Tropical Storm Allison

Last updated
Tropical Storm Allison
Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Tropical Storm Allison- Peak.JPG
Tropical Storm Allison near peak intensity on June 5
FormedJune 4, 2001
DissipatedJune 20, 2001
( Extratropical after June 18)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:60 mph (95 km/h)
Lowest pressure1000 mbar (hPa); 29.53 inHg
Fatalities41 direct, 14 indirect
Damage$8.5 billion (2001 USD)
Areas affected Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, District of Columbia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts
Part of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. An arguable example of the "brown ocean effect", Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days, most of which when the storm was over land dumping torrential rainfall. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the upper Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline. [1]

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

2001 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active Atlantic hurricane season that produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. The season officially lasted from June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001, dates which by convention limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The season began with Tropical Storm Allison on June 4, and ended with Hurricane Olga, which dissipated on December 6. The most intense storm was Hurricane Michelle, which attained Category 4 strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

Brown ocean effect

The brown ocean effect is an observed weather phenomenon involving tropical cyclones after landfall. They are commonly expected to lose energy when they make landfall, but instead maintain strength or intensify over land surfaces. While these systems are highly common in the United States and China, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) names Australia the most conducive environment after 30 years of research. In Australia, such storm systems are called agukabams.

Contents

The storm dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at over 40 inches (1,000 mm) in Texas. The worst flooding occurred in Houston, where most of Allison's damage occurred: 30,000 became homeless after the storm flooded over 70,000 houses and destroyed 2,744 homes. Downtown Houston was inundated with flooding, causing severe damage to hospitals and businesses. Twenty-three people died in Texas. Along its entire path, Allison caused $8.5 billion (2001 USD) in damage and 41 deaths. Aside from Texas, the places worst hit were Louisiana and southeastern Pennsylvania.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. It is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is similarly not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties.

Pennsylvania State of the United States of America

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Following the storm, President George W. Bush designated 75 counties along Allison's path as disaster areas, which enabled the citizens affected to apply for aid. Then the fourth-costliest Atlantic tropical cyclone and still the costliest Atlantic tropical cyclone that was never a major hurricane, Allison was the first Atlantic tropical storm to have its name retired without ever having reached hurricane strength.

George W. Bush 43rd president of the United States

George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Allison 2001 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on May 21, 2001. It moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean, retaining little convection on its way. After moving across South America and the southwestern Caribbean Sea, the wave entered the eastern North Pacific Ocean on June 1. A low-level circulation developed on June 2, while it was about 230 miles (370 km) south-southeast of Salina Cruz, Mexico. Southerly flow forced the system northward, and the wave moved inland on June 3. The low-level circulation dissipated, though the mid-level circulation persisted. It emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on June 4, and developed deep convection on its eastern side. [2] Early on June 5, satellite imagery suggested that a tropical depression was forming in the northwest Gulf of Mexico, which was furthered by reports of wind gusts as high as 60 mph (95 km/h) just a few hundred feet above the surface, towards the east side of the system. [3]

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

South America A continent in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.

At 1200 UTC on June 5, the disturbance developed a broad, low-level circulation, and was classified as Tropical Storm Allison, the first storm of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. Some intensification was projected, though it was expected to be hindered by cool offshore sea surface temperatures. [4] Due to the cold-core nature of the center, Allison initially contained subtropical characteristics. Despite this, the storm quickly strengthened to attain peak sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h), with tropical storm-force winds extending up to 230 miles (370 km) east of the center, and a minimum central pressure of 1000 mbar. [2] The storm initially moved very little, and the presence of several small vortices from within the deep convection caused difficulty in determining the exact center location. [5] Later in the day, several different track forecasts arose. One scenario had the cyclone tracking westward into Mexico. Another projected the storm moving east towards southern Louisiana. At the time, it was noted that little rain or wind persisted near the center, but rather to the north and east. [6] Under the steering currents of a subtropical ridge that extended in an east–west orientation across the southeast United States, [5] Allison weakened while nearing the Texas coastline, and struck near Freeport, Texas with 50 mph (80 km/h) winds. [2] Inland, the storm rapidly weakened, and the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories early on June 6. [7] Shortly after being downgraded to a tropical depression, surface observations showed an elongated circulation with a poorly defined center, which had reformed closer to the deep convection. [8]

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Bar (unit) non-SI unit of pressure

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa, which is slightly less than the current average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Subtropical Storm Allison with an eye-like feature over Mississippi Tropical Storm Allison- Eye.jpg
Subtropical Storm Allison with an eye-like feature over Mississippi

