2014 Atlantic hurricane season

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2014 Atlantic hurricane season
2014 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJuly 1, 2014
Last system dissipatedOctober 28, 2014
Strongest storm
Name Gonzalo
  Maximum winds145 mph (230 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure940 mbar (hPa; 27.76 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions9
Total storms8
Hurricanes6
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
2
Total fatalities21 total
Total damage≥ $371.6 million (2014 USD)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average hurricane season in terms of named storms, and an average season in terms of both hurricanes and major hurricanes. It produced nine tropical cyclones, eight named storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, six hurricanes and two major hurricanes. [nb 1] It officially began on June 1, 2014, and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first storm of the season, Arthur, developed on July 1, while the final storm, Hanna, dissipated on October 28, about a month prior to the end of the season.

Contents

Although every named storm impacted land, overall effects were minimal. Arthur caused one indirect fatality and $16.8 million (2014 USD) [nb 2] in damage after striking North Carolina and becoming the first Category 2 hurricane to make landfall in the United States since 2008's Hurricane Ike, and its remnants moving across Atlantic Canada. Hurricane Bertha brushed the Lesser Antilles but its impacts were relatively minor. Three deaths occurred offshore the United States and one fatal injury was reported off the coast of the United Kingdom. Hurricane Cristobal caused two deaths each in Haiti and the Dominican Republic and one in Turks and Caicos Islands, all due to flooding. Rip currents affected Maryland and New Jersey, resulting in one fatality in each state. The remnants of Cristobal were responsible for three indirect deaths in the United Kingdom. Tropical Storm Dolly made landfall in eastern Mexico and triggered flooding due to heavy rains, leaving minor impact. Hurricane Edouard caused two deaths near the coast of Maryland due to strong rip currents.

Fay caused about $3.8 million in damage in Bermuda after striking the island. Hurricane Gonzalo was the most intense hurricane of the season. A powerful Atlantic hurricane, Gonzalo had destructive impacts in the Lesser Antilles and Bermuda, and it was also the first Category 4 hurricane since Ophelia in 2011 and the strongest in the basin since Igor in 2010. It caused three fatalities in the Lesser Antilles and at least $200 million in damage in Bermuda. The remnants brought flooding and strong winds in Europe, causing three deaths in the United Kingdom. With two hurricanes striking Bermuda, this was the first season featuring more than one hurricane landfall on the island. The last storm of the season, Tropical Storm Hanna, made landfall over Central America in late October producing minimal impact.

Most major forecasting agencies predicted below-average activity to occur this season due to an expected strong El Niño; but the predictions failed to materialize, though unfavorable conditions still became established across the basin. [2]

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2014 season
SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010)12.16.42.7 [3]
Record high activity 30 15 7 [4]
Record low activity 4 2 0 [4]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
TSRDecember 12, 20131463 [5]
WSIMarch 24, 20141152 [2]
TSRApril 7, 20141252 [6]
CSUApril 10, 2014931 [7]
NCSUApril 16, 20148–114–61–3 [8]
UKMOMay 16, 201410*6*N/A [9]
NOAAMay 22, 20148–133–61–2 [10]
FSU COAPSMay 29, 20145–92–61–2 [11]
CSUJuly 31, 20141041 [12]
TSRAugust 5, 20149–154–81–3 [13]
NOAAAugust 7, 20147–123–60–2 [14]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
862
* June–November only
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

In advance of, and during, each hurricane season, several forecasts of hurricane activity are issued by national meteorological services, scientific agencies, and noted hurricane experts. These include forecasters from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s National Hurricane and Climate Prediction Center, Tropical Storm Risk, the United Kingdom's Met Office, and Philip J. Klotzbach, William M. Gray and their associates at Colorado State University (CSU). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year. According to NOAA and CSU, the average Atlantic hurricane season between 1981 and 2010 contained roughly 12 tropical storms, six hurricanes, three major hurricanes, and an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of 66–103 units. [3] [5] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. Therefore, a storm with a longer duration or stronger intensity, such as Gonzalo, will have high values of ACE. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h). Accordingly, tropical depressions are not included here. After the storm has dissipated, typically after the end of the season, the NHC reexamines the data, and produces a final report on each storm. These revisions can lead to a revised ACE total either upward or downward compared to the operational value. [15] NOAA typically categorizes a season as either above-average, average, or below-average based on the cumulative ACE Index, but the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a hurricane season are considered occasionally as well. [3]

Pre-season forecasts

On December 13, 2013, Tropical Storm Risk (TSR), a public consortium consisting of experts on insurance, risk management, and seasonal climate forecasting at University College London, issued their first outlook on seasonal hurricane activity during the 2014 season. Their report called for a near-normal year, with 14 (±4) tropical storms, 6 (±3) hurricanes, 3 (±2) intense hurricanes, and a cumulative ACE index of 106 (±58) units. The basis for such included slightly stronger than normal trade winds and slightly warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the Caribbean Sea and tropical North Atlantic. [5] A few months later, on March 24, 2014, Weather Services International (WSI), a subsidiary company of The Weather Channel, released their first outlook, calling for 11 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes. Two factors—cooler-than-average waters in the eastern Atlantic, and the likelihood of an El Niño developing during the summer of 2014—were expected to negate high seasonal activity. [2]

