Jedi census phenomenon

Last updated

A 2001 map of Jedi census phenomenon's effect in England and Wales Jedi census phenomenon 2001.pdf
A 2001 map of Jedi census phenomenon's effect in England and Wales

The Jedi census phenomenon is a grassroots movement that was initiated in 2001 for residents of a number of English-speaking countries, urging them to record their religion as "Jedi" or "Jedi Knight" (after the quasi-religious order of Jedi Knights in the fictional Star Wars universe) on the national census.

A grassroots movement is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect change at the local, regional, national, or international level. Grassroots movements are associated with bottom-up, rather than top-down decision making, and are sometimes considered more natural or spontaneous than more traditional power structures. Grassroots movements, using self-organization, encourage community members to contribute by taking responsibility and action for their community. Grassroots movements utilize a variety of strategies from fundraising and registering voters, to simply encouraging political conversation. Goals of specific movements vary and change, but the movements are consistent in their focus on increasing mass participation in politics. These political movements may begin as small and at the local level, but grassroots politics as Cornel West contends are necessary in shaping progressive politics as they bring public attention to regional political concerns.

Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.

The Jedi Order are the main protagonists in the Star Wars universe. They are depicted as an ancient monastic, academic, meritocratic and quasi-militaristic organization whose origin dates back approximately 25,000 years before the events of the first film released in the franchise.

Contents

Impact

Australia

In Australia more than 70,000 people (0.37%) declared themselves members of the Jedi order in the 2001 census. [1] The Australian Bureau of Statistics issued an official press release [2] in response to media interest on the subject. The ABS announced that any answers that were Jedi-related in the religion question were to be classified as "not defined" and stressed the social impact of making misleading or false statements on the census. An ABS spokesperson said that "further analysis of census responses has been undertaken since the release of census data on June 17 to separately identify the number of Jedi-related responses". [1] It is believed that there is no numerical value that determines a religion per definition of the ABS, but there would need to be a belief system or philosophy as well as some form of institutional or organisational structure in place. [3]

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Australian Bureau of Statistics Australias principal government institution in charge of statistics and census data

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia. The ABS provides key statistics on a wide range of economic, population, environmental and social issues, to assist and encourage informed decision making, research and discussion within governments and the community.

The push for Australians to declare themselves as members of the Jedi order was one of the first examples of a concept going "viral" on the internet in Australia. The website which was set up to promote the concept was visited over 100,000 times in a five-week period and was first archived by the Wayback Machine on 21 October 2001. [4]

Viral phenomena are objects or patterns that are able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them. They get their name from the way that viruses propagate. This has become a common way to describe how thoughts, information, and trends move into and through a human population. "Viral media" is another common term whose popularity has been fueled by the rapid rise of social network sites. Different from the "spreadable media", "viral media" uses viral metaphors of "infection" and "contamination", which means that audiences play as passive carriers rather than an active role to "spread" contents. Memes are one known example of informational viral patterns.

Wayback Machine Web archive service

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States.

The 2006 census recorded 58,053 Jedi. [5] [6] In the 2011 census, the numbers listing their faith as Jedi had picked up from the 2006 census to 65,000. [7] [8]

The Jedi Census phenomenon attracted the attention of sociologist of religion Adam Possamai who discusses it in his book Religion and Popular Culture: A Hyper-Real Testament. [9] Possamai’s study placed Jediism in the context of a specific methodological classification (‘hyper-real religions’) and attempted to demonstrate that hostility existed towards new religions in Australia. [10]

Sociology of religion

Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology. This objective investigation may include the use of both quantitative methods and qualitative approaches such as participant observation, interviewing, and analysis of archival, historical and documentary materials.

Adam Possamai is a sociologist and novelist born in Belgium and living in Australia. Possamai is Professor in Sociology and the Director of Research in the School of Social Sciences and Psychology at Western Sydney University, New South Wales, Australia. He is the former Director of the Religion and Society Research Centre (RSRC) He is married to Alphia Possamai-Inesedy, and lives in the south-western suburbs of Sydney with his family.

Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.

