South Atlantic tropical cyclone

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Tracks of named South Atlantic tropical and subtropical cyclones since 2004 South Atlantic hurricane tracks.png
Tracks of named South Atlantic tropical and subtropical cyclones since 2004

South Atlantic tropical cyclones are unusual weather events that occur in the Southern Hemisphere. Strong wind shear, which disrupts the formation of cyclones, as well as a lack of weather disturbances favorable for development in the South Atlantic Ocean make any strong tropical system extremely rare, and Hurricane Catarina in 2004 is the only recorded South Atlantic hurricane in history. South Atlantic storms have developed year-round, with activity peaking during the months from November through May in this basin. Since 2011, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center has assigned names to tropical and subtropical systems in the western side of the basin, near Brazil, when they have sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph), the generally accepted minimum sustained wind speed for a disturbance to be designated as a tropical storm in the North Atlantic basin. Below is a list of notable South Atlantic tropical and subtropical cyclones.

Southern Hemisphere part of Earth that lies south of the equator

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Contents

Theories concerning infrequency of occurrence

Until April 1991, it was thought that tropical cyclones did not develop within the South Atlantic. [1] Very strong vertical wind shear in the troposphere is considered a deterrent. [2] The Intertropical Convergence Zone drops one to two degrees south of the equator, [3] not far enough from the equator for the Coriolis force to aid development. Water temperatures in the tropics of the southern Atlantic are cooler than those in the tropical north Atlantic. [4]

Troposphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapor and aerosols. The average height of the troposphere is 18 km in the tropics, 17 km in the middle latitudes, and 6 km in the polar regions in winter. The total average height of the troposphere is 13 km.

Intertropical Convergence Zone Meteorological phenomenon

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums or the calms because of its monotonous, windless weather, is the area where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge. It encircles Earth near the thermal equator, though its specific position varies seasonally. When it lies near the geographic Equator, it is called the near-equatorial trough. Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia.

Coriolis force A force on objects moving within a reference frame that rotates with respect to an inertial frame.

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial or fictitious force that seems to act on objects that are in motion within a frame of reference that rotates with respect to an inertial frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. In one with anticlockwise rotation, the force acts to the right. Deflection of an object due to the Coriolis force is called the Coriolis effect. Though recognized previously by others, the mathematical expression for the Coriolis force appeared in an 1835 paper by French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, in connection with the theory of water wheels. Early in the 20th century, the term Coriolis force began to be used in connection with meteorology.

During April 1991, these assertions were proven false, when the United States National Hurricane Center reported that a tropical cyclone had developed over the Eastern South Atlantic. [1] [5] In subsequent years, a few systems were suspected to have the characteristics needed to be classified as a tropical cyclone, including in March 1994 and January 2004. [6] [7] During March 2004, an extratropical cyclone formally transitioned into a tropical cyclone and made landfall on Brazil, after becoming a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. While the system was threatening the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, a newspaper used the headline "Furacão Catarina," which was originally presumed to mean "furacão (hurricane) threatening (Santa) Catarina (the state)". [1] After international presses started monitoring the system, "Hurricane Catarina" has formally been adopted.

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Extratropical cyclone type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

Santa Catarina (state) State of Brazil

Santa Catarina is a state in the southern region of Brazil. According to the Index of Economic Well-Being calculated between 2002 and 2008, Santa Catarina was the Brazilian state that consistently showed the highest economic well-being in relation to any other state in Brazil.

At the Sixth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-VI) in 2006, it was questioned if any subtropical or tropical cyclones had developed within the South Atlantic before Catarina. [7] It was noted that suspect systems had developed in January 1970, March 1994, January 2004, March 2004, May 2004, February 2006, and March 2006. [7] It was also suggested that an effort should be made to locate any possible systems using satellite imagery and synoptic data; however, it was noted that this effort may be hindered by the lack of any geostationary imagery over the basin before 1966. [7] A study was subsequently performed and published during 2012, which concluded that there had been 63 subtropical cyclones in the Southern Atlantic between 1957 and 2007. [8] During January 2009, a subtropical storm developed in the basin, and in March 2010, a tropical storm developed, which was named Anita by the Brazilian public and private weather services. [9] [10] In 2011, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center started to assign names to tropical and subtropical cyclones that develop within its area of responsibility, to the west of 20°W, when they have sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph). [11]

Brazilian Navy Naval warfare branch of Brazils military forces

The Brazilian Navy is the naval service branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces, responsible for conducting naval operations. The Brazilian Navy is the largest navy in South America and in Latin America, and the second largest navy in the Americas, after the United States Navy.