The depression drifted northward until reaching Lufkin, Texas, where it stalled due to a high pressure system to its north. [2] While stalling over Texas, the storm dropped excessive rainfall, peaking at just over 40 inches (1,033 mm) in northwestern Jefferson County. [9] On June 7, the subtropical ridge off Florida weakened, while the ridge west of Texas intensified. This steered Tropical Depression Allison to make a clockwise loop, and the storm began drifting to the southwest. As the center reached Huntsville, Texas, a heavy rain band began to back build from Louisiana westward into Liberty County, Texas, which had caused additional flooding. [10] At the time, the system had a minimum central pressure of about 1004 mb and maximum sustained winds of about 10 mph (16 km/h). [11] Late on June 9 and early on June 10, Allison's remnants reentered reached the Gulf of Mexico and emerged over open waters. [12] The low once again became nearly stationary about 60 mi (100 km) south of Galveston, Texas, and despite more favorable upper-level winds, it showed no signs of redevelopment. [13] Due to dry air and moderate westerly wind shear, the storm transformed into a subtropical cyclone. While the subtropical depression moved eastward, a new low level circulation redeveloped to the east, and Allison quickly made landfall on Morgan City, Louisiana on June 11. [2] At around the same time, the surface center reformed to the east-northeast of its previous location, aligning with the mid-level circulation. [14] Strong thunderstorms redeveloped over the circulation, and Allison strengthened into a subtropical storm over southeastern Louisiana. [2] The storm intensified further to attain sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of about 1000 mb near Mclain, Mississippi, accompanied by a well-defined eye-like feature. [15]

Lufkin, Texas City in Texas, United States

Lufkin is a city in and the county seat of Angelina County in eastern Texas, United States. This city is 120 miles (190 km) northeast of Houston. Founded in 1882, the population was 35,837 at the 2017 census.

Jefferson County, Texas County in the United States

Jefferson County is a county located in the Coastal Plain or Gulf Prairie region of Southeast Texas in the United States. The Neches River forms its northeast boundary. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,273. The 2015 United States Census estimate is 254,308. The county seat of Jefferson County is Beaumont.

Florida State of the United States of America

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Subtropical Depression Allison over North Carolina on June 15 Tropical Storm Allison- Carolina.gif
Subtropical Depression Allison over North Carolina on June 15

The storm was officially downgraded to a subtropical depression at 0000 UTC on June 12. Somewhat accelerating, the depression tracked to the east-northeast through Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina before becoming nearly stationary near Wilmington, North Carolina. [2] The depression drifted through North Carolina and sped to the northeast for a time in response to an approaching cold front. [16] Though satellite and radar imagery show the system was well-organized, the system slowed and moved erratically for a period of time, [17] executing what appeared to be a small counterclockwise loop. [18] The storm began tracking in a generally northeasterly direction, and crossed into the southern Delmarva Peninsula on June 16. [19] The subtropical remnants reached the Atlantic on June 17, and while located east of Atlantic City, New Jersey, winds began to restrengthen, and heavy rains formed to the north of the circulation. The low was interacting with a frontal boundary, and started merging with it, as it accelerated to the northeast at 13 mph (21 km/h). [20] The remnants of Allison briefly reintensified to a subtropical storm through baroclinic processes, though it became extratropical while south of Long Island. [2] By later on June 17, the low was situated off the coast of Rhode Island, spreading a swath of precipitation over New England. [21] The remnants of the tropical storm were then absorbed by the frontal boundary by June 18, and eventually passed south of Cape Race, Newfoundland on June 20, where the extratropical cyclone dissipated. [2]

Preparations

Shortly after the storm formed, officials in Galveston County, Texas issued a voluntary evacuation for the western end of Galveston Island, as the area was not protected by the Galveston Seawall. [2] The ferry from the island to the Bolivar Peninsula was closed, while voluntary evacuations were issued in Surfside in Brazoria County. [22] When the National Hurricane Center issued the first advisory on Allison, officials issued Tropical Storm Warnings from Sargent, Texas to Morgan City, Louisiana. [23] After the storm made landfall, flash flood watches and warnings were issued for numerous areas in eastern Texas. [24] During the flood event, the National Weather Service in Houston issued 99 flash flood warnings with an average lead time of 40 minutes. With an average lead time of 24 minutes, the National Weather Service in Lake Charles, Louisiana issued 47 flash flood warnings. With an average lead time of 39 minutes, the National Weather Service in New Orleans/Baton Rouge issued 87 flash flood warnings, of which 30 were not followed by a flash flood. [25]

In Tallahassee, Florida, a shelter opened the day before Allison's movement northward through the area, seven staff members housing 12 people. Two other shelters were on standby. Teams informed citizens in the Florida Panhandle of flood dangers. [26]

