Hurricane Jeanne

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Hurricane Jeanne
Category 3 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Jeanne 2004-09-26 0315Z.jpg
Hurricane Jeanne making landfall in Florida at peak intensity on September 26
FormedSeptember 13, 2004
DissipatedSeptember 29, 2004
( Extratropical after September 28)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:120 mph (195 km/h)
Lowest pressure950 mbar (hPa); 28.05 inHg
Fatalities3,037 direct
Damage$7.94 billion (2004 USD)
Areas affected U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bahamas, Florida; flooding and damage in other eastern U.S. states
Part of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the season, as well as the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in Florida. After wreaking havoc on Hispaniola, Jeanne struggled to reorganize, eventually strengthening and performing a complete loop over the open Atlantic. It headed westwards, strengthening into a Category 3 hurricane and passing over the islands of Great Abaco and Grand Bahama in the Bahamas on September 25. Jeanne made landfall later in the day in Florida just 2 miles (3 kilometers) from where Frances had struck a mere 3 weeks earlier. Building on the rainfall of Frances and Ivan, Jeanne brought near-record flood levels as far north as West Virginia and New Jersey before its remnants turned east into the open Atlantic. Jeanne is blamed for at least 3,006 deaths in Haiti with about 2,800 in Gonaïves alone, which was nearly washed away by floods and mudslides. The storm also caused 8 deaths in Puerto Rico, 18 in the Dominican Republic and 5 in the United States, bringing the total number of deaths to at least 3,037; Hurricane Jeanne is the one of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes ever. Final property damage in the United States was $7.5 billion, plus an additional $270 million in the Dominican Republic and $169.5 million in Puerto Rico.

2004 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Grand Bahama island

Grand Bahama is the northernmost of the islands of The Bahamas, lying 84 kilometres (52 mi) off Palm Beach, Florida. It is the fourth largest island in the Bahamas island chain of approximately 700 islands and 2,400 cays. The island is roughly 530 square miles (1,400 km2) in area and approximately 153 kilometres (95 mi) long west to east and 24 kilometres (15 mi) at its widest point north to south. Administratively, the island consists of the Freeport Bonded Area and the districts of East Grand Bahama and West Grand Bahama.

Contents

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Jeanne 2004 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Tropical Depression Eleven formed from a tropical wave 70 miles (110 km) east-southeast of Guadeloupe in the evening of September 13, [1] and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Jeanne the next day. [2] Jeanne passed south of the U.S. Virgin Islands on September 15, [3] making landfall near Yabucoa, Puerto Rico later the same day. [4] After crossing Puerto Rico, Jeanne reached hurricane strength on September 16 near the eastern tip of the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola, [5] but fell back to tropical storm strength later that day as it moved across the mountainous island. [6] Jeanne moved offshore the Dominican Republic late in the afternoon of September 17. [7] By that time, Jeanne had weakened to tropical depression strength. [8] Even though Jeanne did not strike Haiti directly, the storm was large enough to cause flooding and mudslides, particularly in the northwestern part of the country. [9]

Guadeloupe Overseas region and department in France

Guadeloupe is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. With a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and an estimated population of 400,132 as of January 2015, it is the largest and most populous European Union territory in North America.

Yabucoa, Puerto Rico Municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.)

Yabucoa is a municipality in Puerto Rico (U.S.), located in the eastern region, north of Maunabo; south of San Lorenzo, Las Piedras and Humacao; and east of Patillas. Yabucoa is spread over 9 wards and Yabucoa Pueblo. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Puerto Rico Unincorporated territory of the United States

Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.

