2001

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Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2001 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 2001
MMI
Ab urbe condita 2754
Armenian calendar 1450
ԹՎ ՌՆԾ
Assyrian calendar 6751
Baháʼí calendar 157–158
Balinese saka calendar 1922–1923
Bengali calendar 1408
Berber calendar 2951
British Regnal year 49  Eliz. 2   50  Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar 2545
Burmese calendar 1363
Byzantine calendar 7509–7510
Chinese calendar 庚辰年 (Metal  Dragon)
4697 or 4637
     to 
辛巳年 (Metal  Snake)
4698 or 4638
Coptic calendar 1717–1718
Discordian calendar 3167
Ethiopian calendar 1993–1994
Hebrew calendar 5761–5762
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2057–2058
 - Shaka Samvat 1922–1923
 - Kali Yuga 5101–5102
Holocene calendar 12001
Igbo calendar 1001–1002
Iranian calendar 1379–1380
Islamic calendar 1421–1422
Japanese calendar Heisei 13
(平成13年)
Javanese calendar 1933–1934
Juche calendar 90
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4334
Minguo calendar ROC 90
民國90年
Nanakshahi calendar 533
Thai solar calendar 2544
Tibetan calendar 阳金龙年
(male Iron-Dragon)
2127 or 1746 or 974
     to 
阴金蛇年
(female Iron-Snake)
2128 or 1747 or 975
Unix time 978307200 – 1009843199

2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2001st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1st year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2000s decade.

Contents

The September 11 attacks against the United States by Al-Qaeda, which killed 2,977 people and instigated the global war on terror, were a defining event of 2001. [1] [2] The United States led a multi-national coalition in an invasion of Afghanistan after the Taliban government did not extradite Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. The invasion ended in December following a transfer of power to the Afghan Interim Administration led by Hamid Karzai.

Internal conflicts, political or otherwise, caused shifts in leadership in multiple countries, which included the assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, [3] the Second EDSA Revolution in the Philippines, [4] the massacre of the royal family by the crown prince in Nepal, [5] and civil unrest in Argentina. [6] Other notable political events were an escalation in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, [7] the storming of the Indonesian parliament, [8] the Hainan Island incident between China and the United States, [9] an insurgency in Macedonia, [10] and a terrorist attack on the Parliament of India that began the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff. [11]

Major spaceflight and astronomical events in 2001 were numerous, such as the first spacecraft landing on an asteroid, [12] the deorbit of the Russian station Mir , [13] American entrepreneur Dennis Tito becoming the first space tourist, [14] the discovery of 28978 Ixion in the Kuiper belt, [15] a flyby of Io by the U.S. Galileo probe, [16] and the first discovered atmosphere on an exoplanet. [17] Other unique scientific achievements were the first sequence of the human genome, [18] the first self-contained artificial heart, [19] and the first clone of a human embryo. [20]

Notable deaths in 2001 included musicians Aaliyah, George Harrison, John Phillips, and Joey Ramone; politicians Phoolan Devi, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, and Ahmad Shah Massoud; writers Douglas Adams and R. K. Narayan; actors Sivaji Ganesan, Carroll O'Connor, Anthony Quinn, and Thuy Trang; athletes Josef Bican, Don Bradman, and Dale Earnhardt; and royal figures King Birendra of Nepal and his son Dipendra, Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary, and Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark.

2001 was designated as International Year of Volunteers. [21]

Population

The world population on January 1, 2001 was estimated to be 6,189,855,922 people, and it increased to 6,271,638,043 by January 1, 2002. [22] The average global life expectancy was 66.8 years, an increase of 0.3 years from 2000. [22] The rate of child mortality was 7.58%, a decrease of 0.26% from 2000. [23] 28.25% of people were living in extreme poverty, a decrease of 0.88% from 2000. [24]

Conflicts

The 2001 insurgency in Macedonia began on January 22 when the National Liberation Army (NLA) attacked a police station in Tearce, about 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the border with Kosovo, which escalated what had been smaller skirmishes along the border. The Battle of Tetovo was the first major offensive of the insurgency, launched by the NLA on March 14. [25] Tetovo would remain a major area of conflict for the duration of the insurgency. [26] Attempts to reach a ceasefire were interrupted in June. [27] The Ohrid Agreement was signed on August 13, [28] and the deployment of NATO peacekeeping forces to Macedonia was authorized on August 21. [10] In Yugoslavia, the related insurgency in the Preševo Valley by Albanian rebels escalated on February 5. [29] The Končulj Agreement, signed in May, mandated a ceasefire and resulted in the full demilitarization, demobilization, and disarmament of the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UÇPMB). [30]

