with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show

People

World leaders

  1. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, 1848–1896
  2. Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, 1896–1907

Politics

Entertainers

Authors

Sports figures

Other people

See also

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Further reading