List of Category 4 Pacific hurricanes

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Hurricane Odile at its peak intensity. Odile had the lowest atmospheric pressure of a Category 4 hurricane in the Pacific basin, east of 180degW, at 918 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg). Odile 2014-09-14 0600Z.jpg
Hurricane Odile at its peak intensity. Odile had the lowest atmospheric pressure of a Category 4 hurricane in the Pacific basin, east of 180°W, at 918  mbar (hPa; 27.11  inHg).

Category 4, the second-highest classification on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, [nb 1] is used for tropical cyclones that have winds of 130–156 mph (209–251 km/h; 113–136  kn). The division of the eastern and central Pacific basins occurs at 140° W; the eastern Pacific covers area east of 140° W, while the central Pacific extends between 140° W to 180° W. Both basins' division points are at 66° N as a northern point and the equator as the southern point. As of 2019, 126 hurricanes have attained Category 4 status in the northeastern Pacific basins. This list does not include storms that also attained Category 5 status on the scale.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Knot (unit) unit of speed

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common, especially in aviation where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Equator Intersection of a spheres surface with the plane perpendicular to the spheres axis of rotation and midway between the poles

An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel). It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles.

Contents

Numerous climatological factors influence the formation of hurricanes in the Pacific basins. The North Pacific High and Aleutian Low, usually present between January and April, cause strong wind shear and unfavorable conditions for the development of hurricanes. During its presence, El Niño results in increased numbers of powerful hurricanes through weaker wind shear, while La Niña reduces the number of such hurricanes through the opposite. Global warming may also influence the formation of tropical cyclones in the Pacific basin. During a thirty-year period with two sub-periods, the first between 1975 and 1989 and the second between 1990 and 2004, an increase of thirteen Category 4 or 5 storms was observed from the first sub-period.

North Pacific High

The North Pacific High is a semi-permanent, subtropical anticyclone located in the northeastern portion of the Pacific Ocean, located northeast of Hawaii and west of California. It is strongest during the northern hemisphere summer and shifts towards the equator during the winter, when the Aleutian Low becomes more active. It is responsible for California's typically dry summer and fall and typically wet winter and spring, as well as Hawaii's year-round trade winds.

Aleutian Low semi-permanent low pressure center located near the Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Low is a semi-permanent low-pressure system located near the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea during the Northern Hemisphere winter. It is a climatic feature centered near the Aleutian Islands measured based on mean sea-level pressure. It is one of the largest atmospheric circulation patterns in Northern Hemisphere and represents one of the "main centers of action in atmospheric circulation."

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Statistics and background

Tracks of all known Category 4 Pacific hurricanes from 1949-2011 in the central and eastern Pacific basins Map of Pacific Category 4 hurricanes.png
Tracks of all known Category 4 Pacific hurricanes from 1949-2011 in the central and eastern Pacific basins
Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5

On the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, "Category 4" is the second-most powerful classification, with winds ranging between 130–156 mph (209–251 km/h; 113–136 kn). When these hurricanes make landfall, impacts are usually severe but are not as destructive as Category 5 hurricanes that come ashore. [1] The term "maximum sustained wind" refers to the average wind speed measured during the period of one minute at the height of 10 feet (3.0 m) above the ground. The windspeed is measured at that height to prevent disruption from obstructions. Wind gusts in tropical cyclones are usually approximately 30% stronger than the one-minute maximum sustained winds. [2]

The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, or RMW. Unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Wind measuring has been standardized globally to reflect the winds at 10 metres (33 ft) above the Earth's surface, and the maximum sustained wind represents the highest average wind over either a one-minute (US) or ten-minute time span, anywhere within the tropical cyclone. Surface winds are highly variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land.

The northeastern Pacific hurricane basins are divided into two parts – eastern and central. The eastern Pacific basin extends from all areas of the Pacific north of the equator east of 140° W, while the central Pacific basin includes areas north of the equator between 140° W and 180° W. [3] Both basins extend to the Arctic Circle at 66° N. [4] When tropical cyclones cross from the Atlantic into the Pacific, the name of the previous storm is retained if the system continues to exhibit tropical characteristics; however, when hurricanes degenerate into a remnant low-pressure area, the system is designated with the next name on the rotating eastern Pacific hurricane naming list. [5]

Arctic Circle Boundary of the Arctic

The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the centre of the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice and the southernmost point at which the centre of the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone.

Low-pressure area region where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations

A low-pressure area, low, depression or cyclone is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence that occur in the upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis. Within the field of meteorology, atmospheric divergence aloft occurs in two areas. The first area is on the east side of upper troughs, which form half of a Rossby wave within the Westerlies. A second area of wind divergence aloft occurs ahead of embedded shortwave troughs, which are of smaller wavelength. Diverging winds aloft ahead of these troughs cause atmospheric lift within the troposphere below, which lowers surface pressures as upward motion partially counteracts the force of gravity.