20th meridian west

The meridian 20° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole. The 20th meridian west forms a great circle with the 160th meridian east.

Known storms and impacts

1991 Angola tropical storm

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1991041215zVIS.jpg   1991 Angola Tropical Cyclone track.png
DurationApril 10, 1991 – April 14, 1991
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min) 

A low pressure area formed over the Congo Basin on April 9. The next day it moved offshore northern Angola with a curved cloud pattern. It moved westward over an area of warm waters while the circulation became better defined. According to the United States National Hurricane Center, the system was probably either a tropical depression or a tropical storm at its peak intensity. On April 14, the system rapidly dissipated, as it was absorbed into a large squall line. [12] [13] This is the only recorded tropical cyclone in the eastern South Atlantic.

Congo Basin basin of the Congo River in west equatorial Africa

The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River. The Congo Basin is located in Central Africa, in a region known as west equatorial Africa. The Congo Basin region is sometimes known simply as the Congo.

Angola country in Africa

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda.

Squall line

A squall line or quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) is a line of thunderstorms forming along or ahead of a cold front. In the early 20th century, the term was used as a synonym for cold front. It contains heavy precipitation, hail, frequent lightning, strong straight-line winds, and possibly tornadoes and waterspouts. Strong straight-line winds can occur where the squall line is in the shape of a bow echo. Tornadoes can occur along waves within a line echo wave pattern (LEWP), where mesoscale low-pressure areas are present. Some bow echoes which develop within the summer season are known as derechos, and they move quite fast through large sections of territory. On the back edge of the rainband associated with mature squall lines, a wake low can be present, sometimes associated with a heat burst.

Hurricane Catarina

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Catarina 27 mar 2004 1630Z.jpg   Catarina 2004 track.png
DurationMarch 24, 2004 – March 28, 2004
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (1-min)  972  hPa  (mbar)

Hurricane Catarina was an extraordinarily rare hurricane-strength tropical cyclone, forming in the southern Atlantic Ocean in March 2004. [14] Just after becoming a hurricane, it hit the southern coast of Brazil in the state of Santa Catarina on the evening of March 28, with winds estimated near 155 kilometres per hour (96 mph), making it a Category 2-equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The cyclone killed 3 to 10 people and caused millions of dollars in damage in Brazil.

At the time, the Brazilians were taken completely by surprise, and were initially skeptical that an actual tropical cyclone could have formed in the South Atlantic. Eventually, however, they were convinced, and adopted the previously-unofficial name "Catarina" for the storm, after Santa Catarina state. This event is considered by some meteorologists to be a nearly once-in-a-lifetime occurrence.

Tropical Storm Anita

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
March 2010 TC South Atlantic.jpg   Anita 2010 track.png
DurationMarch 8, 2010 – March 12, 2010
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  995  hPa  (mbar)

On March 8, 2010, a previously extratropical cyclone developed tropical characteristics and was classified as a subtropical cyclone off the coast of southern Brazil. The following day, the United States Naval Research Laboratory began monitoring the system as a system of interest under the designation of 90Q. The National Hurricane Center also began monitoring the system as Low SL90. During the afternoon of March 9, the system had attained an intensity of 55 km/h (35 mph) and a barometric pressure of 1000 hPa (mbar). It was declared a tropical storm on March 10 and became extratropical late on March 12. [15] Anita's accumulated cyclone energy was estimated at 2.0525 by the Florida State University. There was no damage associated to the storm, except high sea in the coasts of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Post mortem, the cyclone was given the name "Anita" by private and public weather centers in Southern Brazil. [16]

Subtropical Storm Arani

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Arani Mar 16 2011 1540Z.jpg   Arani 2011 track.png
DurationMarch 14, 2011 – March 16, 2011
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  989  hPa  (mbar)