In the lead-up to the 2006 census, there were reports that writing Jedi on the 2006 census could lead to a fine for providing "false or misleading" information. This is despite previous admissions by the ABS that they were "fairly relaxed" about the issue in 2001 and that nobody had been prosecuted in at least 15 years. [11] In the lead-up to the 2016 census, there was a push from atheists warning not to use Jedi, imploring that it could be counted as being religious. [12]

Canada

In the 2001 census, 21,000 Canadians put down their religion as Jedi Knight. This fact was referenced by the prime minister's office as a rationale for making the 40-page long census form voluntary. [13] In the 2011 National Household Survey the number fell to 9,000. [14]

Croatia

In the 2011 census, 303 Croats put Jedi as their religion. [15]

Czech Republic

The 2011 census preliminarily recorded 15,070 people answering the voluntary question on religion as belonging to the Jedi religion, described by the Czech Statistics Office as "the moral values of the Jedi knights". The office noted that this is an international phenomenon. As the 2011 census form did not list religions, these having to be filled out, the total number of Jedi is not artificially boosted by those who were not aware of the phenomenon prior to filling out the census form. On the other hand, many people encouraged others in discussions and then media to fill the Jedi religion prior 2011 census (as a form of protest against range, overall cost and obligatory filling of the census), which is probably the cause. [16] The highest number of Jedi were recorded to live in Prague. [17]

Ireland

In a May 2012 review of the 2011 census, the Dáil Public Accounts Committee asked the Central Statistics Office about the reliability of self-reported answers, instancing people listing Jedi as their religion. The response was "We could probably tell you the number of people who have declared themselves as such, but we don't publish it". [18] [19] [20] The 2016 census results list all religions receiving more than 30 responses, including 2,050 under "Jedi Knight". [21] [22]

Montenegro

In the 2011 census in Montenegro, a group of young men declared themselves as "Jedi" on the ethnicity question, as they believe that ethnicity should not be an issue today. [23]

New Zealand

Over 53,000 people listed themselves as Jedi in New Zealand's 2001 census. New Zealand had the highest per capita population of reported Jedi in the world that year, with 1.5% marking "Jedi" as their religion. The city of Dunedin had the highest population of reported Jedi per capita. [24] Statistics New Zealand treated Jedi responses as "Answer understood, but will not be counted". The percentages of religious affiliations were:

There was a fall in the number of New Zealand Jedi five years later, with some 20,000 people giving this as their religion in the 2006 census. It is unknown whether the numbers have continued to fall as the 2011 census was not completed due to an earthquake in Christchurch. [25]

Serbia

In 2012, it was reported that 640 Serbs had identified as Jedi. [26]

Turkey

On April 6, 2015, thousands of Turkish students raised their voices in campaigns to build Jedi and Buddhist temples at their universities, after a series of mosques were constructed on their campuses by rectors who stressed "huge demand." [27] A number of Dokuz Eylül University students in the western province of Izmir have demanded a Jedi temple to be built on their campus. [28] "There are less and less Jedi left on the Earth... the nearest temple [is] billions of light years away," the petition says. It adds that "uneducated Padawan" are moving to the dark side... To recruit new Jedi and to bring balance to the Force, we want a Jedi temple," said the petition that received more than 6,000 signatures on change.org, referring to the famed knights of the fictional Star Wars universe. [29] The page on Change.org also features a still of Jedi Grand Master Yoda from Star Wars: Episode II -- Attack of the Clones teaching young Jedi how to use a light saber. The petition was started by Akin Cagatay Caliskan, an 18-year-old computer science student from Ankara: "We want freedom of worship. There are mosques everywhere, but no Jedi temple!" Caliskan says he is surprised by the impact his petition has made: "I did not expect so many supporters. I thought maybe it might (have) 100." [27] [30] [31] [32] [33]

United Kingdom

England and Wales

In England and Wales 390,127 people (almost 0.8%) stated their religion as Jedi on their 2001 Census forms, surpassing Sikhism, Judaism, and Buddhism, and making it the fourth largest reported religion in the country. [34] In the 2001 Census, 2.6% of the population of Brighton claimed to be Jedi. The percentages of religious affiliations were:

It was confirmed prior to the census that citizens were not liable for a fine in relation to question 10 (on religion). [35] This was based on section 1(2) of the Census (Amendment) Act 2000, [36] which amended section 8 of the Census Act 2000 to state that "no person shall be liable to a penalty under subsection (1) for refusing or neglecting to state any particulars in respect of religion". The change in the law was implemented by The Census (Amendment) Order 2000 [37] and The Census (Amendment) Regulations 2000. [38]

Jedi was assigned its own code in the United Kingdom for census processing, the number 896. [39] Officials from the Office for National Statistics pointed out that this merely means that it has been registered as a common answer to the "religion" question and that this does not confer on it the status of official recognition. John Pullinger, Director of Reporting and Analysis for the Census, noted that many people who would otherwise not have completed a Census form did so solely to record themselves as Jedi, so this joke helped to improve the quality of the Census. The Office for National Statistics revealed the total figure in a press release entitled "390,000 Jedi there are". [40]