On April 7, TSR issued their second extended-range forecast for the season, lowering the predicted numbers to 12 (±4) named storms, 5 (±3) hurricanes, 2 (±2) major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 75 (±57) units. [6] Three days later, CSU issued their first outlook for the year, predicting activity below the 1981–2010 average. Citing a likely El Niño of at least moderate intensity and cooler-than-average tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures, the organization predicted nine named storms, three hurricanes, one major hurricane, and an ACE index of 55 units. The probability of a major hurricane making landfall on the United States or tracking through the Caribbean Sea was expected to be lower than average. [7]

On May 16, the United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO) issued a forecast of a slightly below-average season. It predicted 10 named storms with a 70% chance that the number would be between 7 and 13 and 6 hurricanes with a 70% chance that the number would be between 3 and 9. It also predicted an ACE index of 84 with a 70% chance that the index would be in the range 47 to 121. [9] NOAA released their pre-season forecasts on May 22 and called for a 70% chance that there would be between 8 and 13 named storms, 3 to 6 hurricanes, and 1 to 2 major hurricanes. [10] On May 29, the Florida State University Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, FSU COAPS, issued its first and only prediction for the season. The organization called for five to nine named storms, of which two to six would further intensify into hurricanes; one to two of the hurricanes would reach major hurricane intensity. In addition, an ACE index of 60 units was forecast. [11]

Mid-season predictions

In July and August, CSU, TSR, and NOAA released similar outlooks for the remainder of the season. CSU increased its prediction on July 31 to ten named storms, four hurricanes, and one major hurricane, which was unchanged from its forecast on May 23. The forecast team noted that conditions for tropical cyclogenesis appeared "detrimental", with abnormally cold sea surface temperatures, higher than average sea-level pressures, and strong vertical wind shear. [12] TSR issued another forecast on July 5, indicated that there would be nine to fifteen named storms, four to eight hurricanes, and one to three major hurricanes, citing conditions similar to those forecast by CSU. [13] Two days later, NOAA revised its predictions and called for seven to twelve named storms, three to six hurricanes, and zero to two major hurricanes. NOAA noted similar atmospheric and oceanic conditions, but also indicated a weaker African monsoon, a stable atmosphere, and sinking air. [14]

Seasonal summary

Hurricane GonzaloHurricane FayTropical Storm Dolly (2014)Hurricane CristobalHurricane Bertha (2014)Hurricane ArthurSaffir–Simpson scale2014 Atlantic hurricane season

The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2014. [11] It was a below average season in which nine tropical cyclones formed. Eight of the nine designated cyclones attained tropical storm status, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season. [16] Of the eight tropical storms, six reached at least Category 1 hurricane intensity. The 2014 season extended the period without major hurricane landfalls in the United States to nine years, with the last such system being Hurricane Wilma in 2005. The lack of activity was attributed to an atmospheric circulation that favored dry, sinking air over the Atlantic Ocean and strong wind shear over the Caribbean Sea. Additionally, sea surface temperatures were near-average. [17] A few notable events occurred during the season. Arthur made landfall between Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras as a Category 2 hurricane, becoming the first U.S. landfalling cyclone of that intensity since Hurricane Ike in 2008. [18] Arthur also became the earliest known hurricane to strike the North Carolina coastline on record, doing so on July 4. [19] In October, Fay became the first hurricane to make landfall on Bermuda since Emily in 1987. [20] With Gonzalo striking the island only four days later, 2014 became the first season on record in which more than one hurricane struck Bermuda. [21] Four hurricanes and two tropical storms made landfall during the season and caused 21 deaths and at least $233 million in damage. Hurricane Cristobal also caused fatalities, though it did not strike land. [22] The Atlantic hurricane season officially ended on November 30, 2014. [11]

Tropical cyclogenesis began in early July, with the development of Hurricane Arthur on July 1, ahead of the long-term climatological average of July 9. Early on July 3, the system intensified into a hurricane, preceding the climatological average of August 10. [23] Later that month, a tropical depression developed over the eastern Atlantic, but dissipated after only two days. There were also two tropical cyclones in August, with the development of hurricanes Bertha and Cristobal. Despite being the climatological peak of hurricane season, only two additional systems originated in September – Tropical Storm Dolly and Hurricane Edouard. In October, three storms developed, including hurricane Fay and Gonzalo and Tropical Storm Hanna. [24] The most intense tropical cyclone – Hurricane Gonzalo – peaked with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (235 km/h) on October 16 which is a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. It was the first Category 4 hurricane since Hurricane Ophelia in 2011. [25] The final tropical cyclone of the season was Hanna, which dissipated on October 28. [24]

The season's activity was reflected with an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) rating of 67, [15] which was well below the 1981–2010 median of 92. [7] The ACE value in October was higher than August and September combined, which has not occurred since 1963. [17]