Early on March 14, 2011, the Navy Hydrographic Center-Brazilian Navy (SMM), in coordination with the National Institute of Meteorology, were monitoring an organizing area of convection near the southeast coast of Brazil. [17] Later that day a low pressure area developed just east of Vitória, Espírito Santo, [18] and by 1200  UTC, the system organized into a subtropical depression, located about 140 km (90 mi) east of Campos dos Goytacazes. [19] Guided by a trough and a weak ridge to its north, the system moved slowly southeastward over an area of warm waters, [20] [21] intensifying into Subtropical Cyclone Arani on March 15, [22] as named by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center. [23] The storm was classified as subtropical, as the convection was east of the center. On March 16, Arani began experiencing 25 knots of wind shear because another frontal system bumped it from behind. [24]

Before it developed into a subtropical cyclone, Arani produced torrential rains over portions of southeastern Brazil, resulting in flash flooding and landslides. Significant damage was reported in portions of Espírito Santo, though specifics are unknown. [25] Increased swells along the coast prompted ocean travel warnings. [26]

Subtropical Storm Bapo

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Bapo 2015-02-06 1630Z.jpg   Bapo 2015 track.png
DurationFebruary 5, 2015 – February 8, 2015
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  992  hPa  (mbar)

On February 5, 2015, a subtropical depression developed about 105 mi (170 km) to the southeast of São Paulo, Brazil. [27] During the next day, low-level baroclincity decreased around the system, as it moved southeastwards away from the Brazilian coast and intensified further. [28] The system was named Bapo by the Brazilian Navy Hydrography Center during February 6, after it had intensified into a subtropical storm. [29] [30] Over the next couple of days the system continued to move south-eastwards before it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone during February 8. [31]

Subtropical Storm Cari

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Cari Mar 11 2015 1255Z.jpg   Cari 2015 track.png
DurationMarch 10, 2015 – March 13, 2015
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  998  hPa  (mbar)

On March 10, 2015, the Hydrographic Center of the Brazilian Navy began issuing warnings on Subtropical Depression 3 during early afternoon, [32] while the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC in Portuguese) already assigned the name Cari for the storm. [33] At 0000 UTC on March 11, the Hydrographic Center of the Brazilian Navy upgraded Cari to a subtropical storm, also assigning a name to it. [34] On March 12, the Brazilian Hydrographic Center downgraded Cari to a subtropical depression, [35] while the CPTEC stated that the storm had become a "Hybrid cyclone". [36] During early afternoon of March 13, the Brazilian Navy declared that Cari became a remnant low. [37]

Cari brought heavy rainfall, flooding and landslides to eastern cities of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states. [38] Rain totals from 100 mm to 180 mm were observed associated with the storms and wind topped 75 km/h (45 mph) in Cabo de Santa Marta. [38] A Navy buoy registered a 20-ft wave off the coast of Santa Catarina. [38]

Subtropical Storm Deni

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Deni 2016-11-16 1645Z.jpg   Deni 2016 track.png
DurationNovember 15, 2016 – November 16, 2016
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min)  998  hPa  (mbar)

A subtropical depression formed southwest of Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 2016. [39] It intensified into a subtropical storm and received the name Deni on November 16. [40] Moving south-southeastwards, Deni soon became extratropical shortly before 00:00 UTC on November 17. [41]

Subtropical Storm Eçaí

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Ecai 2016-12-05 1655Z.jpg   Ecai 2016 track.png
DurationDecember 4, 2016 – December 6, 2016
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min)  992  hPa  (mbar)

An extratropical cyclone entered the South Atlantic Ocean from Santa Catarina early on December 4, 2016. [42] Later, it intensified quickly and then transitioned into a subtropical storm shortly before 22:00 BRST (00:00 UTC on December 5), with the name Eçaí assigned by the Hydrographic Center of the Brazilian Navy. [43] Eçaí started to decay on December 5, and weakened into a subtropical depression at around 00:00 UTC on December 6. [44]

Subtropical Storm Guará

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Guara 2017-12-10 1225Z.jpg   Guara 2017 track.png
DurationDecember 9, 2017 – December 11, 2017
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min)  996  hPa  (mbar)

According to the Hydrographic Center of the Brazilian Navy, on December 9, 2017, a subtropical storm formed over the southeastern tip of a South Atlantic Convergence Zone, being located close to the state border between Espírito Santo and Bahia, moving southeastwards away from land. [45] [46] [47] On early December 11, as it moved more southwardly, Guará attained its peak intensity while transitioning to an extratropical cyclone. [48] Shortly thereafter, Guará became fully extratropical, later on the same day. [49]

