South Pacific tropical cyclone

Last updated

A South Pacific tropical cyclone is a non frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in the South Pacific Ocean. [1] Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W is officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service and New Zealand's MetService, while others like the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Weather front boundary separating two masses of air of different densities

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics. In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored triangles and half-circles, depending on the type of front. The air masses separated by a front usually differ in temperature and humidity.

Low-pressure area region where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations

A low-pressure area, low, depression or cyclone is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence that occur in the upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis. Within the field of meteorology, atmospheric divergence aloft occurs in two areas. The first area is on the east side of upper troughs, which form half of a Rossby wave within the Westerlies. A second area of wind divergence aloft occurs ahead of embedded shortwave troughs, which are of smaller wavelength. Diverging winds aloft ahead of these troughs cause atmospheric lift within the troposphere below, which lowers surface pressures as upward motion partially counteracts the force of gravity.

Sea surface temperature Water temperature close to the oceans surface

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.

Contents

Basin history

The ancient mariners of the South Seas who roamed the tropical Pacific before the arrival of the Europeans, knew of and feared the hurricanes of the South Pacific. [2] They were keen and accurate observers of nature with traditional myths and legends, reflecting their knowledge of these systems. [2] On his voyages around the Pacific, it is thought that Captain James Cook did not collect any information about cyclones in the Pacific. [2] The European whalers, traders and missionaries that followed Cook soon realised that the South Pacific was not free of hurricanes, and were the first to publish accounts about the systems. [2] During 1853, Thomas Dobson subsequently became the first person to collect information about these systems, in order to attempt to understand and explain the characteristics of 24 tropical cyclones. [2] However, these descriptions were vague and of little value, because he only had a small amount of data and no synoptic weather charts. [2]

James Cook 18th-century British explorer

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Over the next 40 years various reports, journals and log books on the storms were published, before E. Knipping consolidated these reports and extended Dobson's list out to 120 tropical cyclones during 1893. [2] During the 1920s Stephen Sargent Visher did some research into tropical cyclones in the Pacific and visited several island nations; including Fiji, Japan and the Philippines to obtain information on potential systems. [3] He also consulted various journals and reports as well as Dobson's and Knipping's work, before he authored a number of papers on tropical cyclones in the Pacific. [3] These papers contained information about 259 tropical storms in the South Pacific between 160°E and 140°W, two of which occurred during 1789 and 1819, while the rest occurred between 1830 and 1923. [2] Visher also tried to estimate how many systems were occurring on an annual basis in each area, but overcompensated for his incomplete records and came up with a figure of 12 severe tropical cyclones per year. [2] [3]

Stephen Sargent Visher (1887-1967) was an American regional geographer and eugenicist. He spent most of his academic career as Professor of Geography at Indiana University, Department of Geology. His interests included the geography of intelligence, ecology and the historical geography of Indiana – on which he wrote prolifically. After his death he was called the "Mr Geography of Indiana" as a result of the many articles and books he wrote concerning the Hoosier State. His interests in eugenics influenced in the work of Ellsworth Huntington, while his geographical work and stories of eastern travel was one of the main reasons Pulitzer Prize winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle began traveling to the Far East.

Fiji Country in Oceania

Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres (7,100 sq mi). The most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760. The capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount. Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

During Visher's time and until the start of World War Two, there was insufficient information available to allow for an accurate depiction of tropical cyclone tracks. [2] However, in the buildup to and during World War Two, meteorological operations in the Pacific were greatly expanded, to meet the needs of international aviation and military operations. [2] [4] As a result, J W Hutchings decided to write a paper on 43 tropical cyclones between 1940 and 1951, using data that had been collected from the tropics by the New Zealand Meteorological Service in the area between the 150°E and 150°W. [4] In the paper, systems were only included if they had a wind speed on the Beaufort scale of Force 9 or above, while located between the Equator and 30°S. [4] Hutchings also examined where tropical cyclones originated from in the South Pacific and claimed that the place where most tropical cyclones develop could be accurately determined. [2] [4] The paper also drew attention to a marked difference in the tracks of South Pacific tropical cyclones and systems in other basins. [4] This work was subsequently extended in 1956, by the then director of the New Zealand Meteorological Service: John Fletcher Gabites, to cover the seasons between 1952–53 and 1955–56. [5] Gabites subsequently wrote a series of papers during 1963 on various aspects of South Pacific tropical cyclones including on the wide variety of tracks that occur over the Pacific. [2]

Tropics region of the Earth surrounding the Equator

The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone. The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year - thus the latitude of the tropics is roughly equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt.