Systems

Hurricane Arthur

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Arthur 2014-07-03 2130Z.png   Arthur 2014 track.png
DurationJuly 1 – July 5
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  973  mbar  (hPa)

On June 25, a low-pressure area formed within a mesoscale convective complex over the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. After crossing Georgia and South Carolina, it became absorbed by a weak frontal boundary that drifted south-southeastward. An area of low pressure developed off the Southeast United States by June 28, eventually leading to the formation of a tropical depression by 00:00 UTC on July 1. Amid a generally favorable environment, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Arthur at 12:00 UTC that same day and further to a Category 1 hurricane by 00:00 UTC on July 3. An approaching mid-level trough directed the storm north-northeastward as it continued to intensify, and Arthur reached its peak as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) at 00:00 UTC on July 4. A few hours later, it moved ashore just west of Cape Lookout, North Carolina, becoming the earliest landfalling hurricane on record in the state. Following landfall, Arthur accelerated northeast across the western Atlantic while encountering an increasingly unfavorable environment, weakening to a tropical storm at 06:00 UTC on July 5 and transitioning into an extratropical cyclone six hours later. The post-tropical low eventually dissipated east of Labrador late on July 9. [26]

As a developing tropical cyclone, Arthur produced minor rainfall across the northwestern Bahamas. [27] [28] Maximum sustained winds peaked at 77 mph (124 km/h), with a peak gust of 101 mph (163 km/h), at Cape Lookout, [29] and Oregon Inlet recorded a peak storm surge of 4.5 ft (1.4 m). [30] At its height, Arthur knocked out power to 44,000 people in North Carolina, triggering Duke Energy to deploy over 500 personnel to restore electricity. [31] Widespread rainfall totals of 6–8 in (150–200 mm) led to the inundation of numerous buildings in Manteo. [32] As the storm passed offshore New England, sustained winds of 47 mph (76 km/h) and gusts up to 63 mph (101 km/h) were observed. Observed rainfall totals over a half foot required the issuance of a flash flood emergency for New Bedford, Massachusetts, while several roads were shut down in surrounding locations. [33] After transitioning into an extratropical cyclone, Arthur knocked out power to more than 290,000 individuals across the Maritimes, [34] with damage to the electrical grid considered the worst since Hurricane Juan in Nova Scotia. [35] One person died after his oxygen support was cut off during a power outage. [36] Hurricane-force gusts were observed in Nova Scotia, with tropical storm-force winds observed as far away as Quebec. [34] Overall, Arthur caused at least $28.6 million in damage. [37] [38] [39] [40] [41]

Tropical Depression Two

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
02L Jul 21 2014 1555Z.jpg   02-L 2014 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 23
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1012  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 17. Steered westward, a small area of low pressure developed in association with the wave two days later. Convection steadily increased and organized, leading to the formation of a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on July 21. The depression failed to intensify into a tropical storm amid an exceptionally dry and stable environment and instead degenerated into a trough by 18:00 UTC on July 23 while located east of the Lesser Antilles. [42]

Hurricane Bertha

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Bertha Aug 4 2014 1750Z.jpg   Bertha 2014 track.png
DurationAugust 1 – August 16
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  998  mbar  (hPa)

On August 1, a tropical wave developed into Tropical Storm Bertha while roughly 345 mi (555 km) east-southeast of Barbados. A mostly disorganized cyclone, Bertha quickly moved across the Lesser Antilles, clipping the northern end of Martinique, later that day. During its trek across the eastern Caribbean Sea, its circulation became severely disrupted and it may have degenerated into a tropical wave. On August 3, it traversed the Mona Passage and moved over the Southeastern Bahamas where conditions favored development. Despite an overall ragged appearance on satellite imagery, data from hurricane hunters indicated it intensified to a hurricane on August 4; it acquired peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) that day. Turning north, and later northeast, Bertha soon weakened as it began to merge with an approaching trough to the west. This merger ultimately took place on August 6, at which time Bertha was declared extratropical well to the south of Nova Scotia. [43]

As a tropical cyclone, Bertha's impact was relatively minor. In the Lesser Antilles, widespread power outages occurred along its path but no major damage or loss of life took place. Enhanced swells and rip currents associated with the hurricane resulted in three fatalities and dozens of rescues along the East Coast of the United States. [43] [44] [45] After becoming an extratropical system, it had significant effects in Western Europe, with the United Kingdom being particularly hard hit. Unseasonably heavy rains triggered widespread flooding which shut down roads and prompted evacuations. [46] One fatality took place offshore after a man suffered a fatal head injury on his yacht amid rough seas. [47] On mainland Europe, a small tornado outbreak resulted in scattered structural damage in Belgium, France, and Germany. [48]

