North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

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Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005 North Indian cyclone tracks.jpg
Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Equator Intersection of a spheres surface with the plane perpendicular to the spheres axis of rotation and midway between the poles

An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel). It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Contents

Sub-basins

Very severe cyclonic storms (Luban and Titli) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in October 2018 Luban and Titli 2018-10-10 0745Z-0926Z.jpg
Very severe cyclonic storms (Luban and Titli) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in October 2018

The Bay of Bengal, located in the northeast of the Indian Ocean, is responsible for the formation of some of the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclones in the world. The basin is abbreviated BOB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center of the basin. The Bay of Bengal's coast is shared among India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and western part of Thailand. The strongest storm in the bay was the 1999 Odisha cyclone.

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.Regional offices are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur and Pune.

A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.

Bangladesh Country in South Asia

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar (Burma). The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port.

The Arabian Sea is a sea located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the basin are abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of the basin. The Arabian Sea's coast is shared among India, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Somalia. [1] Monsoons are characteristic of the Arabian Sea and responsible for the yearly cycling of its waters. In summer, strong winds blow from the southwest to the northeast, bringing rain to the Indian subcontinent. During the winter, the winds are milder and blow in the opposite direction, from the northeast to the southwest. [1] Cyclones are rare in the Arabian Sea, but the basin can produce strong tropical cyclones. Super Cyclonic Storm Gonu was the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the basin. [2] [3] [4] However, storms typically do not reach a high intensity in the Arabian Sea due to dry air coming from the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and unfavorable wind shear from the monsoon. [5]

Yemen Republic in Western Asia

Yemen , officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Oman Arab sultanate in Western Asia

Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Its official religion is Islam.

United Arab Emirates Country in Western Asia

The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.

History of the basin

The systematic scientific studies of tropical systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea was started during the 19th century by Henry Piddington. [6] Piddington utilised meteorological logs of vessels that navigated the seas and published a series of memoirs, in the “Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal” between 1839 and 1858. [6] These memoirs gave accounts and tracks of individual storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. [6]

Bay of Bengal Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean between India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the northwesternmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Bay of Bengal was also called the Chola Lake.

Arabian Sea A marginal sea of the northern Indian Ocean between the Arabian Peninsula and India

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.

Henry Piddington English scientist and merchant captain

Henry Piddington was an English merchant captain who sailed in East India and China and later settled in Bengal where he worked as a curator of a geological museum and worked on scientific problems, and is particularly well known for his pioneering studies in meteorology of tropical storms and hurricanes. He noted the circular winds recorded by ships caught in storms and coined the name cyclone in 1848 based on his studies of tropical storms and the observation of circular winds around a calm centre.

During the 2004 post monsoon season the IMD started to name tropical cyclones within the basin, with the first one named Cyclone Onil during September 2004. [7] During 2015 a modification to the intensity scale took place, with the IMD and WMO calling a system with 3-minute maximum sustained wind speeds between 90 knots (165 km/h; 105 mph) and 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph) an extremely severe cyclonic storm. [8]

Cyclone Onil North Indian cyclone in 2004

Severe Cyclonic Storm Onil was the first tropical cyclone to be named in the northern Indian Ocean. Forming out of an area of convection several hundred kilometres southwest of India on October 1, 2004, Cyclone Onil quickly attained its peak intensity on October 2 with winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) and a barometric pressure of 990 mbar. However, dry air quickly entered the system, causing it to rapidly weaken to a depression just off the coast of Gujarat, India. Over the following several days, the system took a slow, erratic track towards the south-southeast. After turning northeastward, the system made landfall near Porbandar on October 10 and dissipated shortly thereafter.

Water temperatures in the Arabian Sea are typically warm enough to allow for tropical cyclogenesis year round, although strong wind shear from the monsoon trough prevents formation in the summer months and limits intensity other times of the year. An increase in air pollution since the 1930s caused a decrease in the wind shear, allowing storms to have become stronger since 1979. [9]

Tropical cyclogenesis

Tropical cyclogenesis is the development and strengthening of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere. The mechanisms through which tropical cyclogenesis occurs are distinctly different from those through which temperate cyclogenesis occurs. Tropical cyclogenesis involves the development of a warm-core cyclone, due to significant convection in a favorable atmospheric environment.