Hurricane Jeanne approaching Florida on September 25 Hurricane Jeanne 25 sept 1615Z full.jpg
Hurricane Jeanne approaching Florida on September 25

On September 18, while the system was being tracked near Great Inagua and Haiti, a new center formed well to the northeast and the previous circulation dissipated. [10] The system restrengthened, becoming a hurricane on September 20. [11] Jeanne continued to meander for several days (making a complete loop in the process) before beginning a steady westward motion toward the Bahamas and Florida. [9]

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Florida State of the United States of America

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Jeanne continued strengthening as it headed west, passing over Great Abaco in the Bahamas on the morning of September 25. [12] Shortly thereafter, the hurricane reached Category 3 strength. [13] Jeanne maintained this intensity as it passed Grand Bahama Island. At 11:50 p.m. EDT on September 25 (0350 UTC September 26), Jeanne made landfall on Hutchinson Island, just east of Sewall's Point, Florida, Stuart, Florida and Port Saint Lucie, Florida, at Category 3 strength. [14] This is the same place Hurricane Frances struck Florida three weeks earlier. [9] [15]

Known for beautiful beaches, nature preserves and parks, Hutchinson Island consists of two barrier islands on the coast of Martin, St. Lucie, and Indian River counties, Florida. The two islands are separated by the Fort Pierce Inlet and are known as North Hutchinson Island and South Hutchinson Island. North Hutchinson Island is divided into two counties - Indian River County and St. Lucie County. The Indian River county portion of North Hutchinson Island which extends to the Sebastian Inlet is sometimes called Orchid Island, although it is not a separate island. See the Wikipage for North Hutchinson Island for more information.

Sewalls Point, Florida Town in Florida, United States

Sewall's Point is a town located on the peninsula of the same name in Martin County, Florida, United States. The population was 1,999 at the 2010 census. As of 2013, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 2,078. Both the town and the peninsula are named for Capt. Henry Edwin Sewall. It is an eastern suburb of the county seat of Stuart.

Stuart, Florida City in Florida, United States

Stuart is a city in and the seat of Martin County, Florida, United States. Located on Florida's Treasure Coast, Stuart is the largest of four incorporated municipalities in Martin County. The estimated population is 16,543 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Stuart is the 126th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau. It is part of the Port St. Lucie, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Jeanne's track continued to follow within 20 miles (32 km) of that of Frances until it reached Pasco County. [16] The cyclone then swung more rapidly to the north, and the center remained over land all the way to the Georgia state line, unlike Frances which exited into the Gulf of Mexico. Jeanne became an extratropical cyclone over Virginia on September 28 and the system moved back into the Atlantic offshore the New Jersey coast the next day. [16]

Pasco County, Florida County in Florida, United States

Pasco County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 464,697. Its county seat is Dade City, and its largest city is New Port Richey. The county is named for Samuel Pasco.

Cyclone large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low pressure

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream.

Georgia (U.S. state) State of the United States of America

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which later split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city. Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state.

Preparations

Puerto Rico and the Leeward Islands

On the afternoon of September 13, tropical storm watches were issued for the British Virgin Islands, Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten while tropical storm warnings were raised for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The watches were upgraded to tropical storm warnings early on the morning of September 14. Later in the morning, tropical storm warnings were issued for St. Kitts and Nevis, while tropical storm watches were issued for Anguilla. During the afternoon, tropical storm warnings were lowered for Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten, while hurricane warnings were issued for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Late on the morning of September 15, a hurricane watch was issued for the British Virgin Islands. That afternoon, tropical storm warnings were dropped for St. Kitts and Nevis, while hurricane warnings were lowered to tropical storm warnings for the U.S. Virgin Islands. On the evening of September 15, tropical storm warnings were dropped Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, while hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings for Puerto Rico, and all watches and warnings were dropped for the British Virgin Islands. [9] The entire power grid of Puerto Rico was shut down by the government of Sila Maria Calderón as the storm approached to prevent electrocutions and infrastructure damage. [17]

Dominican Republic and Haiti

Hurricane Jeanne making landfall on the east coast of Hispaniola, September 16. Jeanne 2004 Hispaniola.jpg
Hurricane Jeanne making landfall on the east coast of Hispaniola, September 16.