Impact

Death Tolls by State
AreaDeaths
Texas 23
Louisiana 1
Mississippi 1
Florida 8
Virginia 1
Pennsylvania 7
Total41

Tropical Storm Allison was a major flood disaster throughout its path from Texas to the Mid-Atlantic. The worst of the flooding occurred in Houston, Texas, where over 35 inches (890 mm) of rain fell. Allison caused approximately $8.5 billion in damage (2001 USD), [27] making it the costliest tropical cyclone that was never a major hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin. The storm also killed 41 people directly, including 27 who drowned. This ties Allison with a tropical storm in 1917 as the second-deadliest tropical storm to affect the contiguous United States, surpassed only by the 1925 Florida tropical storm which killed 73 people. [2]

Texas

Combined with waves on top, areas of Galveston Island experienced a wall of water 8 feet (2.5 m) in height, creating overwash along the coastline. The storm caused winds of up to 43 mph (69 km/h) at the Galveston Pier. While Allison was stalling over Texas, it dropped very heavy rainfall across the state. [2] Minimal beach erosion was reported. [28] Flash flooding continued for days, [10] with rainfall amounts across the state peaking at just over 40 inches (1,033 mm) in northwestern Jefferson County. In the Port of Houston, a total of 36.99 inches (940 mm) was reported. [9] Houston experienced torrential rainfall in a short amount of time. The six-day rainfall in Houston amounted to 38.6 inches (980 mm). [29] Houston Hobby Airport received 20.84 inches of rain from June 5 to 10, 2001, while Bush Intercontinental Airport received 16.48 inches. [30] The deluge of rainfall flooded 95,000 automobiles and 73,000 houses throughout Harris County. [1] Tropical Storm Allison destroyed 2,744 homes, leaving 30,000 homeless with residential damages totaling $1.76 billion (2001 USD). [29]

The Southwest Freeway, near Downtown Houston, lies under water due to flooding from Tropical Storm Allison TS Allison Texas flooding.jpg
The Southwest Freeway, near Downtown Houston, lies under water due to flooding from Tropical Storm Allison

Several hospitals in the Texas Medical Center, the largest medical complex in the world, experienced severe damage from the storm, which hit quickly and with unexpected fury on a Friday evening. The Baylor College of Medicine experienced major damage, totaling $495 million (2001 USD, $643 million 2012 USD). The medical school lost 90,000 research animals, 60,000 tumor samples, and 25 years of research data. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, across the street, lost thousands of laboratory animals. Throughout the Medical Center, damage totaled over $2 billion (2001 USD). [29]

Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou at Main Street after Tropical Storm Allison hit Houston Allison Flood Houston.jpg
Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou at Main Street after Tropical Storm Allison hit Houston

The underground tunnel system, which connects most large office buildings in downtown Houston, was submerged, as were many streets and parking garages adjacent to Buffalo Bayou. At the Houston Theater District, also in downtown, the Houston Symphony, Houston Grand Opera, and Alley Theater lost millions of dollars of costumes, musical instruments, sheet music, archives and other artifacts. By midnight on June 9 nearly every freeway and major road in the city was under several feet of water, forcing hundreds of motorists to abandon their vehicles for higher ground. [29]

Despite massive flooding damage to entire neighborhoods there were no drowning deaths in flooded homes. In the area, there were twelve deaths from driving, six from walking, three from electrocution, and one in an elevator. [1] Elsewhere in Texas, a man drowned when swimming in a ditch in Mauriceville. [25] Damage totaled $5.2 billion (2001 USD) throughout Texas. [31]

Louisiana

Flooding in Chackbay, Louisiana TS Allison-LA.jpg
Flooding in Chackbay, Louisiana

While making its first landfall, Allison's large circulation dropped severe rains on southwest Louisiana. [32] Days later, Allison hit the state as a subtropical storm, dropping more heavy rains to the area. Rainfall totals peaked at 29.86 inches (758 mm) in Thibodaux, the highest rainfall total in Louisiana from a tropical cyclone since another Tropical Storm Allison in 1989. [33] Most of the southeastern portion of the state experienced over 10 inches of rain (255 mm). [9] Winds were generally light, peaking at 38 mph (61 km/h) sustained in Lakefront with gusts to 53 mph (85 km/h) in Bay Gardene. The storm produced a storm surge of 2.5 feet (0.75 m) in Cameron as it was making landfall in Texas. [2] While moving northward through Texas, the outer bands of the storm produced an F1 tornado near Zachary, damaging several trees and a power line. A man was killed when a damaged power line hit his truck. [34]