The Second Intifada marked increased conflict between Israel and Palestine in 2001 when terrorists affiliated with Hamas carried out several suicide bombings and other attacks on Israeli citizens. [7] [31] The Israeli government responded with temporary occupations, [7] targeted killings, [32] and its first use of airstrikes against Palestine since 1967. [33] The Israeli and Palestinian governments agreed to a ceasefire on September 19. [34]

The Second Congo War continued with the assassination of President Laurent-Désiré Kabila on January 16. [3] The Angolan Civil War moved toward peace talks in 2001, but talks were challenged by attacks on civilians by UNITA, [35] including a train bombing on August 10 that killed 252 people. [36] The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff began on December 13 after an attack on the Parliament of India by Pakistani militants. [11] Enforcement of the Iraqi no-fly zones led to air strikes against Iraq in February and August by the United States and the United Kingdom. [37] The insurgency following the Second Chechen War continued in Chechnya, prompting Russia to respond with the Alkhan-Kala operation on June 25. [38]

September 11 attacks and War in Afghanistan

The September 11 attacks were carried out against the United States by Al-Qaeda when 19 terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes and crashed two of them into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon, and one in a field in Stonycreek Township, Pennsylvania. 2,977 people were killed, and the subsequent global war on terror made the attacks one of the events that defined 2001. [1] [2] [39] The United States demanded that the Taliban extradite Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and end state-sponsored terrorism in Afghanistan. When these demands were not met, the United States led a multi-national coalition in the invasion of Afghanistan on October 7. [40]

The first major offensive was won by American and Northern Alliance forces during the Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif on November 10. [41] The Northern Alliance took control of the city of Herat during an uprising on November 12, [42] and Al-Qaeda surrendered the Afghan capital Kabul to the Northern Alliance on November 13. [43] The Taliban surrendered in Kandahar on December 6. [44] The United States and its allies attacked the Al-Qaeda headquarters in Tora Bora in December, but Osama bin Laden escaped by the time the cave complex was captured by the forces on December 17. [45] An interim government of Afghanistan led by Hamid Karzai was formed on December 22. [46]

Culture

Media

The highest grossing films in 2001 were Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring , and Monsters, Inc. [47] The best selling albums in 2001 were Hybrid Theory by Linkin Park, Hot Shot by Shaggy, and Celebrity by NSYNC. [48]

Sports

NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt, described as the greatest driver in the sport's history, died in a crash during the 2001 Daytona 500 on February 18. [49] In April, golf player Tiger Woods became the only player to achieve a "Tiger Slam" after winning the 2001 Masters Tournament, in which he consecutively won all four championship golf titles outside of a single calendar year. [50] The world record for largest victory in an international football match was set by Australia in a 0–22 victory against Tonga on April 9. Australia set this record again with a 31–0 victory against American Samoa on April 11. [51] The unbalanced nature of these matches prompted changes to the FIFA qualification process. [52]

Disasters

Earthquakes

There were four earthquakes in 2001 that caused significant casualties. El Salvador was struck with two of them: a 7.6-magnitude one on January 13 and a 6.6-magnitude one on February 13, which resulted in the deaths of at least 944 people and at least 315 others respectively. [53] [54] A 7.7-magnitude earthquake in Gujarat, India, on January 26 killed between 13,805 and 20,023 people, and destroyed nearly 340,000 buildings. [55] [56] An 8.4-magnitude earthquake killed at least 77 people in Peru on June 23. [57]

A 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck China with an epicenter near Kokoxili, close to the border between Qinghai and Xinjiang, on November 14, but it occurred in a sparsely populated mountainous region and there were no casualties. [58]

Tropical cyclones

The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was of slightly larger than average, including 15 tropical storms and hurricanes. The deadliest storms were Tropical Storm Allison in June, Hurricane Iris in October, and Hurricane Michelle in November. All three of these storms had their names retired by the World Meteorological Organization. Tropical Storm Allison was the deadliest tropical storm to hit the United States without reaching hurricane strength. [59]