Beaufort scale empirical measure describing wind speed based on observed conditions

The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land. Its full name is the Beaufort wind force scale.

During June 1995, the Fiji Meteorological Service's Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre, was designated as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center by the World Meteorological Organization.

Seasons

The following is a list of all reported tropical cyclones within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E after the start of World War 2 in September 1939 and before the start of the satellite era during the 1969-70 Season.

1970s

SeasonTotal
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesNotes and
References
1969–70 772 [6] [7] [8]
1970–71 880 [9]
1971–72 11116 [10]
1972–73 882Bebe [11]
1973–74 10102 [9]
1974–75 553 [10] [12]
1975–76 663 [9]
1976–77 992 [7] [8]
1977–78 773 [8]
1978–79 963Meli [13]
1979–80 872Peni/Sina [6] [8]

1980s

During the 1980s there were three major Southern Oscillation episodes; two El Niño's (1982–83 and 1986/87) when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) was negative and one La Nina when the SOI was positive. [14]

SeasonTotal
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesNotes and
References
1980–81 12114Freda [14]
1981–82 665Gyan [14] [15]
1982–83 141410Oscar [11] [14]
1983–84 751Beti [12] [14]
1984–85 995Hina [14] [15] [16]
1985–86 773Ima>150 [14] [13]
1986–87 13126Uma50 [10] [11] [8] [14] [16]
1987–88 653Anne [6] [14]
1988–89 14146Harry [14]
1989–90 1152Ofa8 [14]
Totals1039446Hina

1990s

SeasonTotal
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesRetired
names
Notes and
References
1990–91 531 Sina NoneSina [17]
1991–92 13117 Fran 21Tia, Wasa, Val, Betsy, Esau, Fran [6]
1992–93 12106Joni/PremaNoneJoni, Kina, Nina [6]
1993–94 754TheodoreNoneRewa [9]
1994–95 420WilliamNoneWilliam [7] [18] [19]
1995–96 751Beti2Beti [12] [20]
1996–97 14136 Gavin 27Drena, Gavin, Hina, Keli [A 1] [15]
1997–98 20167 Ron/Susan 50Martin, Osea, Ron, Susan, Tui, Urusla, Veli [11] [23]
1998–99 2784DaniCora, Frank [23] [24]
1999-00 2564Kim1Kim [23] [25]
Totals1347940Ron/Susan101

2000s

During the 2000s, activity was generally below the long term average, with 60 tropical cyclones developing out of 160 tropical disturbances and tropical depressions. However activity during the 2002–03, 2004–05 and 2009–10 seasons all experienced activity, near the long term average of about 8 - 9 tropical cyclones.

SeasonTotal
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Retired namesNotes and
References
2000–01 1641Paula7Paula, Sose [10] [23]
2001–02 1652 Waka 1Trina, Waka [15] [23]
2002–03 18107 Zoe 50Zoe, Amy, Beni, Cilla [7] [23] [26]
2003–04 1532 Heta 16Heta, Ivy [17] [23]
2004–05 1895 Percy 2Meena, Nancy, Olaf, Percy [6] [7] [8] [23] [27]
2005–06 1553WatiNoneNone [10] [12] [28]
2006–07 1562 Xavier 4Cliff [7] [8] [23]
2007–08 1643 Daman 8Daman, Funa, Gene [23] [29]
2008–09 1560 Lin 11None [10] [12] [30]
2009–10 1585 Ului 12Mick, Oli, Pat, Tomas, Ului [6] [8] [23]
Totals1596030Zoe111