Hurricane Cristobal

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Cristobal Aug 28 2014 1530Z.jpg   Cristobal 2014 track.png
DurationAugust 23 – August 29
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  965  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave and attendant region of convection developed into a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC on August 23 while located near Mayaguana in the Bahamas; twelve hours later, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Cristobal. The newly formed cyclone turned northward following formation, directed toward a break in a subtropical ridge. Although located in an unfavorable environment, Cristobal steadily intensified and was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane at 00:00 UTC on August 26 despite a partially exposed circulation and disorganized cloud pattern. As the hurricane turned east-northeastward the following day, its cloud pattern became much more symmetric and an eye became evident, yielding peak winds of 85 mph (135 km/h). Thereafter, a frontal boundary wrapped around the storm's circulation, transitioning the system into an extratropical cyclone by 12:00 UTC on August 29. The post-tropical low maintained hurricane-force winds while accelerating across the North Atlantic, finally merging with a second extratropical low north of Iceland by September 2. [49]

The precursor of Cristobal and the storm itself dropped heavy precipitation on Puerto Rico, with 13.21 in (336 mm) of rain observed in the municipality of Tibes, bring drought relief to the island. [50] The storm downed many trees and power lines and left more than 23,500 people without power and 8,720 without water. [51] In Dominican Republic, large amounts of rainfall left several communities isolated, flooded at least 800 homes, [52] and killed two people. [49] Thousands of people were evacuated from their homes. [52] In Haiti, mudslides and flooding rendered 640 families homeless and destroyed or severely damaged at least 34 homes. Two people who went missing were later presumed to have drowned. [53] In the Turks and Caicos Islands, the storm produced over 10 in (250 mm) of precipitation on various islands. The international airport on Providenciales briefly closed due to flooding, where one drowning death occurred. [49] Portions of North Caicos were inundated with up to 5 ft (1.5 m) of water. [54] Along the East Coast of the United States, rip currents resulted in one death each in Maryland and New Jersey. [55] [56]

Tropical Storm Dolly

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Dolly Sept 02 2014 1730Z.jpg   Dolly 2014 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 3
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1000  mbar  (hPa)

An area of low pressure interacted with an atmospheric kelvin wave, leading to the formation of a tropical depression in the Bay of Campeche at 18:00 UTC on August 31. Six hours later, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dolly. Steered generally westward by a mid-level ridge to its north, the cyclone struggled with strong wind shear and reached peak winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) at 12:00 UTC on September 2. At 04:00 UTC the next day, Dolly moved ashore just south of Tampico, Mexico, with winds of 45 mph (70 km/h). Following landfall, the mountainous terrain of eastern Mexico quickly caused the cyclone to degenerate into a remnant low at 12:00 UTC on September 3. The post-tropical low continued westward prior to dissipating the next day. [57]

Heavy rains from the storm triggered flooding that temporarily isolated three communities in Tampico. One fatality was attributed to the storm. The hardest hit area was Cabo Rojo where 210 homes were affected, 80 of which sustained damage. [58] Total losses to the road network in Tamaulipas reached 80 million pesos (US$6 million), [59] while structural damage amounted to 7 million pesos (US$500,000). [60] In Texas, more than 2 in (51 mm) of rain fell in Brownsville, causing street flooding. [61] Two Mexican fishing vessels ran aground in the Port of Brownsville and a third on South Padre Island. The United States Coast Guard attributed the mishaps to the sudden influx of numerous ships. [62]

Hurricane Edouard

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Edouard 2014-09-16 1215Z.png   Edouard 2014 track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 19
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  955  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave accompanied by a broad area of low pressure exited the western coast of Africa on September 6, acquiring sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on September 11. Twelve hours later, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Edouard. The newly formed cyclone moved northwest, steered around a subtropical ridge to its northeast. The storm intensified in a generally favorable environment and became a hurricane by 12:00 UTC on September 14. With a well-defined eye surrounded by intense eyewall convection, Edouard further strengthened into a major hurricane early on September 16, attaining peak winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) at 12:00 UTC, the first major hurricane in the Atlantic since Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The cyclone abruptly weakened thereafter as it curved northeastward in advance of an upper-level trough, falling below hurricane intensity by 00:00 UTC on September 19 and degenerating into a remnant low eighteen hours later. The remnant low moved generally southward, merging with a frontal boundary well south-southwest of the Azores on September 21. [63]

Though Edouard remained well away from land throughout its existence, large swells and dangerous rip currents affected much of the East Coast of the United States. Rip current warnings were issued on September 17 for Duval, Flagler, Nassau, and St. Johns counties in Florida and Camden and Glynn counties in Georgia. [64] Waves in the area were forecast to reach 3 to 4 ft (0.91 to 1.22 m). [65] On September 17, two men drowned off the coast of Ocean City, Maryland, due to strong rip currents. [66] The Bermuda Weather Service noted the hurricane as a "potential threat"; however, Edouard remained several hundred miles away from the islands. [67]

On September 16, several unmanned drones designed by NOAA were launched by Hurricane Hunter aircraft while investigating Edouard. This marked the first time that drones were used in such a manner by NOAA. Unlike the manned aircraft, the drones were able to fly to the lower-levels of hurricanes and investigate the more dangerous areas near the surface. [68] Additionally, a NASA-operated Global Hawk flew into the storm, equipped with two experimental instruments: the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) and Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). The S-HIS provided measurements of temperature and relative humidity while the CPL was for studying aerosols and the structure of cloud layers within hurricanes. [69]