Tropical storm watches were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona early in the afternoon on September 14. Later that afternoon, hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Santo Domingo. Late in the morning of September 15, hurricane warnings were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona, while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Puerto Plata. That evening, hurricane warnings were extended westward from Cabrera to Puerto Plata while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were issued from Puerto Plata to Monte Cristi. Late in the morning of September 16, tropical storm warnings were issued from Môle-Saint-Nicolas to Puerto Plata. That afternoon, hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings from Puerto Plata to Isla Saona while all hurricane watches were dropped. Late on the afternoon of September 17, tropical storm warnings were dropped for the remainder of Hispaniola. [9]

Bahamas

In the Bahamas, the first hurricane watch was issued at 2100 UTC on September 15 and included Acklins and Crooked Islands, Inagua, Mayaguana, Ragged Island, and Turks and Caicos Islands. By 1500 UTC the next day, that hurricane watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning. Simultaneously, another hurricane watch became in effect for Cat Island, Exuma, Long Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador. The hurricane warning was downgraded to a tropical storm warning at 2100 UTC on September 17, while the hurricane watch was lowered to a tropical storm watch. Both the tropical storm warning and tropical storm watch were discontinued at 1000 UTC on September 19. [9]

Although Jeanne then tracked away from the Bahamas, the storm was threatening the archipelago again by September 23. As a result, the tropical storm watch for Cat Island, Exumas, Long Island, Rum Cay and San Salvador was resulted at 0900 UTC. A hurricane watch was then issued for the northwestern Bahamas by 1730 UTC on September 23. Around 0900 UTC the next day, a hurricane warning was posted for Abaco Islands, Andros Islands, Berry Islands, Bimini, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama Island, and New Providence, while a tropical storm watch was simultaneously issued for Cat Island, Exumas, Long Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador. Late on September 25, the tropical storm warning was canceled. Early on the following day, the hurricane warning was downgraded to a tropical storm warning for Abaco Islands, Berry Islands, Bimini and Grand Bahama Island, while the remaining portion Andros Islands, Eleuthera and New Providence was discontinued. All tropical cyclone warnings and watches were canceled by 0900 UTC on September 26. [9]

Because Hurricane Frances struck only about two week prior, numerous houses were still patched with plastic sheeting on their roofs, while other residents were still living with neighbors or relatives. Officials urged residents in low-lying homes to evacuate. Shelters were set up at the churches and schools on Abaco Islands, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama. At least 700 people went to a shelter in Abaco Islands alone. [18]

Florida

Preparations in Central Florida were rushed and sudden, as it did not become apparent that the storm would make a direct hit until the morning of the 23rd. [19] Indeed, it had appeared the storm would pass safely offshore just the night before. [20] Voluntary evacuations were advised on Thursday and Friday, plans for opening shelters on Saturday were distributed to the public, and Florida Power and Light warned that power could be out "for an extended period of time". [21] Canals were also drained on the same day. [21]

On Friday, the Palm Beach Zoo prepared for the storm by moving small animals and birds into buildings such as restrooms and restaurants. [22] Evacuations began in earnest, with many residents leaving for the Keys, noting that the islands were the only location definitely out of harm's way. For once, evacuation to the Keys made sense. [23]

The center of Jeanne's eye achieved landfall near Stuart, at virtually the identical spot that Frances had come ashore three weeks earlier, the first time in record keeping that a hurricane made landfall in the same place as a previous storm of the same season. Maximum winds at the time of landfall were estimated to be near 120 m.p.h. [24]

Impact

Deaths from Hurricane Jeanne
CountryTotalStateCountyCounty
total
Dominican Republic 18
Haiti 3,006+
Puerto Rico 8
United States5 Florida Brevard 1
Clay 1
Indian River 1
South Carolina Fairfield 1
Virginia Patrick 1
Totals3,037+
Because of differing sources, totals may not match.