2010s

SeasonTotal
TD's
Total
TC's
Total
STC's
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamages
(USD)
Retired namesNotes and
References
2010–11 1775 Wilma 4Vania, Wilma, Yasi, Atu [23] [31] [A 2]
2011–12 2031 Jasmine 13None [12] [17] [34]
2012–13 2254 Sandra 17Evan, Freda [12] [35]
2013–14 2062 Ian 12Ian, Lusi [13] [12] [36]
2014–15 1662 Pam 16> Pam [37]
2015–16 1885 Winston 50Ula, Winston [A 3] [17]
2016–17 2242 Donna 3Cook, Donna [17] [12]
2017–18 1463 Gita 11Gita, Josie, Keni
2018–19 1152Pola
Totals1605026Winston126≥ $2.2 billion

See also

Notes

  1. During the 1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season, 11 tropical cyclones formed within the FMS's area of responsibility, while one formed within the subtropics and TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility. [15] [21] [22]
  2. Number of tropical cyclones excludes Tropical Cyclone Anthony, which was considered to have weakened into a tropical low before moving into the South Pacific basin by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology during post analysis. [32] [33]
  3. Number of tropical disturbances excludes Tropical Cyclone Raquel, which was considered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to be a Category 1 tropical cyclone within the 2014–15 year. [32] [38]

Related Research Articles

2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 1, 2005 and ended on April 30, 2006. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the southern Pacific Ocean east of 160°E. Additionally, the regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" runs from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006.

2004–05 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2004–05 South Pacific cyclone season was an above-average tropical cyclone season, that contained nineteen tropical disturbances and nine tropical cyclones. The season got off to an early start, when Tropical Depression 01F developed near the Solomon Islands on October 28, three days before the official start of the season on November 1. The final disturbance of the season dissipated as the season was drawing to a close on May 1, 2005. Tropical cyclones between 160°E and 120°W and north of 25°S are monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service in Nadi. Those that move south of 25°S are monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Wellington, New Zealand.

2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.

2002–03 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2002–03 South Pacific cyclone season was the most active and longest tropical cyclone season since 1997–98, with ten tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season started earlier than normal, with two systems developing before the official start of the season on November 1, 2002, while the final system dissipated on June 9, 2003, after the season had officially ended on April 30. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that occur within the basin, while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a ten-minute period, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a one-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale (SSHS).

2008–09 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2008–09 South Pacific cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, which featured six named tropical cyclones compared to an average of about nine. Ahead of the season officially starting on November 1, 2008, the Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook predicted that the season, would feature an average risk of tropical cyclones impacting the South Pacific between 160°E and 120°W. The first tropical disturbance of the season developed to the northeast of the Samoan Islands on December 1, however, it remained weak and was last noted during the next day.

Cyclone Gene Category 3 South Pacific cyclone in 2008

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gene was the deadliest storm as well as the most damaging tropical cyclone of the 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season east of 160ºE. RSMC Nadi monitored Gene as the 12th tropical disturbance, as well as the fourth tropical cyclone and the third severe tropical cyclone to form west of 160ºE during the 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season. Gene was also recognised by RSMC Nadi as the fifth tropical cyclone and fourth severe tropical cyclone to form within the South Pacific Ocean during the 2007-08 season.

1998–99 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1998–99 South Pacific cyclone season was a near average South Pacific tropical cyclone season, with 8 tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific Ocean basin between 160°E and 120°W. Despite the season starting on November 1, the first tropical system of the season did not form until December 1, while the final disturbance of the season dissipated on May 27, 1999. During the season the most intense tropical cyclone was Severe Tropical Cyclone Cora, which had a minimum pressure of 930 hPa (27.46 inHg). After the season had ended the names Cora and Dani were retired from the naming lists, after they had caused significant impacts to South Pacific islands.