The 2001 Pacific typhoon season was slightly larger than average, including 28 tropical storms, 20 typhoons, and 11 intense typhoons. The most powerful storms were Typhoon Podul in October and Typhoon Faxai in December. [60]

Economy

2001 marked a decline in international trade by about 1.5%, which was a significant contrast from the 11% increase in 2000, and this was the first negative growth in international trade since 1982. IT industries and the dot-com crash are attributed for the decline in trade. [61]

America Online (AOL), a U.S. online service provider, was at the apex of its popularity and purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner. The deal took effect on January 11, in the largest merger in history at that time. [62] AOL would rapidly shrink thereafter, partly due to the decline of dial-up and rise of broadband, and the deal would fall apart before the end of the decade, which would be regarded as one of the world's greatest business failures. [63] [64] The Enron scandal took place in 2001 when Houston-based energy company Enron was found to be committing fraud, bringing about the criminal conviction of several executives and causing the company to undergo the largest bankruptcy at that point in American history. [65] The national airlines of Belgium and Switzerland (Sabena and Swissair, respectively) ended operations in 2001. [66] [67]

Science and technology

The Human Genome Project released the first draft of its human genome sequence on February 12. [18] The first self-contained artificial heart was implanted on July 2. [19] Several accomplishments were made in the field of cloning in 2001, including the clone of a gaur [68] the clone of a mouflon, [69] and the first clone of a human embryo. [20]

There were only 57 orbital spaceflights in 2001, the fewest since 1963. Eight of these launches were crewed missions and two were failed launches. [70] The NEAR Shoemaker made the first successful landing of a spacecraft on an asteroid on February 12. [12] The Mir space station was deorbited and destroyed on March 23. [13] The 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter was launched on April 7 and arrived at Mars on October 24. [71] American entrepreneur Dennis Tito became the first space tourist on April 28 aboard the Russian Soyuz TM-32. [14] 28978 Ixion was discovered on May 22. [15] The Genesis probe was launched on August 8 to collect solar wind samples. [72] Deep Space 1 carried out a flyby of Comet Borrelly on September 22, [73] and Galileo carried out a flyby of Io on October 15. [16] An atmposhere was discovered on an exoplanet for the first time on November 27. [17]

Events

January

One of the landslides caused by the January 2001 earthquake in El Salvador; About 585 of the deaths are caused by landslides in Santa Tecla and Comasagua. ElSalvadorslide.jpg
One of the landslides caused by the January 2001 earthquake in El Salvador; About 585 of the deaths are caused by landslides in Santa Tecla and Comasagua.
Map of the 2001 insurgency in Macedonia, part of the Yugoslav Wars 2001 Macedonian insurgency map.svg
Map of the 2001 insurgency in Macedonia, part of the Yugoslav Wars

February

433 Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft Eros - PIA02923 (color).jpg
433 Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft

March

The taller Buddha of Bamiyan before (left) and after destruction (right) Taller Buddha of Bamiyan before and after destruction.jpg
The taller Buddha of Bamiyan before (left) and after destruction (right)

April

Two men marrying in Amsterdam on April 1, the first day in which the possibility to marry was opened to same-sex couples Weddinginholland.jpg
Two men marrying in Amsterdam on April 1, the first day in which the possibility to marry was opened to same-sex couples
Crew of Soyuz TM-32: (L-R) Dennis Tito, Talgat Musabayev, and Yuri Baturin ISS-02 Soyuz TM-32 Taxi crewmembers.jpg
Crew of Soyuz TM-32: (L-R) Dennis Tito, Talgat Musabayev, and Yuri Baturin

May

Flag of the African Union, adopted at its 14th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in 2010 Flag of the African Union.svg
Flag of the African Union, adopted at its 14th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in 2010

June

Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou at Main Street after Tropical Storm Allison hit Houston, Texas, U.S. Allison Flood Houston.jpg
Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou at Main Street after Tropical Storm Allison hit Houston, Texas, U.S.