In June 2005, Jamie Reed, newly elected Labour Member of Parliament for Copeland in Cumbria, declared himself to be the first Jedi Member of Parliament during his maiden speech. [41] The statement, made in the context of an ongoing debate regarding the Incitement to Religious Hatred Bill, was confirmed by Reed's office to be a joke instead of a serious statement of faith. During a subsequent committee debate on the bill, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Beaconsfield, Dominic Grieve, proposed as "a bit of a joke" to exclude Jedi Knights from the protection of the proposed act, along with Satanists and proponents of animal sacrifice, illustrating the difficulty of defining religious belief in legislation. [42] Similarly, in April 2006, Edward Leigh, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Gainsborough, asked whether he would be allowed to set up a Jedi knights faith school during a Committee debate on the Education and Inspections Bill. [43]

On 16 November 2006, two Jedi delivered a protest letter to UN officials in recognition of the International Day for Tolerance. The letter, written by Simon Cohen of the Global Tolerance public relations agency, [44] requested that it be renamed the "UN Interstellar Day of Tolerance" and cited the 2001 Census showing 390,000 Jedi in England and Wales. [45]

According to 2011 census figures, the number of Jedi had fallen to 176,632, placing it in seventh place, having been overtaken by Judaism and Buddhism, but still comfortably outnumbering any other alternative or mock religions. [46] The magazine Metal Hammer also encouraged readers to mark "Heavy Metal" as their religion, leading to over 6,000 responses. [47]

Scotland

In Scotland, 14,052 people stated that Jedi was their current religion (14,014 "Jedi", 24 "Jedi Order" and 14 "Sith") and 2,733 stated that it was their religion of upbringing (2,682 "Jedi", 36 "Jedi Order" and 15 "The Dark Side") in the 2001 census. [48] The proportion of people stating their religion as Jedi in Scotland was lower than that in England and Wales, at 0.277%. [49]

In April 2009, it became known that eight police officers serving with Scotland's largest police force, Strathclyde, listed their official religion as Jedi in voluntary diversity forms. The details were obtained in a Freedom of Information request by Jane's Police Review . [50]

Criticism

The Australian Atheist Foundation objects to non-religious individuals answering with any joke answer, because this would lead to a census undercount of non-religious people, and lessen their political influence. [51]

See also

Related Research Articles

Demography of the United Kingdom

According to the 2011 census, the total population of the United Kingdom was around 63,182,000. It is the 21st-most populated country in the world. Its overall population density is 259 people per square kilometre, with England having a significantly higher population density than Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Almost one-third of the population lives in England's southeast, which is predominantly urban and suburban, with about 9 million in the capital city of London, the population density of which is just over 5,200 per square kilometre.

United Kingdom census, 2001 census of the population of the United Kingdom

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194.

Religion in Singapore is characterized by a wide variety of religious beliefs and practices due to its diverse ethnic mix of peoples originating from various countries. Most major religious denominations are present in Singapore, with the Inter-Religious Organisation, Singapore recognising 10 major religions in the city state. A 2014 analysis by the Pew Research Center found Singapore to be the world's most religiously diverse nation.

Islam in the Republic of Ireland

The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s. The number of Muslims in Ireland has increased since the 1990s, mostly through immigration. According to the 2016 Irish census the number of Muslims resident in the Republic was 63,443.

Religion in the United Kingdom religion in the United Kingdom

Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,000 years by various forms of Christianity. Religious affiliations of United Kingdom citizens are recorded by regular surveys, the four major ones being the national decennial census, the Labour Force Survey, the British Social Attitudes survey and the European Social Survey.

Islam in the United Kingdom

Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom 2011 Census giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,516,000, 4.4% of the total population. The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England: 2,660,116. 76,737 Muslims live in Scotland (1.45%), 45,950 in Wales (1.50%). London has the greatest population of Muslims in the country. The majority of Muslims in United Kingdom adhere to Sunni Islam, while smaller numbers are associated with Shia Islam.

Census in the United Kingdom

Coincident full censuses have taken place in the different jurisdictions of the United Kingdom every ten years since 1801, with the exceptions of 1941 and Ireland in 1921. Simultaneous censuses were taken in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, with the returns being archived with those of England. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to regional and local service providers by the governments of both the UK and the European Union. The most recent UK census took place in 2011.

Directorate of Religious Affairs Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs

In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.