Tropical Storm Iba

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Iba 2019-03-25 1615Z.jpg   Iba 2019 track.png
DurationMarch 23, 2019 – March 28, 2019
Peak intensity85 km/h (55 mph) (1-min)  1006  hPa  (mbar)

A tropical depression formed within a monsoon trough on March 23, 2019, off the coast of Bahia. [50] [51] On the next day, the system intensified into a tropical storm, receiving the name Iba from the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center. After moving southwestward for a couple of days, on March 26, Iba turned southeastward. Afterward, the storm began to weaken due to strong wind shear.[ citation needed ] On March 27, Iba weakened into a tropical depression and turned to the east, before dissipating on March 28.[ citation needed ]

Iba was the first tropical storm to develop in the basin since Anita in 2010, as well as the first fully tropical system to be named from the Brazilian naming list. [52]

Subtropical Storm Jaguar

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Jaguar 2019-05-21 1605Z.jpg   Jaguar 2019 track.png
DurationMay 20, 2019 – Present
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  1010  hPa  (mbar)

On May 20, 2019, a subtropical depression formed east of Rio de Janeiro. Later that day, the system strengthened into a subtropical storm, receiving the name Jaguar from the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center. [53]

Other systems

Pre-2004

MODIS visible satellite imagery a possible January 2004 tropical cyclone January 2004 S. Atln Tropical cyclone.JPG
MODIS visible satellite imagery a possible January 2004 tropical cyclone

According to a presentation at the Sixth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-VI), satellite imagery from January 1970 showed that a system with an eyewall had developed behind a cold front and that the system needed further analysis to determine if it was tropical or subtropical. [7] On March 27, 1974, a weak area of low pressure that had originated over the Amazon River started to intensify further. [54] Over the next 48 hours the system quickly developed further and was classified as subtropical, as it developed a banding structure and deep convection near its warm core. [54] On March 29, a north-westerly flow encroached on the systems environment, which caused the system to rapidly move towards 40S and the cold waters that were present to the south of 40°S. [54] In March 1994, a system that was thought to be weaker than Catarina was spawned but was located over cool and open waters. [55]

2004–2009

During 2004, the large-scale conditions over the South Atlantic were more conducive than usual for subtropical or tropical systems, with 4 systems noted. [7] The first possible tropical cyclone developed within a trough of low pressure, to the southeast of Salvador, Brazil on January 18. [6] [7] The system subsequently displayed a small central dense overcast (CDO) and was suspected to be at the peak of its development as either a tropical depression or a tropical storm during the next day. [6] The system was subsequently affected by some strong shear, before it moved inland and weakened along the coast of Brazil before it was last noted during January 21. [6] Within Brazil the system caused heavy rain and flooding with a state of emergency declared in Aracaju, after the river overflowed and burst its banks which flooded homes, destroyed crops and caused parts of the highway to collapse. [6] However, it was noted that not all of the heavy rain and impacts were attributable to the system, as a large monsoon low covered much of Brazil at the time. [6] The second system was a possible hybrid cyclone that developed near south-eastern Brazil between March 15–16. [7] Hurricane Catarina was the third system, while the fourth system had a well-defined eye like structure, and formed off the coast of Brazil on March 15, 2004. [7]

MODIS visible satellite image of a possible February 2006 tropical storm SATL TC Feb 23 2006 1705Z.jpg
MODIS visible satellite image of a possible February 2006 tropical storm

On February 22, 2006, a baroclinic cyclone intensified quickly and was estimated to have peaked with 1-minute sustained wind speeds of 65 mph (100 km/h), after radar data showed that the system had developed an eye and banding. [7] However, there were questions about how tropical the system was, as it did not separate from the westerlies or the baroclinic zone it was in. [7] [56] Between March 11–17, 2006, a system with a warm core developed and moved southward along the South Atlantic Zone. [7]

Two subtropical cyclones affected both Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul state in Brazil between 2009 and 2010. On January 28, 2009, a cold-core mid to upper-level trough in phase with a low-level warm-core low formed a system and moved eastward into the South Atlantic. [57] The storm produced rainfall in 24 hours of 300 mm or more in some locations of Rocha (Uruguay) and southern Rio Grande do Sul. The weather station owned by MetSul Weather Center in Morro Redondo, Southern Brazil, recorded 278.2 mm in a 24-hour period. The storm caused fourteen deaths and the evacuation of thousands, with an emergency declared in four cities. [9] It lasted until February 1, when the cyclone became extratropical. [58]