When Allison first made landfall, heavy rainfall flooded numerous houses and businesses. Minor wind gusts caused minor roof damage to 10 houses in Cameron Parish, while its storm surge flooded portions of Louisiana Highway 82. [35] When the system returned, more rainfall occurred, flooding over 1,000 houses in St. Tammany Parish, [36] 80 houses in Saint Bernard Parish, [37] and hundreds of houses elsewhere in the state. The flooding also forced 1,800 residents from their homes in East Baton Rouge Parish. [38] The deluge left numerous roads impassable, while runoff resulted in severe river flooding. The Bogue Falaya River in Covington crested past its peak twice to near-record levels. [36] The Amite and Comite Rivers reached their highest levels since 1983. In addition, the levee along the Bayou Manchac broke, flooding roadways and more houses. [38] Damage in Louisiana totaled to $65 million (2001 USD, $84 million 2012 USD). [29]

Southeast United States

Rainfall totals from Allison Allison 2001 rainfall.gif
Rainfall totals from Allison

In Mississippi, Allison produced heavy rainfall of over 10 inches (255 mm) in one night, [39] while some areas in the southwestern portion of the state received over 15 inches (380 mm). [9] The flooding damaged numerous houses and flooded many roadways. [39] Thunderstorms from the storm produced four tornadoes, [2] including one in Gulfport, Mississippi that damaged 10 houses. [40] Severe thunderstorms in George County damaged 15 houses, destroyed 10, and injured 5 people. [41] Damage in Mississippi totaled to over $1 million (2001 USD, $1.3 million 2012 USD). [39] [40] [41] Rainfall in Alabama was moderate, with areas near Mobile experiencing more than 10 inches (255 mm). [9] Heavy rainfall closed several roads in Crenshaw County. [42] The storm, combined with a high pressure, produced coastal flooding in southern Alabama. [43] Allison produced an F0 tornado in southwest Mobile County that caused minor roof damage [44] and another F0 tornado in Covington County that caused minor damage to six homes and a church. [44]

The storm, combined with a high pressure system, produced a strong pressure gradient, resulting in strong rip currents off the coast of Florida. The currents prompted sirens, which are normally used for storm warnings, to be activated in Pensacola Beach. [45] The rip currents killed 5 off the coast of Florida. [46] Outer rain bands from the storm dropped heavy rainfall across the Florida Panhandle of over 11 inches (280 mm) in one day. The Tallahassee Regional Airport recorded 10.13 inches (257 mm) in 24 hours, breaking the old 24‑hour record set in 1969. [47] Throughout the state, Allison destroyed 10 homes and damaged 599, 196 severely, primarily in Leon County. [48] Including the deaths from rip currents, Allison killed eight people in Florida [2] and caused $20 million (2001 USD, $26 million 2012 USD) in damage. [47]

Over Georgia, the storm dropped heavy rainfall of 10 inches (255 mm) in 24 hours in various locations. The deluge caused rivers to crest past their banks, including the Oconee River at Milledgeville which peaked at 33.7 feet (10.3 m). The rainfall, which was heaviest across the southwestern portion of the state, washed out several bridges and roads, and flooded many other roads. Georgia governor Roy Barnes declared a state of emergency for seven counties in the state. [49] The storm also spawned two tornadoes. [2] In South Carolina, Allison's outer bands produced 10  tornadoes [2] and several funnel clouds, though most only caused minor damage limited to a damaged courthouse, snapped trees [50] and downed power lines. [51] Allison produced from 12 to 16 inches (305 to 406 mm) of rainfall in North Carolina, closing nearly all roads in Martin County and damaging 25 homes. [52] The severe flooding washed out a bridge in eastern Halifax County [53] and flooded numerous cars. [33] Wet roads caused nine traffic accidents throughout the state. [2]

Mid-Atlantic and Northeast United States

Damage from flooding in Pennsylvania TS Allison-PA.JPG
Damage from flooding in Pennsylvania

In Virginia, Allison produced light rainfall, with the southeastern and south-central portions of the state experiencing over 3 inches (76 mm). [9] A tree in a saturated ground fell over and killed one person. [54] Allison also produced one tornado in the state. [2] Washington, D.C. experienced moderate rainfall from the storm, totaling 2.59 inches (66 mm) in Georgetown. [55] In Maryland, rainfall from Tropical Depression Allison totaled to 7.5 inches (190 mm) in Denton, closing eleven roads and causing washouts on 41 others. The Maryland Eastern Shore experienced only minor rainfall from one to two inches (25 to 50 mm). Damage was light, and no deaths were reported. [56] In Delaware, the storm produced moderate rainfall, peaking at 4.2 inches (106 mm) in Greenwood. No damage was reported. [57]