Guadeloupe

In its early states, Jeanne dropped heavy rainfall in Guadeloupe, peaking at 11.81 inches (300 mm). [25] The communes of Bouillante, Deshaies, and Pointe-Noire were the hardest hit. In Bouillante, 60 homes were damaged. The storm ruptured water pipes in the city of Bois Malher, isolating about 1,000 people. Damage to businesses resulted in 30 employees being laid-off. Crops also suffered impact, especially bananas. At the Malendure resort, which is located along the coast, the pier, restaurants, and dive base were rendered unusable. In Deshaies, 110 homes were severely damaged, including 60 in the city of Ferry. About a dozen boats were beached or capsized. Many roads and bridges were inflicted with damage. [26]

In Point-Noire, nearly 300 single-family homes were damaged or demolished. Three bridges were destroyed, while numerous roads were also affected. Further south in Vieux-Habitants, roads also suffered damage, particularly in the Beaugendre area, leaving a dozen households isolated. A primary school was impacted beyond repairs. In Saint-François, a trench was dug along a major highway to prevent a residential subdivision from flooding. [26]

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico was impacted by tropical storm force winds and heavy rain, with flooding on a historic scale. [24] The storm made landfall near Maunabo midday on September 15. [27] The storm generally moved northwest through the island, exiting on the northwest coast near the town of Mayagüez around 11 p.m. [27] Jeanne passed directly over the towns of Arroyo, Patillas, Guayama and Salinas on its trip over the Commonwealth. [27] San Juan reported a wind gust of 73 mph (117 km/h), [9] Carolina reported gusts to 71 mph (114 km/h), [27] and rainfall ranged from 5.98 inches (152 mm) in the city to over 24 inches (610 mm) in Vieques. [28] This excessive rainfall resulted in damage to roads, landslides, and collapsed bridges. [28] This resulted in one death and the evacuation of 400 people near the Río Grande de Añasco. [28] A total of eight people were reported dead in Puerto Rico as a result of Jeanne. Damages from the storm were estimated at $169.5 million (2004 USD). [29]

Haiti

Flooding in Haiti Haiti flood 1.jpg
Flooding in Haiti

By September 17, heavy rains totaling about 13 inches (330 mm) in the northern mountains of Haiti caused severe flooding and mudslides in the department of Artibonite, causing particular damage in the coastal city of Gonaïves, where it affected about 80,000 of the city's 100,000 residents. As of October 6, 2004 the official report counted 3,006 people dead, with 2,826 of those in Gonaïves alone. [30] Another 2,601 people were injured, and 7 people died.

Decades of deforestation left surrounding valleys unable to hold the 30 hours of rain from Hurricane Jeanne, causing massive landslides. Aid trucks were forced to ford floodwaters and mudslides on National Route 1. In addition, the flooding destroyed all of the rice and fruit harvest in the Artibonite which has been regarded as "Haiti's breadbasket". Some residents had buried unclaimed corpses in their backyards. There were also mass burials of bodies tipped into a massive pit from dump trucks, despite objections to their ceremonious nature and discouragement from the World Health Organization, due to the popular but incorrect belief that dead bodies would lead to catastrophic outbreaks of exotic diseases. [31]

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, the storm dumped torrential flooding rains and killing over two dozen. [32] Damage totaled $270 million (2004 USD). [33]

United States

Storm total Rainfall from Jeanne Jeanne 2004 rainfall.gif
Storm total Rainfall from Jeanne

Millions in Florida were left without electricity, some for the third time in a month. There were only five direct deaths in the mainland United States, three in Florida, one in South Carolina and one in Virginia. The final US damage was determined to be around $7.5 billion. It was difficult to isolate this from damage caused by Hurricane Frances (and, around Polk County and Highlands County, from Hurricane Charley as well).

As the storm moved northward east of the Appalachian Mountains, it continued producing heavy rains and flash flooding. Rainfall exceeded 6.00 inches (150 mm) as far north as New Jersey and Pennsylvania, [34] resulting in severe flash flooding in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and its Pennsylvania and New Jersey suburbs on September 28. Tornadoes also touched down in Wilmington, Delaware and Cherry Hill, New Jersey.

Damaged signs in Orlando, Florida caused by Jeanne. Jeanne Orlando damage.jpg
Damaged signs in Orlando, Florida caused by Jeanne.