Religion in Australia religion in Australia

Religion in Australia is diverse. Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia of 1901 prohibits the Commonwealth government from establishing a church or interfering with the freedom of religion. In an optional question on the 2016 Census, 52.2% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity. Historically the percentage was far higher; now, the religious landscape of Australia is changing and diversifying. In 2016, 30.1% of Australians stated "no religion" and a further 9.6% chose not to answer the question. Other faiths include Muslims (2.6%), Buddhists (2.4%), Hindus (1.9%), Sikhs (0.5%), and Jews (0.4%).As per the 2016 Census, Sikhism is the fastest growing religion in Australia which showed a 74% increase from the 2011 census followed by Hinduism and Irreligion.

Turkish Australians or Australian Turks are Turkish people who have immigrated to Australia. However, the term may also refer to Australian-born persons who have Turkish parents or who have a Turkish ancestral background.

London has centres of worship for a multitude of faiths. According to the 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings are Christians, followed by those of no religion, no response, Muslims, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and other.

Christianity is the largest religion in Northern Ireland. According to a 2007 Tearfund survey, Northern Ireland was the most religious part of the UK, with 45% regularly attending church.

The Church of England is the established state church in England, whose Supreme Governor is the Monarch. Other Christian traditions in England include Roman Catholicism, Methodism, and the Baptists. After Christianity, the religions with the most adherents are Hinduism, Sikhism, Neopaganism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and the Bahá'í Faith. There are also organisations promoting irreligion, including humanism and atheism.

Religion in New Zealand encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs. Christianity is the most common religion with almost half of the population at the 2013 New Zealand census declaring an affiliation. Around six percent of the population is affiliated with non-Christian religions, with Hinduism being the largest at over two percent, while 42 percent of New Zealanders stated they had no religion in the most recent census, and 4 percent made no declaration.

Religion in Kenya religion in Kenya

The predominant religion in Kenya is Christianity, which is adhered to by an estimated 84.8% of the total population. Islam is the second largest religion in Kenya, practiced by approximately 9.7 to 11.1 percent of Kenyans. Other faiths practiced in Kenya are Baha'i, Buddhism, Hinduism and traditional religions.

Religion in South Africa religion in South Africa

South Africa is a secular state with a diverse religious population. Its constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Many religions are represented in the ethnic and regional diversity of the population. Christianity, especially in its Protestant forms, predominates.

Irreligion in Australia

Atheism, agnosticism, deism, scepticism, freethought, secular humanism or general secularism are increasing in Australia. Post-war Australia has become a highly secularised country. Religion does not play a major role in the lives of much of the population.

Jediism is a philosophy mainly based on the depiction of the Jedi characters in Star Wars media. Jediism attracted public attention in 2001 when a number of people recorded their religion as "Jedi" on national censuses.

Religion in Mauritius

Mauritius is a religiously diverse nation, with Hinduism being the most widely professed faith. The people of Indian descent (Indo-Mauritian) follow mostly Hinduism and Islam. The Franco-Mauritians, Creoles and Sino-Mauritians follow Christianity. A minority of Sino-Mauritians also follow Buddhism and other Chinese-related religions. According to the 2011 census made by Statistics Mauritius, Hinduism is the major religion at 48.54%, followed by Christianity at 32.71% (with Catholicism as the largest Christian denomination at 26.26 %, followed by Islam 17.30% and Buddhism 0.18% in terms of number of adherents.

The 2013 New Zealand census was the thirty-third national census. "The National Census Day" used for the census was on Tuesday, 5 March 2013. The population of New Zealand was counted as 4,242,048, – an increase of 214,101 or 5.3% over the 2006 census.