Allison, in combination with an approaching frontal boundary, dropped heavy rainfall across southeastern Pennsylvania, peaking at 10.17 inches (258 mm) in Chalfont in Bucks County and over 3 inches (76 mm) in portions of Philadelphia. The rainfall caused rivers to rise, with the Neshaminy Creek in Langhorne peaking at 16.87 feet (5.1 m). Several other rivers and creeks in southeastern Pennsylvania crested at over 10 feet (3 m). The rainfall downed numerous weak trees and power lines, leaving 70,000 without power during the storm. The flooding washed out several roads and bridges, including a few SEPTA rail lines. In addition, the rainfall destroyed 241 homes and damaged 1,386 others. Flooding at a Dodge dealership totaled 150 vehicles. Hundreds of people were forced to be rescued from damaged buildings from flood waters. The flooding dislodged a clothes dryer in the basement of the "A" building of the Village Green Apartment Complex in Upper Moreland Township, breaking a natural gas line. The gas leak resulted in an explosion and an ensuing fire that killed six people. Firefighters were unable to render assistance as the building was completely surrounded by floodwaters. Additionally, one man drowned in his vehicle in a river. [58] Damage in Pennsylvania totaled to $215 million (2001 USD, $279 million 2012 USD). [29]

In New Jersey, the storm produced heavy rainfall, peaking at 8.1 inches (205 mm) in Tuckerton. The rains also caused river flooding, including the north branch of the Metedeconk River in Lakewood which crested at 8 feet (2.5 m). The flooding, severe at places, closed several roads, including numerous state highways. [59] Gusty winds of up to 44 mph (71 km/h) in Atlantic City downed weak trees and power lines, leaving over 13,000 without power. Several people had to be rescued from high waters, though no fatalities occurred in the state. Overall damage was minimal. [60]

Tropical Storm Allison caused flash flooding in New York, dropping up to 3 inches (75 mm) of rain in one hour in several locations and peaking at 5.73 inches (146 mm) in Granite Springs. The rains also caused river flooding, including the Mahwah River which crested at 3.79 feet (1.2 m). Allison's rainfall damaged 24 houses and several stores, while the flooding closed several major highways in the New York City area. Overall damage was light, and no fatalities occurred in New York due to Allison. [61] Similarly, rainfall in Connecticut peaked at 7.2 inches (183 mm) in Pomfret, [62] closing several roads and causing minor damage to numerous houses. The Yantic River at Yantic crested at 11.1 feet (3.4 m), [62] while a state road was closed when a private dam in Hampton failed from the rainfall. [62] In Rhode Island, Allison produced up to 7.1 inches (180 mm) of rainfall in North Smithfield, washing out several roads and houses, and destroying a log house in Foster. [63]

An isolated severe thunderstorm in the outer bands of Allison produced an F1 tornado in Worcester and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts, impacting over 100 trees and damaging one house and one small camper. A microburst in Leominster and another in Shirley damaged several trees. Lightning from the storm hit two houses, causing significant damage there but little elsewhere. Allison also produced moderate rainfall in the state, mainly ranging from 3 to 5 inches (75 to 125 mm). The rainfall caused drainage and traffic problems. Damage in Massachusetts totaled to $400,000 (2001 USD, $520,000 2012 USD). [64]

Aftermath

Within weeks of the disaster, President George W. Bush declared 75 counties in Texas, [65] southern Louisiana, [66] southern Mississippi, [67] northwestern Florida, [68] and southeastern Pennsylvania as disaster areas. [69] The declarations allowed affected citizens to receive aid for temporary housing, emergency home repairs, and other serious disaster-related expenses. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) also provided 75% for the cost of debris removal, emergency services related to the disaster, and repairing or replacing damaged public facilities, such as roads, bridges and utilities. [65]

Aid from the American Red Cross Allison- Red Cross.jpg
Aid from the American Red Cross

A few weeks after Allison, FEMA opened six disaster recovery centers across southeast Texas, which provided recovery information to those who applied for disaster assistance. [70] The American Red Cross and the Salvation Army opened 48 shelters at the peak of need for people driven from their homes, which served nearly 300,000 meals. The National Disaster Medical System deployed a temporary hospital to Houston with 88 professionals, aiding nearly 500 people. [71] Thirty-five volunteer services provided aid for the flood victims in Texas, including food, clothing, and volunteers to help repair the houses. [72] After nearly 50,000 cars were flooded and ruined, many people attempted to sell the cars across the country without telling of the car's history. [73] Following the extreme flooding, a mosquito outbreak occurred, though FEMA provided aid to control the problem. [74] By six months after the storm, around 120,000 Texas citizens applied for federal disaster aid, totaling to $1.05 billion (2001 USD). [75]

