North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

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Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005 North Indian cyclone tracks.jpg
Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Contents

Sub-basins

Very severe cyclonic storms (Luban and Titli) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in October 2018 Luban and Titli 2018-10-10 0745Z-0926Z.jpg
Very severe cyclonic storms (Luban and Titli) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in October 2018

The Bay of Bengal, located in the northeast of the Indian Ocean, is responsible for the formation of some of the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclones in the world. The basin is abbreviated BOB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center of the basin. The Bay of Bengal's coast is shared among India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and western part of Thailand. The strongest storm in the bay was the 1999 Odisha cyclone.

The Arabian Sea is a sea located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the basin are abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of the basin. The Arabian Sea's coast is shared among India, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Somalia. [1] Monsoons are characteristic of the Arabian Sea and responsible for the yearly cycling of its waters. In summer, strong winds blow from the southwest to the northeast, bringing rain to the Indian subcontinent. During the winter, the winds are milder and blow in the opposite direction, from the northeast to the southwest. [1] Cyclones are rare in the Arabian Sea, but the basin can produce strong tropical cyclones. Super Cyclonic Storm Gonu was the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the basin. [2] [3] [4] However, storms typically do not reach a high intensity in the Arabian Sea due to dry air coming from the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and unfavorable wind shear from the monsoon. [5]

History of the basin

The systematic scientific studies of tropical systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea was started during the 19th century by Henry Piddington. [6] Piddington utilised meteorological logs of vessels that navigated the seas and published a series of memoirs, in the “Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal” between 1839 and 1858. [6] These memoirs gave accounts and tracks of individual storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. [6]

During the 2004 post monsoon season the IMD started to name tropical cyclones within the basin, with the first one named Cyclone Onil during September 2004. [7] During 2015 a modification to the intensity scale took place, with the IMD and WMO calling a system with 3-minute maximum sustained wind speeds between 90 knots (165 km/h; 105 mph) and 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph) an extremely severe cyclonic storm. [8]

Water temperatures in the Arabian Sea are typically warm enough to allow for tropical cyclogenesis year round, although strong wind shear from the monsoon trough prevents formation in the summer months and limits intensity other times of the year. An increase in air pollution since the 1930s caused a decrease in the wind shear, allowing storms to have become stronger since 1979. [9]

Seasons

1890s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Notes
18901041
18911343Total includes 1 Land Severe Cyclonic Storm
18921272
189312104
18941260
18951154
18961083
18971268
18981373
1899730
References [10]

1900s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19001031
1901632
19021375
19031482
1904940
19051060
19061171
19071584
1908961
1909884
References [10]

1910s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1910652
1911754
1912962
19131062
1914842
1915960
19161485
19171031
19181150
19191163
References [10]

1920s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1920950
19211041
19221366
19231643
19241360
19252073
192613103
19271872
19281370
19291560
References [10]

1930s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
193014101
19311151
19321462
19331683
19341650
19351562
19361763
19371962
19381044
19391973
References [10]

1940s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19401685
19411984
19421452
19431471
19441982
19451532
19461751
19471842
19481863
19491211
References [10]

1950s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
19501640
19511542
19521742
19531011
19541410
19551362
19561442
1957742
19581252
19591663
References [10]

1960s

This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966 at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India Nov319660819zESSA3MadrasCyclone.jpg
This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966 at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India
YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1960 1553 Ten 20,299>Vast majority of the fatalities resulted from two cyclones striking East Pakistan three weeks apart
1961 1854 Three 11,525UnknownThree land depressions developed this season
1962 1353 Twelve 769Deadliest storm, Harriet, crossed over from the Western Pacific
1963 1764 Three 11,735UnknownStrongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm; had the lowest measured pressure in the basin at the time at 919.9 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg)
1964 1675 Sixteen >1,827>Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm
1965 1464
1966 1886
1967 1564
1968 1374
1969 1461
References [10]

1970s

YearDCSSCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1970 1573 Bhola Cyclone 300,000-500,00086.4 millionThe Bhola Cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide
1971 1576
1972 1876
1973 1663
1974 1273
1975 2074
1976 14107
1975 1855
1978 1453
1979 1154
References [10]

1980s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
1980 1430
1981 1263
1982 191185430
1983 7421110
1984 733
1985 1572
1986 810
1987 953
1988 932 04B 6,74013 million
1989 1035 Gay 1,78525.27 MillionGay crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
References [10]

1990s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes and
References
1990 11622111 BOB 01 967 [11] [12]
1991 9431111 BOB 01 >138,000 [12]
1992 131172110 Forrest 189Forrest crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
1993 5422200BOB 03714
1994 5542210BOB 02315
1995 8632210BOB 07554
1996 10864200 BOB 05 2,075
1997 9732110 BOB 01 117Unknown
1998 131065310 ARB 02 >10,212
1999 10853321 BOB 06 15,780The Orissa cyclone is the strongest cyclone recorded in the Northern Indian Ocean.
References [10]