Hurricane Fay

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fay Oct 12 2014 1455Z.jpg   Fay 2014 track.png
DurationOctober 10 – October 13
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  983  mbar  (hPa)

A low-level disturbance was designated as Subtropical Storm Fay at 06:00 UTC on October 10 while located about 615 mi (990 km) south Bermuda. Directed north-northwestward around a mid-level ridge across the central Atlantic, the system became dislocated from a cold-core low, allowing for a subsequent transition into a fully tropical storm by early on October 11. Fay continued to strengthen in spite of excessively strong wind shear as it accelerated north-northeast, becoming a hurricane as it approached Bermuda the next morning. With an asymmetric cloud pattern, the hurricane reached peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and made landfall on the island at 08:10 UTC on October 12. An approaching shortwave further turned the system to the east-northeast while also acting to increase wind shear, causing Fay to begin weakening. It fell below hurricane intensity on October 12 and degenerated into an open trough by 06:00 UTC on October 13. [20]

A few tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in anticipation of Fay's impact on Bermuda. [20] Public schools were closed in advance of the storm. [70] Despite its modest strength, Fay produced relatively extensive damage on Bermuda. Winds gusting over 80 mph (130 km/h) clogged roadways with downed trees and power poles, and left a majority of the island's electricity customers without power. The terminal building at L.F. Wade International Airport was severely flooded after the storm compromised its roof and sprinkler system. [20] Immediately after the storm, 200  Bermuda Regiment soldiers were called to clear debris and assist in initial damage repairs. [71] Cleanup efforts overlapped with preparations for the approach of the stronger Hurricane Gonzalo. There were concerns that debris from Fay could become airborne during Gonzalo and exacerbate future destruction. [72] Overall, it is estimated that the hurricane left at least $3.8 million in damage. [20]

Hurricane Gonzalo

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Gonzalo 2014-10-16 1215Z.png   Gonzalo 2014 track.png
DurationOctober 12 – October 19
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  940  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical depression formed about 390 mi (630 km) east of the Leeward Islands by 00:00 UTC on October 12 from a tropical wave that emerged off Africa on October 4. Twelve hours later, it intensified into Tropical Storm Gonzalo. Steered west and eventually west-northwest, the cyclone rapidly intensified amid favorable atmospheric dynamics, becoming a minimal hurricane by 12:00 UTC on October 13. After curving northwest and emerging into the southwestern Atlantic, Gonzalo continued its period of rapid intensification, becoming a major hurricane by 18:00 UTC on October 14 and a Category 4 hurricane six hours later. The hurricane underwent an eyewall replacement cycle the next day, but ultimately attained peak winds of 145 mph (235 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 940 mbar (28 inHg) by 12:00 UTC on October 16. Late that afternoon, the effects of a second eyewall replacement cycle, cooler waters, and increased shear caused the storm to begin a steady weakening trend as it accelerated north-northeast ahead of an approaching trough. Gonzalo weakened below major hurricane intensity by 00:00 UTC on October 18 and made landfall on Bermuda with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) six hours later. The cyclone continued north-northeast, transitioning into an extratropical cyclone by 18:00 UTC on October 19 while located roughly 460 mi (740 km) northeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. The extratropical cyclone turned east-northeast and was absorbed by a cold front early on October 20. [21]

Widespread impact was observed across the northeastern Caribbean Sea as Gonzalo moved through the region. Sustained winds of 67 mph (108 km/h), with gusts to 88 mph (142 km/h), were observed on Antigua, [73] where downed trees blocked roads and damaged houses. Numerous fishing boats were destroyed and the island was subject to a widespread power outage. [74] On Saint Martin, 37 docked boats were destroyed and the airport recorded sustained winds of 55 mph (90 km/h) with gusts to 94 mph (151 km/h). [75] [76] As Gonzalo made landfall on Bermuda, L.F. Wade International Airport recorded sustained winds of 93 mph (150 km/h) and gusts up to 113 mph (182 km/h); an elevated observing station at St. Davids reported a peak gust of 144 mph (232 km/h). [77] At the height of the storm about 86% of electricity customers on the island lost power. [78] Multiple buildings suffered roof damage, and downed trees and power lines prevented travel across the island. [79] On Bermuda alone, the storm left at least $200 million in damage. [21] After transitioning into an extratropical cyclone, Gonzalo delivered strong winds to Newfoundland, with gusts peaking at 66 mph (106 km/h) at Cape Pine. [80] Approximately 100 households lost power, while heavy rain caused localized urban flooding in St. Johns. [81] Upon reaching the United Kingdom on October 21, heavy rain and strong winds, with gusts reaching 70 mph (115 km/h) in Wales, downed trees and disrupted transportation. [82] The system later contributed to torrential rains over the Balkans, which resulted in severe flooding in Greece and Bulgaria. [83] [84]

Tropical Storm Hanna

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Hanna Oct 27 2014 1600Z.jpg   Hanna 2014 track.png
DurationOctober 22 – October 28
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1000  mbar  (hPa)