Like in Texas, a mosquito outbreak occurred in Louisiana. Only pesticides acceptable to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Fish and Wildlife Service were allowed to be used. [76] FEMA officials warned homeowners of the dangers of floodwaters, including mold, mildew, and bacteria. [77] By three months after the storm, just under 100,000 Louisiana citizens applied for federal aid, totaling to over $110 million (2001 USD, $143 million 2012 USD). $25 million (2001 USD, $32 million 2012 USD) of the total was for business loans, while an additional $8 million was for public assistance for communities and state agencies. [78] More than 750 flood victims in Florida applied for governmental aid, totaling to $1.29 million (2001 USD, $1.5 million 2007 USD). [79] In Pennsylvania, 1,670 flood victims applied for federal aid, totaling to $11.5 million (2001 USD, $14.3 million 2012 USD). $3.4 million (2001 USD, $4.4 million 2012 USD) of the total was to replace a SEPTA rail bridge over Sandy Run in Fort Washington. [80]

Retirement

Due to the severe damage and deaths caused by the storm, the name Allison was retired in spring 2002, and will never again be used in the Atlantic basin; the 2001 incarnation of Allison was the only Atlantic tropical system to have its name retired without reaching hurricane strength until the name Erika was retired following a storm in 2015. The name was replaced with Andrea in the 2007 season.

See also

Related Research Articles

Tropical Storm Allison (1989) Atlantic tropical storm in 1989

Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical cyclone that produced severe flooding in the southern United States. The second tropical cyclone and the first named storm of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season, Allison formed on June 24 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Development of Allison was a result of the interaction of a tropical wave and the remnants of Pacific hurricane Hurricane Cosme. It moved south and became a tropical storm on June 26. By June 27, Allison made landfall near Freeport, Texas. Allison quickly weakened to a tropical depression later that day, and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on the following day.

Tropical Storm Matthew (2004) Atlantic tropical storm in 2004

Tropical Storm Matthew was a weak tropical storm in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season that made landfall on Louisiana. Matthew was the thirteenth tropical storm of the season and the ninth storm to affect the United States. Matthew formed over the western Gulf of Mexico on October 8 and struck south-central Louisiana two days later. The combination of this storm and an upper cyclone over the southern Plains brought heavy rains to much of the Gulf Coast, with the highest amounts reported lying over 15 inches (381 mm) in northern Louisiana. Damage was minimal, totaling $305,000 (2004 USD), and no casualties were reported.

Tropical Storm Claudette (1979) Atlantic tropical storm in 1979

Tropical Storm Claudette caused significant flooding in eastern Texas and western Louisiana in July 1979. The third named storm of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season, Claudette developed from a tropical wave located east of the Windward Islands on July 16. It gradually strengthened and was upgraded to a tropical storm on July 17 and crossed the northern Leeward Islands later that day. As it neared landfall in Puerto Rico early on July 18, upper-level winds weakened it back to a tropical depression. Claudette remained disorganized and the National Hurricane Center operationally reported that it degenerated back into a tropical wave after crossing Puerto Rico. Late on July 18, the depression struck Dominican Republic, emerged into the Caribbean Sea on the following day. Claudette struck western Cuba on July 21, shortly before reaching the Gulf of Mexico and "regenerating" into a tropical cyclone. By July 23, Claudette regained tropical storm intensity and turned northward toward the Gulf Coast of the United States. The storm made landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border late on July 23 as a moderately strong tropical storm. It weakened slowly and drifted over land, lasting until dissipation in West Virginia on July 29.

Tropical Storm Fay (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Fay was the sixth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season; it was a moderate tropical storm which caused flooding in parts of Texas and Mexico. In early September, a trough of low pressure moved south into the Gulf of Mexico, and became stationary. A low pressure center developed along this trough, and on September 5, a Hurricane Hunter airplane reported that the system had gained sufficient organization to be a tropical depression, 95 miles (153 km) southeast of Galveston. The depression drifted south-southwest while strengthening, reaching its peak strength of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) on the morning of September 6. The system then made an abrupt turn to the west-northwest, and remained steady in strength and course until landfall the next day, near Matagorda. The system weakened at a fast rate after landfall, but its circulation would not totally dissipate for three more days.