Delaware and Maryland

Throughout Delaware, the remnants of Jeanne produced between 4 and 8 in (100 and 200 mm) of rain, [35] peaking at 7.1 in (180 mm) at the University of Delaware. [34] This led to widespread street flooding and several rivers overflowed their banks. Forty people had to be rescued from a bus along the White Clay Creek after the creek crested at .59 ft (0.18 m) above flood-stage. [35] A strong F2 tornado touched down in the state, injuring five people and leaving $1 million in damages. The tornado touched down in northern New Castle County and tracked for 5 mi (8.0 km) and generated winds up to 130 mph (210 km/h). The county airport sustained significant damage, five C-130 cargo planes were damaged, thousands of pounds of jet fuel spilled, and damaged hangars. At a nearby industrial park, metal siding was torn off buildings, windows were shattered and power lines were downed. A self-storage facility sustained substantial damage. [36]

In Maryland, Jeanne produced up to 4 in (100 mm) of rain, [34] triggering flash flooding throughout the state. [37] Numerous roads were flooded, [38] including parts of Maryland Route 17. [39] Several rivers rose above their flood-stage, with the Big Elk Creek cresting at 9.3 ft (2.8 m), 0.3 ft (0.091 m) above food-stage. [40] A total of 50 roads were closed due to high water throughout the state. Numerous reports of stranded vehicles were sent to the Emergency Operations Center. In Carroll County, a group of inmates required rescue after the jail they were in flooded. [41] One brief F0 tornado touched down in the state near Solomons, causing minor damage. [42]

Retirement

As a result of its impact the name Jeanne was retired in the spring of 2005, by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced with the name Julia ahead of the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season.

See also

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Hurricane Kyle was the eleventh tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. It formed from a strong tropical disturbance that tracked across the northeastern Caribbean Sea in the third week of September. As a low pressure area, it moved slowly across Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, dumping torrential rains across those islands.

Tropical Storm Claudette (2009) Atlantic tropical storm in 2009

Tropical Storm Claudette was the third named storm of the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season and the first tropical cyclone of 2009 to affect the United States. Forming out of a tropical wave and an upper-level low pressure system on August 16, Claudette quickly intensified into a tropical storm offshore south of Tallahassee, Florida. By the afternoon, the storm had attained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and steadily tracked towards the Florida Panhandle. Early on August 17, the center of Claudette made landfall on Santa Rosa Island. Several hours after landfall, the storm weakened to a tropical depression and the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center took over primary responsibility of the storm. Later on August 17, the final public advisory was issued on the system as it dissipated over Alabama.

Tropical Storm Erika (2009) Atlantic tropical storm in 2009

Tropical Storm Erika was a short-lived tropical cyclone that had minor impacts in the Lesser Antilles. The fifth named storm of the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season, Erika originated out of a tropical wave on September 1 near the Lesser Antilles. Although it was a disorganized system, it was immediately declared a tropical storm, rather than a tropical depression. Later that day, the system reached its peak intensity with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 1004 mbar. Increased wind shear caused the storm to weaken shortly thereafter, with Erika barely maintaining tropical storm-status by September 2. Later that day, the storm passed over the island of Guadeloupe and entered the Caribbean Sea. On September 3, Erika weakened to a tropical depression as the low pressure center became fully displaced from convective activity. Later that day, the system degenerated into a remnant low before dissipating near Puerto Rico on September 4.

Tropical Storm Christine (1973) Atlantic tropical storm in 1973

Tropical Storm Christine was the easternmost forming Atlantic tropical cyclone on record. Forming as a tropical depression over the country of Guinea on August 25, 1973, the system tracked nearly due west for several days before intensifying into a tropical storm on August 28. However, the National Hurricane Center did not issue their first advisory on the system until its intensity was confirmed by a reconnaissance aircraft on August 30. Turning slightly northward, Christine gradually intensified, attaining its peak strength on September 2. At that time, the storm had winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 996 mbar, just below hurricane status. Shortly after, increasing wind shear caused the system to quickly weaken. By September 4, Christine had been downgraded to a tropical depression as it tracked through the Leeward Islands. After degenerating into a tropical wave, the cyclone's remnants fully dissipated on September 6.