2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season was an average tropical cyclone season, with seven tropical cyclones and five severe tropical cyclones developing during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2010 until April 30, 2011, though if any tropical cyclones had developed between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011, the official tropical cyclone year, they would have been counted towards the season's total. Within the South Pacific basin tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji, north of 25°S, and to the south the Meteorological Service of New Zealand's Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Wellington, New Zealand. Any disturbances forming in the region were designated with a sequential number suffixed by the letter F. In addition, the United States Military's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially monitored parts of the basin during the season, where any systems judged to have achieved tropical storm strength or greater received a number suffixed with the letter P. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute which can be applied to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Seven named storms formed or moved into the South Pacific basin during the 2010–11 season, the strongest of which was Severe Tropical Cyclone Wilma in late January.

2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with only three tropical cyclones occurring during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2011 to April 30, 2012, however, any tropical cyclones that form before June 30, 2012 would have fallen within the 2011–12 tropical cyclone year and would have counted towards the season total. The strongest and only severe tropical cyclone that occurred during the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Jasmine, which tracked in from out of the South Pacific basin. Within the basin, tropical cyclones are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Wellington, New Zealand. RSMC Nadi attaches an F designation to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the South Pacific. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues unofficial warnings within the South Pacific, designating tropical storm-equivalent or greater tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute and uses the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

2012–13 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2012–13 South Pacific cyclone season was a somewhat below average tropical cyclone season, with six tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013, however the last tropical disturbance was last noted on May 1, as it moved into the subtropics. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other national meteorological services including Météo-France and NOAA also monitored the basin during the season. During the season there were 22 significant tropical disturbances assigned a number and a F suffix by the FMS's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi), including Severe Tropical Cyclone Sandra which moved into the basin from the Australian region on March 9. The BoM, MetService and RSMC Nadi all estimated sustained wind speeds over a period of 10-minutes and used the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHS).

Cyclone Vania Category 2 South Pacific cyclone in 2011

Tropical Cyclone Vania was the third depression and first tropical cyclone of the 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season.

1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1995, until April 30, 1996. The first storm developed on January 12, while the last one dissipated on April 2. During the season the most intense tropical cyclone was Severe Tropical Cyclone Beti, which reached a minimum pressure of 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) as it affected New Caledonia. After the season ended Beti's name was the only name to be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists and was replaced with Bune, after it inflicted over 5.6 million (USD) worth of damage to Australia, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and New Zealand.

2013–14 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2013–14 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season, with six tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 2013 to April 30, 2014, however, the first four tropical disturbances occurred during October 2013 and were included as a part of the season. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other national meteorological services including Météo-France and NOAA also monitored the basin during the season. During the season there were 21 significant tropical disturbances were assigned a number and an "F" suffix by the FMS's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi), including the remnants of Tropical Cyclone Hadi from the Australian region. The BoM, MetService and RSMC Nadi all estimated sustained wind speeds over a period of 10-minutes and used the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHS).

2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly-below average tropical cyclone season, with five tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the most disastrous South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with a total of 50 deaths and $1.405 billion in damage. Throughout the season, 8 systems attained tropical cyclone status, whilst 5 became severe tropical cyclones. The most notable cyclone of the season by far was Winston, which attained a minimum pressure of 884 hPa, and maximum ten-minute sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h), making it the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Southern Hemisphere. Winston went on to devastate Fiji, causing $1.4 billion in damage and 44 deaths across the country.

2016–17 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2016–17 South Pacific cyclone season was the least active South Pacific cyclone season since the 2011–12 season, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. Two of the four systems developed into severe tropical cyclones on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale. The season officially ran from November 1, 2016 until April 30, 2017. However, May featured two post-season systems: Donna and Ella, of which the former was the strongest post-season South Pacific tropical cyclone ever recorded in that month. Overall, 22 tropical disturbances were monitored by a combination of the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService.

2017–18 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2017–18 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly below-average season that produced 6 tropical cyclones, 3 of which became severe tropical cyclones. The season officially began on November 1, 2017 and ended on April 30, 2018; however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service, MetService and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, while the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued warnings for American interests. The FMS attaches a number and an F suffix to significant tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin, while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. The BoM, FMS and MetService all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

Cyclone Lusi

Cyclone Lusi was the second severe tropical cyclone of the 2013–14 season and affected Fiji, Vanuatu and New Zealand.