July

Photo session of the G8 leaders in Genoa, 2001: (L-R) Junichiro Koizumi, Tony Blair, George W. Bush, Jacques Chirac, Silvio Berlusconi, Vladimir Putin, Jean Chretien, Gerhard Schroeder, Guy Verhofstadt, and Romano Prodi Vladimir Putin 22 July 2001-1.jpg
Photo session of the G8 leaders in Genoa, 2001: (L-R) Junichiro Koizumi, Tony Blair, George W. Bush, Jacques Chirac, Silvio Berlusconi, Vladimir Putin, Jean Chretien, Gerhard Schroeder, Guy Verhofstadt, and Romano Prodi

August

September

The World Trade Center and the Statue of Liberty just after the September 11 attacks in New York City National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire.jpg
The World Trade Center and the Statue of Liberty just after the September 11 attacks in New York City

October

Galileo spacecraft true-color image of Io Io highest resolution true color.jpg
Galileo spacecraft true-color image of Io

November

Hurricane Michelle shortly before peak intensity on November 3 Michelle 2001-11-03 1845Z.jpg
Hurricane Michelle shortly before peak intensity on November 3
The 2001 Leonids meteor shower photographed in Japan Leonids and Orion in Japan 01.jpg
The 2001 Leonids meteor shower photographed in Japan

December

1400 Smith Street, the former headquarters of Enron in Downtown Houston, Texas, U.S. (now occupied by Chevron Corporation) 1400SmithDowntown.jpg
1400 Smith Street, the former headquarters of Enron in Downtown Houston, Texas, U.S. (now occupied by Chevron Corporation)
A ZPU-2 anti-aircraft gun that was mounted on the North Korean vessel sunk in the Battle of Amami-Oshima North-Korea spy-vessel 2.jpg
ZPU-2 anti-aircraft gun that was mounted on the North Korean vessel sunk in the Battle of Amami-Ōshima

Births

Births
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

JanuaryApril

Rodrygo RodrygoGoes.jpg
Rodrygo

MayAugust

Iga Swiatek Swiatek RG19 (1) (48199020336).jpg
Iga Świątek

SeptemberDecember

Billie Eilish Billie Eilish 2019 by Glenn Francis (cropped) 2.jpg
Billie Eilish

Deaths

Deaths
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Marie-Jose of Belgium Marie-Jose of Belgium, Queen of Italy.jpg
Marie-José of Belgium

February

Dale Earnhardt DaleEarnhardtSunglassesDriversSuit.jpg
Dale Earnhardt
Claude Shannon ClaudeShannon MFO3807.jpg
Claude Shannon
Sir Donald Bradman Don Bradman 1930.jpg
Sir Donald Bradman

March

Ann Sothern Ann Sothern 1960.JPG
Ann Sothern

April

Joey Ramone Joeyramone.jpg
Joey Ramone
Barend Biesheuvel Barend Biesheuvel 1982 (1).jpg
Barend Biesheuvel

May

Douglas Adams Douglas adams portrait cropped.jpg
Douglas Adams

June

King Birendra of Nepal Birendra Bir Bikram Shah.jpg
King Birendra of Nepal
Anthony Quinn Anthony Quinn publicity photo, unknown date (cropped).jpg
Anthony Quinn
Tove Jansson Tove-Jansson-1967.jpg
Tove Jansson
Jack Lemmon Jack Lemmon - 1968.jpg
Jack Lemmon

July

Katharine Graham Katharine Graham 927-9432 (cropped retouched).jpg
Katharine Graham
Edward Gierek Edward Gierek 1980b.jpg
Edward Gierek

August

Jane Greer Jane Greer - 1947.jpg
Jane Greer
Aaliyah Aaliyah Dana Haughton 02 (cropped).jpg
Aaliyah

September

Christiaan Barnard Christiaan Barnard 1969.jpg
Christiaan Barnard
Nguyen Van Thieu Lt. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu at Cam Ranh Base, October 26, 1966.jpg
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu

October

Chang Hsueh-liang Chang Shueliang.jpg
Chang Hsueh-liang

November

Giovanni Leone Giovanni Leone Official.jpg
Giovanni Leone
George Harrison George Harrison 1974 (cropped).jpg
George Harrison

December

Ashok Kumar Indian film actor Ashok Kumar (3).jpg
Ashok Kumar
Leopold Sedar Senghor Leopold Sedar Senghor.jpg
Léopold Sédar Senghor

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

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