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Monsoon trough

The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres.

Tropical Cyclone seasons

1890s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Notes
18901041
18911343Total includes 1 Land Severe Cyclonic Storm
18921272
189312104
18941260
18951154
18961083
18971268
18981373
1899730
References [10]

1900s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19001031
1901632
19021375
19031482
1904940
19051060
19061171
19071584
1908961
1909884
References [10]

1910s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1910652
1911754
1912962
19131062
1914842
1915960
19161485
19171031
19181150
19191163
References [10]

1920s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1920950
19211041
19221366
19231643
19241360
19252073
192613103
19271872
19281370
19291560
References [10]

1930s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
193014101
19311151
19321462
19331683
19341650
19351562
19361763
19371962
19381044
19391973
References [10]

1940s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19401685
19411984
19421452
19431471
19441982
19451532
19461751
19471842
19481863
19491211
References [10]

1950s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19501640
19511542
19521742
19531011
19541410
19551362
19561442
1957742
19581252
19591663
References [10]

1960s

This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966 at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India Nov319660819zESSA3MadrasCyclone.jpg
This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966 at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India
YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1960 1553 Ten 20,299>Vast majority of the fatalities resulted from two cyclones striking East Pakistan three weeks apart
1961 1854 Three 11,525UnknownThree land depressions developed this season
1962 1353 Twelve 769Deadliest storm, Harriet, crossed over from the Western Pacific
1963 1764 Three 11,735UnknownStrongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm; had the lowest measured pressure in the basin at the time at 919.9 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg)
1964 1675 Sixteen >1,827>Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm
19651464
19661886
19671564
19681374
19691461
References [10]

1970s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1970 1573 Bhola Cyclone 300,000-500,00086.4 millionThe Bhola Cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide
19711576
19721876
19731663
19741273
19752074
197614107
19771855
19781453
19791154
References [10]

1980s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1980 1430
1981 1263
1982 2055
1983 832
1984 733
1985 1572
1986 810
1987 953
1988 932 04B 6,74013 million
1989 1035 Gay 1,78525.27 MillionGay crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
References [10]

1990s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes and
References
1990 11622111 BOB 01 967 [11] [12]
1991 9431111 BOB 01 >138,000 [12]
1992 131172110 Forrest 189Forrest crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
1993 5422200BOB 03714
1994 5542210BOB 02315
1995 8632210BOB 07554
1996 10864200 BOB 05 2,075
1997 9732110 BOB 01 117Unknown
1998 131065310 ARB 02 >10,212
1999 10853321 BOB 06 15,780The Orissa cyclone is the strongest cyclone recorded in the Northern Indian Ocean.
References [10]

2000s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2000 7652220BOB 05238
2001 6541110 ARB 01 108
2002 7741000BOB 04182
2003 7533100ARB 06358
2004 10743110 BOB 01 587 Cyclone Agni Formed closest to the Equator (0.7N)
2005 12730000Pyarr273
2006 12632110 Mala 623
2007 11842221 Gonu 16,248
2008 10741110 Nargis >140,422
2009 8641000 Aila 421
References [10]

2010s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2010 8654210 Giri 402
2011 10621100 Thane 360
2012 5520000 Nilam 128The first depression of the year did not develop until October 10.
2013 10654310 Phailin 323
2014 8532220 Nilofar 183
2015 12942220 Chapala 363
2016 10541100 Vardah 403
2017 10632100 Ockhi 761First ever cyclone to make landfall with peak intensity on Myanmar in April.
2018 14975310 Mekunu 349Highest number of systems since 1985. First simultaneous cyclonic storms in Bay of Bengal (Titli) and Arabian Sea (Luban) since reliable records began.
2019 2221110 Fani 66Earliest-forming cyclonic storm in the basin.
References [10]

See also

Notes

A study analyzing the spring season of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal [13] found increases in both premonsoon precipitation and tropical cyclone intensity as a result of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation after 1979. The deepened monsoon trough in the Bay of Bengal not only affects cyclone frequency and timing, but also acts to direct more cyclones towards Myanmar. Increased anthropogenic aerosols likely contributed to such a regional climate change.