References

  1. RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (May 5, 2015). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2014). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B-1 – 2B-4 (23–26). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Kerr, Ian S (March 1, 1976). "Tropical Storms and Hurricanes in the Southwest Pacific: November 1939 to May 1969" (PDF). pp. 23&nbsp, – 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 11, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 Visher, Stephen Sargent (June 1922). "Tropical Cyclones in Australia and the South Pacific and Indian Oceans" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 50 (6): 288–295. Bibcode:1922MWRv...50..288V. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1922)50<288:TCIAAT>2.0.CO;2.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Hutchings, J.W (April 1953). "Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific". New Zealand Geographer. 9 (1): 37–57. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7939.1953.tb01823.x.
  5. http://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/nzmstic107.pdf
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 18, 2012). "2012/13 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 15, 2014). "2014/15 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "2018–19 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook [in the] Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. October 23, 2018. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Climate Services Division; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 26, 2010). Tropical Cyclone Guidance for Season 2010/11 for the Fiji and the Southwest Pacific (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 27, 2011). "2011–12 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  11. 1 2 3 4 RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 22, 2015). "2015–16 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "2017–18 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. October 11, 2017. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  13. 1 2 3 RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 14, 2016). "2016–17 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Thompson, Craig; Ready, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaogu (1992). Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific: November 1979 – May 1989 (PDF). New Zealand Meteorological Service, (Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research). ISBN   0-477-07346-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 11, 2013). "2013/14 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
  16. 1 2 Revell, Cliff G (1987). "The 1986/87 Hurricane Season in the South Pacific" (PDF). Weather and Climate. The Meteorological Society of New Zealand. 7 (2): 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-03.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 2016/17 tropical cyclone season to officially end on April 30 (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. April 27, 2017. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  18. Shepherd, I.J; Bates, P.W (June 2, 1997). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1994–95" (PDF). Australian Meteorological Magazine. Australian Bureau of Meteorology (46): 143–151. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  19. Barr, Joe (September 17, 2008). "Event Information: Tropical Cyclone William". Pacific Disaster.Net. Archived from the original on June 2, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
  20. Callaghan, Jeff (December 4, 1997). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1995–96" (PDF). Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 46: 325–339. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  21. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre; TCWC Brisbane; TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre Best Track Data for 1996/97 Cyclone Season". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  22. "Matt Megan's World". The Manawatu Standard. Palmerston North, New Zealand. April 2, 1997. p. 3.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Padgett, Gary (1997–2011). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summaries". Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  24. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (1999). RSMC Nadi Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 1998–99 (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  25. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (2000). RSMC Nadi Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 1999–2000 (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  26. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 2002–03" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
  27. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. Tropical Cyclone Summary 2004 — 2005 Season (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  28. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Cyclone Season Summary: 2005–2006 Season" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
  29. RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre; Fiji Meteorological Service (2008). Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 2007–08 (Report). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  30. RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (September 24, 2012). Tropical Cyclone Season Summary 2008–09. Fiji Meteorological Service (Report). World Meteorological Organization's Tropical Cyclone Project. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  31. Climate Services Division (May 11, 2012). Fiji Islands Climate Summary April 2011 Volume 32 Issue 04 (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 26, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  32. 1 2 "The Australian Tropical Cyclone Database" (CSV). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  33. Auden, Tony (June 21, 2011). Tropical Cyclone Anthony: January 23 – 31, 2011 (PDF) (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Brisbane Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  34. Young, Steve (January 14, 2013). "Southern Hemisphere 2011–2012 Tropical Cyclone Season Review". Australian Severe Weather. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  35. Young, Steve (July 16, 2013). "Southern Hemisphere 2012–2013 Tropical Cyclone Season Review". Australian Severe Weather. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  36. Young, Steve (July 24, 2014). "Southern Hemisphere 2013–2014 Tropical Cyclone Season Review". Australian Severe Weather. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  37. Climate Services Division (August 18, 2015). Fiji Annual Climate Summary: 2014 (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
  38. Queensland Regional Office (September 2015). Tropical Cyclone Raquel: January 23 – 31, 2011 (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved September 15, 2015.