On October 19, the remnants of Tropical Storm Trudy emerged over the Bay of Campeche, after losing its low-level circulation over the mountainous terrain of Mexico. Moving slowly eastward, the system redeveloped a new surface circulation on October 21, becoming a tropical depression on the next day about 175 mi (280 km) west of Campeche, Mexico. A reconnaissance aircraft flight measured a central pressure of 1000 mbar (hPa; 29.53 inHg) upon its formation, the lowest in relation to the depression. Increasing wind shear and dry air intrusion soon caused the depression to degrade into a remnant low early on October 23 before moving inland over the southwestern Yucatán Peninsula. After crossing the southern Yucatán and northern Belize, the low emerged over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on October 24. Hostile conditions from a nearby frontal boundary ultimately caused the system to degrade into a trough and become entangled within the front. [85]

Subsequent weakening of the frontal system on October 26 allowed the depression's remnants to become better defined as they moved southeast and later southward. The system regained a closed circulation by 12:00 UTC that day as it began turning west. Following the development of deep convection the system regenerated into a tropical depression around 00:00 UTC on October 27 roughly 80 mi (130 km) east of the NicaraguaHonduras border. ASCAT scatterometer data shortly thereafter resulted in the depression being upgraded to Tropical Storm Hanna at 06:00 UTC. Just ten hours later Hanna made landfall over extreme northeastern Nicaragua and quickly weakened back to a depression. The system degraded to a remnant low early on October 28 before turning northwestward and emerging over the Gulf of Honduras. Some signs of redevelopment appeared throughout the day, but the remnants of Hanna soon moved inland over Belize early on October 29. The system finally dissipated over northwest Guatemala on the following day. [85] Hanna and its remnants contributed to an ongoing flood in Nicaragua that was responsible for 28 fatalities, many cattle deaths, and a significant loss of grain. [86]

Storm names

The following list of names was used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 2014. This was the same list used in the 2008 season with the exceptions of Gonzalo, Isaias, and Paulette, which replaced Gustav, Ike, and Paloma, respectively. The name Gonzalo was the only new name used for the first time this year. There were no names retired this year; thus, the same list was used again in the 2020 season. [87] This is the only Atlantic season of the 2010s to not have any name retired.

  • Hanna
  • Isaias (unused)
  • Josephine (unused)
  • Kyle (unused)
  • Laura (unused)
  • Marco (unused)
  • Nana (unused)
  • Omar (unused)
  • Paulette (unused)
  • Rene (unused)
  • Sally (unused)
  • Teddy (unused)
  • Vicky (unused)
  • Wilfred (unused)

Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that have formed during the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfalls (in parentheses), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2014 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2014 North Atlantic tropical cyclone season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Arthur July 1–5Category 2 hurricane100 (155)973 The Bahamas, East Coast of the United States (North Carolina), Atlantic Canada (Nova Scotia)≥ $39.5 million0 (2)
TwoJuly 21–23Tropical depression35 (55)1012NoneNoneNone
Bertha August 1–16Category 1 hurricane80 (130)998 Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Cuba, Lucayan Archipelago, East Coast of the United States, Western EuropeMinimal3 (1)
Cristobal August 23–29Category 1 hurricane85 (140)965Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Turks and Caicos Islands, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Iceland Unknown7
Dolly September 1–3Tropical storm50 (85)1000Mexico (Tamaulipas), Texas $22.2 million0 (1)
EdouardSeptember 11–19Category 3 hurricane120 (195)955East Coast of the United StatesMinor2
Fay October 10–13Category 1 hurricane80 (130)983Bermuda≥ $3.8 millionNone
Gonzalo October 12–19Category 4 hurricane145 (230)940Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Newfoundland, Europe≥ $317 million5 (1)
HannaOctober 22–28Tropical storm40 (65)1000 Southeastern Mexico (Campeche), Central America (Nicaragua, Belize)UnknownNone
Season aggregates
9 systemsJuly 1 – October 28 145 (230)940≥ $382.5 million17 (4) 

See also

Notes

  1. A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. [1]
  2. All damage figures are in 2014 USD, unless otherwise noted

Related Research Articles

1995 Atlantic hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1995

The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season is tied with 1887, 2010, 2011, and 2012 for the fourth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, with 19 tropical storms. It is also considered to be the start of an ongoing era of high-activity tropical cyclone formation. The season produced twenty-one tropical cyclones, nineteen named storms, as well as eleven hurricanes and five major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The first tropical cyclone, Hurricane Allison, developed on June 2, while the season's final storm, Hurricane Tanya, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 1. The very active Atlantic hurricane activity in 1995 was caused by La Niña conditions, which also influenced a very inactive Pacific hurricane season.

2004 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.

1999 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1999 Atlantic hurricane season had five Category 4 hurricanes – the highest number recorded in a single season in the Atlantic basin, previously tied in 1961, and later tied in 2005 and 2020. The season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a fairly active season, mostly due to a persistent La Niña that developed in the latter half of 1998. The first storm, Arlene, formed on June 11 to the southeast of Bermuda. It meandered slowly for a week and caused no impact on land. Other tropical cyclones that did not affect land were Hurricane Cindy, Tropical Storm Emily, and Tropical Depression Twelve. Localized or otherwise minor damage occurred from Hurricanes Bret, Gert, and Jose, Tropical Storms Harvey and Katrina.