References

  1. 1 2 "May the farce be with you". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 August 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
  2. "Census of Population and Housing — The 2001 Census, Religion and the Jedi". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
  3. "snopes". Archived from the original on 1 December 2005. Retrieved 7 August 2006.
  4. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". archive.org.
  5. "Portrait of a nation, squid jiggers and all". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  6. "Be counted to fulfil your destiny".
  7. "Lachlan Murdoch with Rupert on Scientology being 'weird cult'". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  8. "Lateline - 29/06/2012: Scientology membership in drastic decline". abc.net.au.
  9. "Religion and Popular Culture". peterlang.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011.
  10. Invented Religions: Imagination, Fiction and Faith - Carol Cusack (2010)
  11. "Come to your census - no kidding, they're serious". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 August 2006. Retrieved 29 August 2006.
  12. Knott, Matthew (30 July 2016). "Atheists urge Australians not to joke around by putting Jedi as their religion on the census".
  13. "The Shotgun: Does Canada lead the world in Jedi knights?". Westernstandard.blogs.com. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  14. Ben Makuch and Steve Rennie (8 May 2013). "National Household Survey: Number of 'Jedi Knights' in Canada dwindling". Toronto Star. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  15. D.M. "U RH živi 20 Klingonaca i 24 Marsovca!". Dnevnik.hr.
  16. "Při sčítání uveďme víru z Hvězdných válek, vyzývají se lidé na internetu" [In census let's declare the faith in Star Wars call people on the Internet] (in Czech). 27 January 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  17. "Předběžné výsledky Sčítání lidů, domů a bytů 2011" [Preliminary results of the Census and Housing 2011] (in Czech). Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  18. "Dáil committee ponders existence of Jedi knights". BreakingNews. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  19. Reilly, Gavan (3 May 2012). "A TD wants to know: How many Jedi Knights are there in Ireland?". The Daily Edge. thejournal.ie. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  20. "Vote 4 - Central Statistics Office". Committee of Public Accounts proceedings. Oireachtas. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  21. "Y036: Actual and Percentage Change in Population Usually Resident and Present 2011 to 2016 by Sex, Religion, CensusYear and Statistic". Census 2016. Cork: Central Statistics Office. 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  22. Bray, Allison (19 April 2017). "Census finds 2,000 devotees to Star Wars 'Jedi' religion". Irish Independent . Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  23. "News - Montenegro's Jedi minority attracts attention". B92. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  24. Perrott, Alan (31 August 2002). "Jedi Order lures 53,000 disciples". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
  25. "The fate of the Jedi". No Right Turn. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2007. A story in the Dominion-Post has the answer: '... census general manager Nancy McBeth told The Dominion Post there were more than 20,200 followers of the force — down from 54,000 in 2001.'
  26. "Popis: Sve manje Srba, sve više vanzemaljaca, teletabisa, Štrumpfova" [List: Fewer Serbs, more aliens, Teletubbies, Smurfs]. Vesti nadlanu (in Serbian). 30 November 2012. There are 640 Jedi, while there are 268 Martians. Several of them identified themselves as donkeys, vampires, Teletubbies, princes and princesses, dragons. There were also people identifying as Red Star and Partizan fans.
  27. 1 2 "Turkish university students demand Jedi, Buddhist temples amid mosque frenzy - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
  28. "Thousands of Turkish Students Demand Jedi Temples On Campus". 7 April 2015.
  29. Mairi Mackay, for CNN (8 April 2015). "Turkish students petition for Jedi temple - CNN.com". CNN.
  30. "Turkish Students Demand Jedi, Buddhist Temples Alongside Mosques - The Daily Caller". The Daily Caller.
  31. Ludovica Iaccino. "Turkey: Students demand Jedi temples after surge of mosques on university campuses". International Business Times UK.
  32. "Thousands of Turkish Students Demand Jedi Temples On Campus". Newsweek. 7 April 2015.
  33. "Build Jedi, Buddhist temples next to mosques in Turkish universities, students say". RT English.
  34. "Ethnicity and Religion: 'Jedi'". Census 2001. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  35. "UK Jedi get green light". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
  36. "Census (Amendment) Act 2000". opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  37. "The Census (Amendment) Order 2000". opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  38. "The Census (Amendment) Regulations 2000". opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  39. "Census of Population and Housing — The 2001 Census, Religion and the Jedi" (PDF).
  40. "Census 2001 Summary theme figures and rankings - 390,000 Jedi There Are". ons.gov.uk.
  41. "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 June 2005". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  42. "Racial and Religious Hatred Bill: Standing Committee Debates". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  43. "Education and Inspections Bill: Standing Committee Debates". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  44. "Jedi Knights, global tolerance and a 1million pound giveaway". University of Northampton. 18 January 2016.
  45. "Jedi demand Britain's fourth largest 'religion' receives recognition". Daily Mail. London. 16 November 2006.
  46. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/rft-table-qs210ew.xls
  47. Taylor, Henry (11 December 2012). "'Jedi' religion most popular alternative faith". The Daily Telegraph . London. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  48. "The Pagan Federation (Scotland): Complete data for the: Q13 'Another Religion' (Current Religion) and Q14 'Another Religion' (Religion of Upbringing) write-in boxes, Scottish Census of 2001". scottishpf.org. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  49. "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census: Summary Report". scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  50. "Force is strong for Jedi police". BBC News. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
  51. "Atheist Foundation of Australia - Mark NO Religion". Censusnoreligion.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.