2000s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2000 7652220BOB 05238
2001 6541110 ARB 01 108
2002 7741000BOB 04182
2003 7533100ARB 06358
2004 10743110 BOB 01 587
2005 12730000Pyarr273
2006 12632110 Mala 623
2007 11842221 Gonu 16,248
2008 10741110 Nargis >140,422The deadliest cyclone season since 1970
Costliest cyclone season on record
2009 8641000 Aila 421
References [10]

2010s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2010 8654210 Giri 402The most active season since 1998
2011 10621100 Thane 360
2012 5520000 Nilam 128The first depression of the year did not develop until October 10
2013 10654310 Phailin 323
2014 8532220 Nilofar 183
2015 12942220 Chapala 363
2016 10541100 Vardah 401
2017 10632100 Ockhi 834
2018 14975310 Mekunu 343First simultaneous cyclonic storms in Bay of Bengal (Titli) and Arabian Sea (Luban) since reliable records began
2019 121186631 Kyarr 173Earliest cyclonic storm in the basin
First Super Cyclonic Storm since 2007
9968432721101 Kyarr 3510
References [10]

2020s

YearDDDCSSCSVSCSESCSSuCS [A 1] Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Notes
2020 3222111 Amphan 119First super cyclonic storm in the Bay of Bengal since 1999
Featured the costliest cyclone ever recorded in the basin, Amphan

See also

Notes

A study analyzing the spring season of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal [13] found increases in both premonsoon precipitation and tropical cyclone intensity as a result of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation after 1979. The deepened monsoon trough in the Bay of Bengal not only affects cyclone frequency and timing, but also acts to direct more cyclones towards Myanmar. Increased anthropogenic aerosols likely contributed to such a regional climate change.

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Each column refers to how many Storms developed during the season with D=Depressions, DD=Deep Depressions, CS=Cyclonic Storms, SCS=Severe Cyclonic Storm, VSCS=Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ESCS=Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm, SUCS=Super Cyclonic Storm. For further details please refer to Tropical cyclone scales

Related Research Articles

1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was unofficially the most active year on record for the basin, with 10 tropical storms developing, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent – and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the JTWC releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2006 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2006 North Indian Ocean cyclone season had no bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was at the time, the most active North Indian Ocean cyclone season on record until surpassed in 2019. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2008 North Indian cyclone season was one of the most disastrous tropical cyclone seasons in modern history, with tropical cyclones leaving more than 140,000 people dead and causing more than US$14 billion in damage, making it the costliest season on record in the North Indian Ocean. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season featured a below average total of twelve cyclonic disturbances and one of the most intense tropical cyclones in the basin on record. During the season the systems were primarily monitored by the India Meteorological Department, while other warning centres such as the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center also monitored the area. During the season, there were at least 1,577 deaths, while the systems caused over US$693 million in damages. The most significant system was the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone, which was the most intense, damaging, and the deadliest system of the season.

1989 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1989 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below-average season in annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the quietest on record in the basin, with only four tropical disturbances. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) issued advisories for the systems in its official capacity as the local Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issued advisories for two of the storms on an unofficial basis. Of the five disturbances tracked by the IMD, two intensified into cyclonic storms.

1985 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1985 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1987 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1987 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was part of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. An average of five tropical cyclones form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2014 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2014 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season included two very severe cyclonic storms, both in October, and one other named cyclonic storm, classified according to the tropical cyclone intensity scale of the India Meteorological Department. Cyclone Hudhud is estimated to have caused US$3.58 billion in damage across eastern India, and more than 120 deaths.

2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It was the deadliest season since 2010, killing more than 400 people. The season was an average one, seeing four named storms, with one further intensifying into a very severe cyclonic storm. The first named storm, Roanu, developed on 19 May while the season's last named storm, Vardah, dissipated on 18 December. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below average season in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. This season produced only three named storms, of which one only intensified into a very severe cyclonic storm. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season began with the formation Cyclone Maarutha on April 15 and ended with the dissipation of a deep depression on December 9.

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the most active North Indian Ocean cyclone season ever recorded, featuring 12 depressions, 11 deep depressions, 8 cyclonic storms, a record 6 severe cyclonic storms, a record 6 very severe cyclonic storms, a record 3 extremely severe cyclonic storms, and 1 super cyclonic storm, Kyarr, the first since Cyclone Gonu in 2007. Additionally, it was also the second-costliest season recorded in the North Indian Ocean, only behind the 2020 and 2008 seasons.

2020 North Indian Ocean cyclone season Storm season

The 2020 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and November, with peaks in May and October. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season began on May 16 with the designation of Depression BOB 01 in the Bay of Bengal, later to become Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan, one of the strongest storms in the bay recorded and the costliest storm on record in the basin.

References

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  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Unattributed (2010-08-31). "Annual frequency of cyclonic disturbances (Maximum sustained windspeeds of 17 knots or more), Cyclones (34 knots or more) and Severe Cyclones (48 knots or more) over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and land surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
  11. Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) - Tropical Cyclones, New Delhi (January 1992). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1990 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  12. 1 2 Unattributed (2008-06-26). "Historical records of Severe Cyclones which formed in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall at the eastern coast of India during the period from 1970-1999". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2014-09-25. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
  13. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50396 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrd.50396/abstract