1964 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of U.S.-landfalling hurricanes since 1933. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was above average, with thirteen named storms, seven hurricanes, and five major hurricanes. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2, almost two weeks before the official start of the season. Striking Florida on June 6, the storm brought localized flooding to portions of Cuba and the Southeastern United States, leaving about $1 million in damage. The next storm, also unnamed, developed near the end of July; it did not impact land.

1966 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1966 Atlantic hurricane season featured a few significant tropical cyclones; Hurricane Alma, the most recent June major hurricane and earliest major hurricane on record in the basin; Tropical Storm Ella, the earliest fifth named storm on record at the time until 2005 and then 2020; Hurricane Faith, the longest tracked tropical cyclone ever recorded; and Hurricane Inez, one of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record, with more than one thousand fatalities throughout its onslaught across Haiti, Cuba, The Bahamas, Florida, and Mexico. Also during the year, the Miami, Florida Weather Office was re-designated the National Hurricane Center. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a near average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of 11 named storms. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed over eastern Nicaragua on June 4. Alma brought severe flooding to Honduras and later to Cuba, after crossing the western Caribbean Sea. The storm also brought relatively minor impact to the Southeastern United States. Alma caused 91 deaths and about $210.1 million (1966 USD) in damage.

1986 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1986 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average season that produced 10 depressions, 6 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and no major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1986, and lasted until November 30, 1986. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. During the 1986 season, the first subtropical depression formed in the first week of June, while the last tropical cyclone dissipated at the end of the third week of November. The 1986 season had lower than average activity because of an ongoing El Niño event, and was the least active season in the North Atlantic since the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season. This was also the first season since 1972 to have no major hurricanes.

1919 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1919 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record, featuring only five tropical storms. Of those five tropical cyclones, two of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening into a major hurricane Two tropical depressions developed in the month of June, both of which caused negligible damage. A tropical storm in July brought minor damage to Pensacola, Florida, but devastated a fleet of ships. Another two tropical depressions formed in August, the first of which brought rainfall to the Lesser Antilles.

1917 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1917 Atlantic hurricane season featured nine known tropical cyclones, four of which made landfall. The first system appeared on July 6 east of the Windward Islands. After crossing the islands and traversing the Caribbean Sea, the storm struck Honduras, Belize, and Mexico, before dissipating on July 14. After more than three weeks without tropical cyclogenesis, another tropical storm developed west of Bermuda. As the storm brushed eastern New England, four ships sank near Nantucket, causing 41 fatalities. The same cyclone brought damaging winds to Nova Scotia before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on August 10.

1913 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1913 Atlantic hurricane season was the third consecutive year with a tropical cyclone developing before June. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on May 5 while the last transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 30. Of note, the seventh and eighth cyclones existed simultaneously from August 30 to September 4.

2008 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most destructive Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damage. The season ranked as the third costliest ever at the time, but has since fallen to seventh costliest. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic. Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.

1884 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1884 Atlantic hurricane season was one of only three Atlantic hurricane seasons, along with 1852 and 1858, in which every known tropical cyclone attained hurricane status. Overall, four tropical cyclones developed, three of which made landfall. The first system was initially observed over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean on September 1. It struck Newfoundland the following day, but impact there is unknown. On September 3, the next hurricane developed, though it did not affect land in its duration. The third hurricane struck Georgia, accompanied by damaging waves in north Florida.

2011 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season was the second in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. The above-average activity was mostly due to a La Niña that persisted during the previous year. The season is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2012 for the fourth highest number of tropical storms since record-keeping began in 1851. Although the season featured 19 tropical storms, most were weak. Only seven of them intensified into hurricanes, and only four of those became major hurricanes: Irene, Katia, Ophelia, and Rina. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. However, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. The final system, Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11.

2010 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was the first in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. It is tied alongside 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012 for the fourth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, with 19 tropical storms. The extremely active season featured 12 hurricanes, tied with 1969 for the third highest total. Only the 2020 and 2005 seasons saw more, at 14 and 15 hurricanes respectively. Despite the high number of hurricanes, not one hurricane hit the United States making the season the only season with 10 or more hurricanes without a United States landfall. The overall tropical cyclone count in the Atlantic exceeded that in the West Pacific for only the second time on record. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year when tropical cyclone formation is most likely. The first cyclone, Alex intensified into the first June hurricane since Allison in 1995. The month of September featured eight named storms. October featured five hurricanes, just short of the record set in 1870. Finally, Hurricane Tomas became the latest hurricane on record to move through the Windward Islands in late October. Activity was represented with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value of 165 units, which was the eleventh highest value on record at the time. The activity in 2010 was heightened due to a very strong La Niña, which also led to an inactive Pacific hurricane season.