2010–2016

Subtropical storm in November 2010 November 2010 subtropical cyclone.jpg
Subtropical storm in November 2010

On November 16, 2010, a cold-core mid to upper-level trough in phase with a low-level warm-core low developed a low-pressure system over Brazil, and moved southeastward into the South Atlantic, where it slightly deepened. [59] The system brought locally heavy rains in southern Brazil and northeast of Uruguay that exceeded 200 millimeters within a few hours, in some locations of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, northwest of Pelotas. [60] Damages and flooding were observed in Cerrito, São Lourenço do Sul and Pedro Osório. [60] Bañado de Pajas, departament of Cerro Largo in Uruguay, recorded 240 mm of rain. [60] The subtropical cyclone then became a weak trough on November 19, according to the CPTEC. [61]

Between December 23, 2013 and January 24, 2015, the CPTEC and Navy Hydrography Center monitored four subtropical depressions to the south of Rio de Janeiro. The first one lasted until Christmas Day, 2013. [62] [63] [64] [65] Two subtropical depressions formed in 2014: one in late-February 2014 and the other in late-March 2014. [66] [67] [68] A fourth one formed in late January 2015. [69] [70]

On January 5, 2016, the Hydrographic Center of the Brazilian Navy issued warnings on a subtropical depression that formed east of Vitória, Espírito Santo. [71] On the next day, the system strengthened into a tropical depression and other agencies considered it as an invest, designating it as 90Q; [72] [73] however, on January 7, the tropical depression dissipated. [72] [74]

Storm names

The following names are published by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center’s Marine Meteorological Service and used for tropical and subtropical storms that form in the area west of 20ºW and south of equator in the South Atlantic Ocean. Originally announced in 2011, [11] the list has been extended from ten to fifteen names in 2018. The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year. The names of significant tropical or subtropical systems will be retired. [75]

  • Arani
  • Bapo
  • Cari
  • Deni
  • Eçaí
  • Guará
  • Iba
  • Jaguar
  • Kurumí (unused)
  • Mani (unused)
  • Oquira (unused)
  • Potira (unused)
  • Raoni (unused)
  • Ubá (unused)
  • Yakecan (unused)

Kamby was replaced by Kurumí in 2018 without being used.

Climatological statistics

There have been over 79 recorded tropical and subtropical cyclones in the South Atlantic Ocean since 1957. Like most southern hemisphere cyclone seasons, most of the storms have formed between November and May.

List of storms, by month

List of storms, by decade

See also

Related Research Articles

Subtropical cyclone Meteorological phenomenon

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

1975 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1975 Atlantic hurricane season featured the first tropical storm to be upgraded to a hurricane based solely on satellite imagery – Hurricane Doris. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was near average, with nine tropical storms forming, of which six became hurricanes. Three of those six became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Tropical Depression One, developed on June 24. Tropical Storm Amy in July caused minor beach erosion and coastal flooding from North Carolina to New Jersey, and killed one person when a ship capsized offshore North Carolina. Hurricane Blanche brought strong winds to portions of Atlantic Canada, leaving about $6.2 million (1975 USD) in damage. Hurricane Caroline brought high tides and flooding to northeastern Mexico and Texas, with two drownings in the latter.

1979 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to include both male and female names, as well as the common six-year rotating lists of tropical cyclone names. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. The first system, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. Tropical Storm Ana caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob spawned tornadoes and produced minor wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. Tropical Storm Claudette caused extensive flooding, due to torrential rainfall. There were two deaths and damaged totaled $750 million.

Hurricane Catarina South Atlantic tropical cyclone of March 2004

Hurricane Catarina was an extremely rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone that hit Southern Brazil in late March 2004. The storm developed out of a stationary cold-core upper-level trough on March 12. Almost a week later, on March 19, a disturbance developed along the trough and traveled towards the east-southeast until March 22 when a ridge stopped the forward motion of the disturbance. The disturbance was in an unusually favorable environment with a slightly below-average wind shear and above-average sea surface temperatures. The combination of the two led to a slow transition from an extratropical cyclone to a subtropical cyclone by March 24. The storm continued to obtain tropical characteristics and became a tropical storm the next day while the winds steadily increased. The storm attained wind speeds of 75 mph (120 km/h)—equivalent to a low-end Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale—on March 26. At that time, it was unofficially named Catarina and was also the first hurricane-strength tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Unusually favorable conditions persisted and Catarina continued to intensify, and was estimated to have peaked with 1-minute sustained winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) on March 28. The center of the storm made landfall later that between the cities of Passo de Torres and Balneário Gaivota, Santa Catarina. Catarina rapidly weakened upon landfall and dissipated later that day.

