July 31

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July 31 is the 212th day of the year(213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar.There are 153 days remaining until the end of the year.

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Contents

Events

Year 30 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday or a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Octavian and Crassus. The denomination 30 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The Battle of Alexandria was fought on July 31, 30 BC between the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic. Although Antony's side was plagued by desertions, he still managed to narrowly defeat the Roman forces. The desertions continued, however, and, in early August, Octavian launched a second, ultimately successful, invasion of Egypt.

Mark Antony Roman politician and general

Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Births

Year 1143 (MCXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Emperor Nijō Emperor of Japan

Emperor Nijō was the 78th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1158 through 1165.

Year 1396 (MCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Year 54 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Appius and Ahenobarbus. The denomination 54 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Aurelia Cotta Roman matriarch

Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar.

Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul) Roman senator, proconsul of Asia province

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman senator, a supporter of his brother-in-law, Gaius Marius, and the father of Gaius Julius Caesar.

Holidays and observances

Calendar of saints Christian liturgical calendar celebrating saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".

Saint Abanoub or Abanoub Al-Nahisy, is a 4th-century Christian saint and martyr from Egypt. His name means Father of Gold in Coptic. He was born in Nehisa in the Nile Delta to Christian parents. Abanoub was 12 years old when he was killed and beheaded, after being tortured for refusing to leave Christianity. His feast day is July 31. His relics are preserved in St.Virgin Mary and St.Abanoub Churches in Sebennytos, Egypt. His title is often The Child Martyr.

Germanus of Auxerre Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Germanus of Auxerre was a bishop of Auxerre in Late Antique Gaul. He abandoned a career as a high-ranking government official to devote his formidable energy towards the promotion of the church and the protection of his 'flock' in dangerous times: personally confronting, for instance, the barbarian king, "Goar". In Britain he is best remembered for his journey to combat Pelagianism in or around 429 AD, and the records of this visit provide valuable information on the state of post-Roman British society. He also played an important part in the establishment and promotion of the Cult of Saint Alban. The saint was said to have revealed the story of his martyrdom to Germanus in a dream or holy vision, and Germanus ordered this to be written down for public display. Germanus is venerated as a saint in both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, which commemorate him on 31 July.

Related Research Articles

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November 22 is the 326th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 39 days remaining until the end of the year.

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References

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  4. "All About Mohammad Rafi!". Culturalindia.net. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  5. "Sumo wrestlers pay tribute to Chiyonofuji". Japan Times. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  6. "Sumo icon Chiyonofuji dies at 61". 31 July 2016 via Japan Times Online.
  7. "Professor Emeritus Seymour Papert, pioneer of constructionist learning, dies at 88". MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. August 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  8. "Bristol sailor and entrepreneur Tony Bullimore dies aged 79". BBC News. 2018-07-31.