2015 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2015 Atlantic hurricane season was the last of three consecutive below average Atlantic hurricane seasons. It produced twelve tropical cyclones, eleven named storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for the season was 68% of the long-term median value. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2015, and ended on November 30, 2015. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the North Atlantic basin. However, the first named storm, Ana, developed on May 8, nearly a month before the official start of the season, the first pre-season cyclone since Beryl in 2012 and the earliest since Ana in 2003. The formation of Ana marked the first in a series of seven consecutive seasons with pre-season activity, spanning from 2015 to 2021. The season concluded with Kate transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on November 11, almost three weeks before the official end.

2013 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was a well below average Atlantic hurricane season and the first since 1994 with no major hurricanes. It was well below average for both hurricanes and major hurricanes but it was a slightly above average for named storms. It was also the first season since 1968 with no storms of at least Category 2 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first tropical cyclone of this hurricane season, Andrea, developed on June 5, while the final cyclone, an unnamed subtropical storm, dissipated on December 7. Throughout the year, only two storms—Humberto and Ingrid—reached hurricane intensity; this was the lowest seasonal total since 1982.

2016 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the first above-average hurricane season since 2012, producing 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the first storm, Hurricane Alex which formed in the Northeastern Atlantic, developed on January 12, being the first hurricane to develop in January since 1938. The final storm, Otto, crossed into the Eastern Pacific on November 25, a few days before the official end. Following Alex, Tropical Storm Bonnie brought flooding to South Carolina and portions of North Carolina. Tropical Storm Colin in early June brought minor flooding and wind damage to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially Florida. Hurricane Earl left 94 fatalities in the Dominican Republic and Mexico, 81 of which occurred in the latter. In early September, Hurricane Hermine, the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, brought extensive coastal flooding damage especially to the Forgotten and Nature coasts of Florida. Hermine was responsible for five fatalities and about $550 million (2016 USD) in damage.

2020 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active and the fifth costliest Atlantic hurricane season on record. The season also had the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since 2017. In addition, it was the fifth consecutive above average season from 2016 onward. The season featured a total of 31 (sub)tropical cyclones, all but one of which became a named storm. Of the 30 named storms, 14 developed into hurricanes, and a record-tying seven further intensified into major hurricanes. It was the second and final season to use the Greek letter storm naming system, the first being 2005. Of the 30 named storms, 11 of them made landfall in the contiguous United States, breaking the record of nine set in 1916. During the season, 27 tropical storms established a new record for the earliest formation by storm number. This season also featured a record 10 tropical cyclones that underwent rapid intensification, tying it with 1995. This unprecedented activity was fueled by a La Niña that developed in the summer months of 2020. Despite the extreme activity, this was the first season since 2015 in which no Category 5 hurricane formed.

Timeline of the 2013 Atlantic hurricane season Timeline of a tropical cyclone season

The 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was an event in the annual hurricane season in the north Atlantic Ocean. It featured below-average tropical cyclone activity, with the fewest hurricanes since the 1982 season. The season officially began on June 1, 2013 and ended on November 30, 2013. These dates, adopted by convention, historically delimit the period in each year when most tropical systems form. The season's first storm, Tropical Storm Andrea formed on June 5, and its final storm, an unnamed subtropical storm, dissipated on December 7. Altogether, there were 13 named tropical storms during the season. Two of which attained hurricane strength, but neither intensified into a major hurricane, the first such occurrence since the 1994 season.

Timeline of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season Timeline of a tropical cyclone season

The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was an event in the annual hurricane season in the north Atlantic Ocean. It featured below-average tropical cyclone activity, with the fewest named storms since the 1997 season. The season officially began on June 1, 2014 and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates, adopted by convention, historically describe the period in each year when most tropical systems form. Even so, there were no named storms during either the opening or closing months of the season, as the first, Hurricane Arthur, developed on July 1, and the last, Tropical Storm Hanna, dissipated on October 28.

Hurricane Paulette Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Paulette was a long-lived Category 2 Atlantic hurricane which became the first to make landfall in Bermuda since Hurricane Gonzalo did so in 2014. The sixteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Paulette developed from a tropical wave that left the coast of Africa on September 2. The wave eventually consolidated into a tropical depression on September 7. Paulette fluctuated in intensity over the next few days due to strong wind shear, initially peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 8. It eventually strengthened into a hurricane early on September 13 as shear decreased. On September 14, Paulette made landfall in northeastern Bermuda as a Category 2 hurricane while making a gradual turn to the northeast. The cyclone further strengthened as it moved away from the island, reaching its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 105 mph and a minimum central atmospheric pressure of 965 mbar on September 14. On the evening of September 15, Paulette began to weaken and undergo extratropical transition which it completed on September 16. The hurricane's extratropical remnants persisted and moved southwards then eastwards, and eventually Paulette regenerated into a tropical storm early on September 20 south of the Azores– which resulted in the U.S National Weather Service coining the phrase "zombie storm" to describe its unusual regeneration. Paulette's second phase proved short-lived, however, as the storm quickly weakened and became post-tropical again 2 days later. The remnants persisted for another week before they dissipated south of the Azores on September 28. Paulette was the longest-lived tropical cyclone worldwide in 2020, its lifetime spanning 21 days.

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