Atlantic hurricane season tropical cyclone season

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

2006 Central Pacific cyclone

The 2006 Central Pacific cyclone, also known as Invest 91C or Storm 91C, was an unusual weather system that formed in 2006. Forming on October 30 from a mid-latitude cyclone in the north Pacific mid-latitudes, it moved over waters warmer than normal. The system acquired some features more typical of subtropical and even tropical cyclones. However, as it neared western North America, the system fell apart, dissipating soon after landfall, on November 4. Moisture from the storm's remnants caused substantial rainfall in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. The exact status and nature of this weather event is unknown, with meteorologists and weather agencies having differing opinions.

Invest (meteorology) area of weather being monitored for cyclone development

An invest in meteorology is a designated area of disturbed weather that is being monitored for potential tropical cyclone development. Invests are designated by three separate United States forecast centers: the National Hurricane Center, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

Timeline of the 1982 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1982 Atlantic hurricane season was an inactive Atlantic hurricane season, during which five tropical cyclones formed. The season officially began on June 1, 1982, and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic. However, most of the activity was constrained to the month of September. This timeline documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, as well as dissipations during the season. The timeline also includes information which was not operationally released, meaning that information from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center, such as information on a storm that was not operationally warned upon.

Timeline of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1972 Atlantic hurricane season is one of five Atlantic hurricane seasons not to have any major hurricanes, the others being 1968, 1986, 1994, and 2013. Although Subtropical Storm Alpha formed on May 23, the season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, Subtropical Storm Delta, dissipated on November 7.

Hybrid low is a term used to describe various meteorological depressions and may refer to:

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

1951 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific ocean

The 1951 Pacific hurricane season ran through the summer and fall of 1951. Nine tropical systems were observed this season.

2016 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the first above-average hurricane season since 2012, producing 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the first storm, Hurricane Alex which formed in the Northeastern Atlantic, developed on January 12, being the first hurricane to develop in January since 1938. The final storm, Otto, crossed into the Eastern Pacific on November 25, a few days before the official end. Following Alex, Tropical Storm Bonnie brought flooding to South Carolina and portions of North Carolina. Tropical Storm Colin in early June brought minor flooding and wind damage to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially Florida. Hurricane Earl left 94 fatalities in the Dominican Republic and Mexico, 81 of which occurred in the latter. In early September, Hurricane Hermine, the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, brought extensive coastal flooding damage especially to the Forgotten and Nature coasts of Florida. Hermine was responsible for five fatalities and about $550 million (2016 USD) in damage.

2018 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic ocean

The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual formation of tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere. The season will officially begin on June 1, 2019, and will end on November 30, 2019. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth year in a row where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season, breaking the previous record set in 1951–1954.

Hurricane Alex (2016) Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Alex was the first Atlantic hurricane in January since Hurricane Alice in 1955, and the first to form in the month since 1938. The first tropical cyclone of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, Alex originated as an extratropical cyclone near the Bahamas on January 7, 2016. The system initially traveled northeast, passing Bermuda on January 8, before turning southeast. It subsequently deepened and acquired hurricane-force winds by January 10. Slight weakening took place thereafter, and the system eventually turned east and northeast as it acquired tropical characteristics. On January 12, it developed into a subtropical cyclone well south of the Azores, becoming the first tropical or subtropical system during January in the North Atlantic since an unnamed storm in 1978. As it turned north-northeast, Alex transitioned into a full-fledged tropical cyclone on January 14 and became a hurricane. The storm peaked as a Category 1 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 981 mbar. After weakening slightly, Alex made landfall on Terceira Island as a tropical storm the next day. Concurrently, Alex began transitioning back into an extratropical cyclone; it completed this cycle hours after moving away from the Azores. The system ultimately merged with another extratropical cyclone over the Labrador Sea on January 17.

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