Tropical Storm Hanna (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Hanna was a moderately strong tropical storm that affected the Gulf Coast and Southeastern regions of the United States. The tenth tropical cyclone and eighth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Hanna formed through the complex interaction of a surface trough, a tropical wave, and an upper-level low pressure system, a disturbance in the upper atmosphere. Designated a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on September 12, the storm remained disorganized throughout its duration, though it attained tropical storm status and a peak intensity of 1,001 mbar (29.6 inHg), with winds of 60 miles per hour (100 km/h). Hanna crossed extreme southeastern Louisiana, and made a second landfall along the Alabama–Mississippi border.

Tropical Storm Bill (2003) Atlantic tropical storm in 2003

Tropical Storm Bill was a tropical storm that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2003. The second storm of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season, Bill developed from a tropical wave on June 29 to the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. It slowly organized as it moved northward, and reached a peak of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) shortly before making landfall in south-central Louisiana. Bill quickly weakened over land, and as it accelerated to the northeast, moisture from the storm, combined with cold air from an approaching cold front, produced an outbreak of 34 tornadoes. Bill became extratropical on July 2, and was absorbed by the cold front later that day.

Tropical Storm Henri (2003) Atlantic tropical storm in 2003

Tropical Storm Henri was a moderate tropical storm that formed in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eighth storm of the season, Henri was one of six tropical cyclones to hit the United States in the year. Henri formed from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexico in early September, and crossed over Florida as a tropical depression. Its remnants later moved into the Mid-Atlantic before dissipating completely.

Tropical Storm Grace (2003) Atlantic tropical storm in 2003

Tropical Storm Grace was a weak tropical storm that struck Texas in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eleventh tropical depression and the seventh tropical storm of the season, Grace was also the weakest storm of the season. On August 30 the storm developed from a long-track tropical wave in the western Gulf of Mexico. Grace remained disorganized throughout its lifetime due to an upper level low to its west. The weak storm moved northwestward and made landfall on southeastern Texas. Grace quickly weakened over land, and dissipated on September 2 as it merged into a cold front.

Tropical Storm Bertha (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Bertha was a minimal tropical storm that made landfall twice along the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2002. The second tropical storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Bertha developed in the northern Gulf of Mexico out of a trough of low pressure that extended into the Atlantic on August 4. It quickly organized and reached tropical storm strength before making landfall on southeastern Louisiana. Bertha turned to the southwest over the state, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico on August 7. It remained disorganized due to proximity to land, and after making landfall on south Texas, Bertha dissipated on August 9.

Hurricane Humberto (2007) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2007

Hurricane Humberto was a Category 1 hurricane that formed and intensified faster than any other North Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, before landfall. Developing on September 12, 2007, in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the tropical cyclone rapidly strengthened and struck High Island, Texas, with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 13. It steadily weakened after moving ashore, and on September 14, Humberto began dissipating over northwestern Georgia as it interacted with an approaching cold front.

Effects of Tropical Storm Allison in Texas

The effects of Tropical Storm Allison in Texas included 23 deaths caused by extreme flooding. The first storm of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season, Tropical Storm Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline.

Effects of Hurricane Jeanne in Puerto Rico

The effects of Hurricane Jeanne in Puerto Rico included the most damage from a tropical cyclone since Hurricane Georges in 1998. Jeanne, the tenth tropical storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, struck the United States territory of Puerto Rico on September 15, with 70 mph (110 km/h). While crossing the island, the storm dropped heavy rainfall, peaking at 19.2 in (490 mm) at Aibonito, with a total of 23.75 in (603 mm) on the offshore island of Vieques. The rainfall caused widespread flooding, resulting in landslides and heavy crop damage. Winds reached 72 mph (117 km/h) at Cayey, and its combination with the rainfall left most of the island without power or water.