Hurricane Ida Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2009

Hurricane Ida was the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone during the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season, crossing the coastline of Nicaragua with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). The remnants of the storm became a powerful nor'easter that caused widespread damage along coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic States. Ida formed on November 4 in the southwestern Caribbean, and within 24 hours struck the Nicaragua coast with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). It weakened significantly over land, although it restrengthened in the Yucatán Channel to peak winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). Hurricane Ida weakened and became an extratropical cyclone in the northern Gulf of Mexico before spreading across the southeastern United States. The remnants of Ida contributed to the formation of a nor'easter that significantly affected the eastern coast of the United States.

Effects of Hurricane Jeanne in the Mid-Atlantic region

The effects of Hurricane Jeanne in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States included two fatalities and $530 million in damage. Originating from a tropical wave off the coast of Africa in early September 2004, Hurricane Jeanne tracked through the Leeward Islands and Hispaniola for several days, resulting in extensive damage and an immense loss of life. After completing a clockwise loop between September 22 and 24, the storm intensified into a major hurricane before striking the Bahamas and Florida. Substantially weaker, the system turned northeastward over Georgia before affecting Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia; all of those states are in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. By the evening of September 26, the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center took over responsibility of monitoring the former hurricane over Virginia.

Hurricane Edith (1963) Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1963

Hurricane Edith brought flooding and wind damage to portions of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. The sixth tropical storm and fifth hurricane of the 1963 season, Edith developed east of the Windward Islands on September 23 from an Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) disturbance. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Edith the next day. Shortly thereafter, Edith reached hurricane status. Edith fluctuated between Category 1 and 2 status as it moved west-northwest. Upon reaching Category 2 intensity on September 25, the storm peaked with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h). After striking Saint Lucia on September 25, the storm traversed the eastern Caribbean Sea. Curving north-northwest on September 26, Edith made landfall near La Romana, Dominican Republic, early on the following day as a minimal hurricane. Interaction with land and an upper-level trough caused Edith to weaken to a tropical storm on September 28 and to a tropical depression by the next day. The storm dissipated just east of the Bahamas on September 29.

Tropical Storm Bonnie (2010) Atlantic tropical storm in 2010

Tropical Storm Bonnie was a small and rather weak tropical storm that brought squally weather to the northern Caribbean Sea and Gulf Coast of the United States in July 2010. The third tropical cyclone and second named storm of the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave over the Bahamas on July 22. It strengthened to a tropical storm while crossing the islands, and made landfall on the southeastern coast of Florida the following day. Inland, Bonnie weakened to a tropical depression before entering the Gulf of Mexico, where its surface circulation dissipated on July 24. The remnants of the storm moved ashore between Louisiana and Mississippi early on July 25, prompting severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings in the area.

Effects of Hurricane Jeanne in Puerto Rico

The effects of Hurricane Jeanne in Puerto Rico included the most damage from a tropical cyclone since Hurricane Georges in 1998. Jeanne, the tenth tropical storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, struck the United States territory of Puerto Rico on September 15, with 70 mph (110 km/h). While crossing the island, the storm dropped heavy rainfall, peaking at 19.2 in (490 mm) at Aibonito, with a total of 23.75 in (603 mm) on the offshore island of Vieques. The rainfall caused widespread flooding, resulting in landslides and heavy crop damage. Winds reached 72 mph (117 km/h) at Cayey, and its combination with the rainfall left most of the island without power or water.

Hurricane Maria (2011) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2011

Hurricane Maria was a Category 1 hurricane that made landfall on the island of Newfoundland during September 2011. Originating from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic on September 6, Maria moved toward the west and slowly strengthened. While approaching the northern Leeward Islands, however, the system entered a region of higher vertical wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures, causing it to degenerate into a low-pressure area. It slowly curved toward the north and northeast around the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, and regained tropical storm status on September 10. Maria further strengthened to attain hurricane status while making its closest approach to Bermuda. The cyclone attained peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) on September 16, but weakened thereafter because of an increase in wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures. Maria made landfall on the southeastern coast of Newfoundland during the afternoon hours of September 16 before becoming absorbed by a frontal system later on that same day.

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