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Each column refers to how many Storms developed during the season with D=Depressions, DD=Deep Depressions, CS=Cyclonic Storms, SCS=Severe Cyclonic Storm, VSCS=Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ESCS=Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm, SUCS=Super Cyclonic Storm. For further details please refer to Tropical cyclone scales

Related Research Articles

1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was unofficially the most active year on record for the basin, with 10 tropical storms developing, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent – and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the JTWC releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

Cyclone Agni North Indian cyclone in 2004

Severe Cyclonic Storm Agni was a tropical cyclone of the 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season notable for its record proximity to the equator. It was the second North Indian Ocean cyclone to receive a name, after Onil earlier in the year. Agni formed on November 28 well to the southwest of India in the Arabian Sea, and steadily intensified as it tracked northwestward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), while the India Meteorological Department (IMD) estimated peak 3 minute sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph); the IMD is the official warning center for the north Indian Ocean. After peaking, it weakened due to wind shear, dry air, and cooler waters, and the JTWC issued its final advisory on December 3 as it approached the coast of Somalia. The remnants of Agni moved along the Somalian coastline until dissipating on December 5.

2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2008 North Indian cyclone season was one of the most disastrous seasons in modern history, with tropical cyclones leaving more than 140,000 people dead and causing nearly US$14 billion in damage. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the first in which tropical cyclones were officially named in the basin. Cyclone Onil, which struck Pakistan, was named in late September. The final storm, Cyclone Agni, was also named, and crossed into the southern hemisphere shortly before dissipation. This storm became notable during its origins and became one of the storms closest to the equator. The season was fairly active, with ten depressions forming from May to November. The India Meteorological Department designated four of these as cyclonic storms, which have maximum sustained winds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) averaged over three minutes. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issued warnings for five of the storms on an unofficial basis.

1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season featured a below average total of twelve cyclonic disturbances and one of the most intense tropical cyclones in the basin on record. During the season the systems were primarily monitored by the India Meteorological Department, while other warning centres such as the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center also monitored the area. During the season, there were at least 1,577 deaths, while the systems caused over US$693 million in damages. The most significant system was the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone, which was the most intense, damaging, and the deadliest system of the season.

1981 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1981 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1988 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1988 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1991 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1991 North Indian Ocean Cyclone season was an extremely deadly and destructive season causing the deaths of more than 138,000 people and over $1.5 billion in damages. It was the period in which tropical cyclones formed to the north of the equator in the Indian Ocean. During the season tropical cyclones were monitored by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The IMD assigned all depressions that it monitored with BOB followed by a number in numerical order. The JTWC also assigned a number and either the letter A or B depending on where the depression was when the first advisory was issued.

1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the quietest on record in the basin, with only four tropical disturbances. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) issued advisories for the systems in its official capacity as the local Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issued advisories for two of the storms on an unofficial basis. Of the five disturbances tracked by the IMD, two intensified into cyclonic storms.

1994 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1994 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the period in which tropical cyclones formed within the north Indian Ocean. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form within this basin between April and December. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1985 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1985 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1986 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1986 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1987 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1987 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

1980 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1980 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1982 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1982 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1964 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1964 North Indian Ocean cyclone season had no bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below average season in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. This season produced only three named storms, of which one only intensified into a very severe cyclonic storm. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season began with the formation Cyclone Maarutha on April 15, and ended with the dissipation of a deep depression on December 9.

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season North Indian Ocean Ocean cyclone season in 2019

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record. The second cyclone of the season, Fani, was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal by 3-minute maximum sustained wind speed and minimum barometric pressure since the 1999 Odisha cyclone.

References

  1. 1 2 http://www.mahalo.com/arabian-sea
  2. http://pakistanweatherportal.com/2011/04/10/history-of-cyclones-in-the-arabian-sea/
  3. http://pakistanweatherportal.com/2011/05/14/super-cyclones-future-of-arabian-sea/
  4. http://www.pakweather.com/2013/05/tropics-that-affected-pakistani-coasts.html
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  13. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50396 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrd.50396/abstract