References

  1. 1 2 3 John P. Ivey (2002). "Flood Safety and Tropical Storm Allison" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Stacy R. Stewart (February 28, 2002). "Tropical Storm Allison Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  3. Stewart (June 5, 2001). "June 5 Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. Stewart (June 5, 2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Discussion Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  5. 1 2 Stewart (June 5, 2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Discussion Number 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  6. Lawrence (June 5, 2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Discussion Number 3". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  7. Pasch (June 6, 2001). "Tropical Depression Allison Public Advisory Number 4". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  8. Pasch (June 6, 2001). "Tropical Depression Allison Discussion Number 4". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (2006). "Rainfall totals from Tropical Storm Allison" . Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  10. 1 2 Houston/Galveston National Weather Service (Synoptic Situation) (2006). "Tropical Storm Allison Floods, June 5–9, 2001". Archived from the original on December 14, 2004. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  11. Pereira (June 8, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 12 for the Remnants of Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  12. Pereira (June 8, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 19 for the Remnants of Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  13. Stewart (June 10, 2001). "June 10 Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ permanent dead link ]
  14. Clark (June 10, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 23 for the Remnants of Tropical Storm Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  15. Roth & Mcelroy (June 11, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 25 for the Former T.S. Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  16. Avila (June 14, 2001). "June 14 Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ permanent dead link ]
  17. Beven (June 14, 2001). "June 14 Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ permanent dead link ]
  18. Ziegenfelder & Mcelroy (June 14, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 38 for the Remnants of T.S. Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  19. Mcelroy (June 16, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 46 for the remnants of Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  20. Mcelroy (June 17, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 49 for the Remnants of Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  21. Clark (June 17, 2001). "Storm Summary Number 51 for the Remnants of Allison". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2008-08-16.[ dead link ]
  22. Houston/Galveston National Weather Service (2001). "Hurricane Local Statement (1)". Archived from the original on September 30, 2004. Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  23. National Hurricane Center (2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Discussion #1" . Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  24. Houston/Galveston National Weather Service (2001). "Hurricane Local Statement (3)". Archived from the original on April 12, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  25. 1 2 United States Department of Commerce (2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Heavy Rains and Floods in Texas and Louisiana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  26. United States Red Cross (2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Florida Situation Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
  27. Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones tables updated (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  28. Houston/Galveston National Weather Service (2001). "Preliminary Report (Houston/Galveston)". Archived from the original on February 7, 2004. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Risk Management Solutions (2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Event Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-05-18.
  30. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-26. Retrieved 2017-08-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Texas". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  32. Lake Charles National Weather Service (2001). "Hurricane Local Statement (2)". Archived from the original on February 7, 2004. Retrieved 2006-05-15.
  33. 1 2 David M. Roth (2001). "wpc Storm Summary #52 for T.D. Allison". Archived from the original on 2006-10-08. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  34. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report For Louisiana". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  35. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Louisiana 2". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  36. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report For Louisiana 3". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  37. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Louisiana 4". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  38. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Louisiana 5". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  39. 1 2 3 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Mississippi". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
  40. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Mississippi (2)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
  41. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Mississippi (3)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
  42. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Alabama". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  43. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Alabama (2)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  44. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Alabama (3)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  45. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Florida". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  46. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Florida (2)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  47. 1 2 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Florida (3)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  48. Gathana Parmenas (2001). "Detailed Damage Assessment Summary in Florida". Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
  49. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for Georgia". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  50. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for South Carolina". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  51. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for South Carolina (2)". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  52. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for North Carolina". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  53. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Report for North Carolina". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  54. USA Today.com (2001-07-03). "Allison was weak, but a killer" . Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  55. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Washington D.C." Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  56. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Maryland". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  57. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Delaware". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  58. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Pennsylvania". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  59. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in New Jersey". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  60. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in New Jersey". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  61. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in New York". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  62. 1 2 3 National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Connecticut". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  63. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Rhode Island". Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  64. National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Event Record Details for Tropical Storm Allison in Massachusetts". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-31.
  65. 1 2 FEMA (2001). "Texas Severe Storms & Flooding". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2006-06-13.
  66. Fema (2001). "Louisiana Tropical Storm Allison". Archived from the original on 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
  67. FEMA (2001). "Mississippi Tropical Storm Allison". Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
  68. FEMA (2001). "Florida Tropical Storm Allison". Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
  69. FEMA (2001). "Pennsylvania Tropical Storm Allison". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
  70. FEMA (2001). "Disaster Recovery Centers To Open". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  71. FEMA (2001). "Mobile Military Hospital Provides Emergency Care For Houston's Citizens". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15.
  72. FEMA (2001). "Quiet Heroes — Voluntary Agencies". Archived from the original on September 20, 2005. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  73. FEMA (2001). "Buyer Beware: Flood-Damaged Cars Being Sold". Archived from the original on September 20, 2005. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  74. FEMA (2001). "FEMA Funding Mosquito Control". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  75. FEMA (2001). "Six Months After Allison, Disaster Assistance Reaches $1.05 Billion". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  76. FEMA (2001). "Responsible Response to Mosquitoes". Archived from the original on 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  77. FEMA (2001). "Drying Out, Cleaning Up After Allison". Archived from the original on 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  78. FEMA (2001). "Summary Of Louisiana Disaster Assistance". Archived from the original on 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  79. FEMA (2001). "$1.2 Million Approved For Florida's Allison Flood Victims". Archived from the original on 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
  80. FEMA (2001). "Disaster Aid, Loans for Pennsylvanians Near $11.5 Million". Archived from the original on 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2006-06-14.