Since 1900, 126 Category 4 hurricanes have been recorded in the eastern and central Pacific basins. Of these, fourteen have attained Category 4 status on more than one occasion, by weakening to a status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale lower than Category 4 and later restrengthening into a Category 4. Such storms are demarcated by the dates they first attained and the final time they lost the intensity. Only three storms, Hurricane Fico in 1978, Hurricane Norbert in 1984, and Hector in 2018, reached Category 4 status three times or more. [6]

Hurricane Norbert (1984) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 1984

Hurricane Norbert marked the first time a core of a hurricane was fully mapped in three-dimensions. First forming on September 14, 1984 west of the Mexican coast, Norbert gradually intensified, reaching hurricane intensity two days after formation. On September 22, Norbert peaked in strength as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. While intensifying, Norbert meandered. It moved east, then north, then west, then south, then back towards the east, and finally towards the northeast. After fluctuating in intensity for two more days, Norbert rapidly weakened. It turned towards the northwest and made landfall in southern Baja California Norte as a tropical storm. The combination of Norbert and several other storms left thousands homeless throughout Mexico. The remnants of Hurricane Norbert produced moderate rain over Arizona.

Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 hurricane

Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that was the first to traverse all three North Pacific basins since Genevieve in 2014. The eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Hector originated from an area of low pressure that formed a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico on July 28. Amid favorable weather conditions, a tropical depression formed a few days later on July 31. The depression continued strengthening and became Tropical Storm Hector on the next day. Hector became a hurricane on August 2, and rapidly intensified into a strong Category 2 hurricane later in the day. After weakening while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, Hector quickly strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane late on August 5. Over the next week, Hector fluctuated in intensity multiple times due to eyewall replacement cycles and shifting wind shear. Hector achieved its peak intensity on August 6, as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). On the following day, the hurricane bypassed Hawaii approximately 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Increasing wind shear resulted in steady weakening of the storm, beginning on August 11. At that time, Hector accumulated the longest continuous stretch of time as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific since reliable records began. Eroding convection and dissipation of its eye marked its degradation to a tropical storm on August 13. The storm subsequently traversed the International Dateline that day. Hector later weakened into a tropical depression on August 15, before dissipating late on August 16.

Between 1970 and 1975, advisories for systems in the eastern Pacific basins were initiated by the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (EPHC) as part of the National Weather Service (NWS) office in San Francisco, California. At that time, the advisories released were written in cooperation with the United States Navy Fleet Weather Center in Alameda and the Air Force Hurricane Liaison Officer at the McClellan Air Force Base. Following the move of the hurricane center to Redwood City in 1976, track files were created and altered by Arthur Pike and were later re-modified following the release of a study in 1980. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) extended its authority to the EPHC in 1988, and subsequently began maintaining the tracks. [7]

The Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was formerly the center responsible for forecasting Pacific hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific east of 140°W. It was part of the Weather Bureau Forecast Office San Francisco and was based in Redwood City.

National Weather Service United States weather agency

The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, within the Washington metropolitan area. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.

San Francisco Consolidated city-county in California, US

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a city in, and the cultural, commercial, and financial center of, Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, and the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017. It covers an area of about 46.89 square miles (121.4 km2), mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is also part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area.

Climatology

The track of Hurricane Sandra in 2015, which is the latest-forming Category 4 hurricane on record in the northeastern Pacific basin. Sandra 2015 track.png
The track of Hurricane Sandra in 2015, which is the latest-forming Category 4 hurricane on record in the northeastern Pacific basin.

A total of 126 Category 4 hurricanes have been recorded in the eastern and central Pacific basins since 1900. Only two Category 4 hurricanes have been recorded in May, in addition to 14 in June, 24 in July, 31 in August, 32 in September, 18 in October, and two in November. [6] No Category 4 storms have developed during the off-season. [6] It is theorized that global warming was responsible for an increase of 13 Category 4 and 5 storms that developed in the eastern Pacific, from 36 in the period of 1975–1989 to 49 in the period of 1990–2004. It was estimated that if sea-surface temperatures ascended by 2 to 2.5 degrees, the intensity of tropical cyclones would increase by 6–10% internationally. During years with the existence of an El Niño, sea-surface temperatures increase in the eastern Pacific, resulting in an increase in activity as vertical wind shear decreases in the Pacific; the opposite happens in the Atlantic basin during El Niño, when wind shear increases creating an unfavourable environment for tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic. [8] Contrary to El Niño, La Niña increases wind shear over the eastern Pacific and reduces it over the Atlantic. [9]

The presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific is a dominant factor against formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the Pacific High results in wind shear that causes environmental conditions for tropical cyclone formation to be unconducive. Its effects in the central Pacific basin are usually related to keeping cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands. Due to westward trade winds, hurricanes in the Pacific nearly never head eastward, although several storms have defied the odds and headed eastward. A second factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the occupation of a semi-permanent low-pressure area designated the Aleutian Low between January and April. Its presence over western Canada and the northwestern United States contributes to the area's occurrences of precipitation in that duration. In addition, its effects in the central Pacific near 160° W causes tropical waves that form in the area to drift northward into the Gulf of Alaska and dissipate. Its retreat in late-April allows the warmth of the Pacific High to meander in, bringing its powerful clockwise wind circulation with it. The Intertropical Convergence Zone departs southward in mid-May permitting the formation of the earliest tropical waves, [4] coinciding with the start of the eastern Pacific hurricane season on May 15. [10]

Cooler waters near the Baja California peninsula are thought to prevent storms in the eastern Pacific from transitioning into an extratropical cyclone; as of 2009, only three storms listed in the database are known to have successfully completed an extratropical transition. [7] [ dubious ]

Category 4 Pacific hurricanes

Category 4 Pacific hurricanes
Tico October 16, 1983.jpg
Hurricane Tico near peak intensity on October 16, 1983
Estelle 20 july 1986 2338.jpg
Hurricane Estelle near peak intensity on July 20, 1986
Iniki 1992-09-11 2331.png
Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane to strike Hawai'i in recorded history, south of the island chain on September 11, 1992
Pauline 1997-10-08 1800Z.png
Hurricane Pauline, the easternmost Category 4 recorded at peak intensity on October 8, 1997
Juliette 2001-09-25 1800Z.png
Hurricane Juliette at peak intensity on September 25, 2001
Hurricane John Aug 31 2006.jpg
Hurricane John weakening on August 31, 2006
Norbert Oct 8 2008.png
Hurricane Norbert as a Category 4 hurricane on October 8, 2008
Hurricane Jimena 2009-08-31 1755Z.jpg
Hurricane Jimena rapidly intensifying on August 29, 2009, while paralleling the Mexican coast
Hurricane Hilary Sept 23 2011 2000Z.jpg
Hurricane Hilary off the coast of Mexico on September 23, 2011
Amanda May 25 2014 1445Z.png
Hurricane Amanda, the strongest May cyclone on record in the East Pacific on May 25, 2014
Olaf 2015-10-20 1054Z.jpg
Hurricane Olaf, the southernmost Category 4 hurricane recorded at peak intensity on October 20, 2015
Storm
name
SeasonDates as a
Category 4
Time as a
Category 4
Peak one-minute
sustained winds
PressureSource(s)
Unnamed 1957 October 21–2212 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Dot Dagger-14-plain.png 1959 August 2–572 hours150 mph (240 km/h)952 hPa (28.1 inHg) [6] [11]
"Mexico" 1959 October 26–2736 hours140 mph (220 km/h)955 hPa (28.2 inHg) [6] [12]
Denise 1971 July 912 hours140 mph (220 km/h)951 hPa (28.1 inHg) [6]
Celeste 1972 August 1412 hours130 mph (215 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg) [6]
Doreen 1973 July 206 hours140 mph (220 km/h)968 hPa (28.6 inHg) [6]
Emily 1973 July 236 hours140 mph (220 km/h)972 hPa (28.7 inHg) [6]
Maggie 1974 August 28–2924 hours140 mph (220 km/h)934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6]
Denise 1975 July 912 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Katrina 1975September 36 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Annette 1976 June 8–1154 hours140 mph (220 km/h)925 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6]
Iva 1976August 2812 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Liza 1976September 29 – October 142 hours140 mph (220 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6]
Madeline 1976October 7–812 hours145 mph (230 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg) [6]
Carlotta Double-dagger-14-plain.png 1978 June 21–2224 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Fico Double-dagger-14-plain.png1978July 11–1672 hours140 mph (220 km/h)955 hPa (28.2 inHg) [6]
Hector 1978July 2518 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Norman 1978September 2–336 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Susan Dagger-14-plain.png1978October 216 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6] [13]
Enrique 1979 August 2218 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Ignacio 1979October 27–2818 hours145 mph (230 km/h)938 hPa (27.7 inHg) [6]
Kay 1980 September 1818 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Olivia 1982 September 21–2230 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Barbara 1983 June 13–1424 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Henriette 1983July 30–3118 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Kiko Double-dagger-14-plain.png1983September 2–466 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Raymond Dagger-14-plain.png Double-dagger-14-plain.png1983October 11–1542 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6] [14]
Tico 1983October 196 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Douglas 1984 June 28–3048 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Elida 1984July 16 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Iselle 1984August 8–912 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Norbert Double-dagger-14-plain.png1984September 21–2436 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Ignacio Dagger-14-plain.png 1985 July 23–2424 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6] [15]
Jimena 1985July 2412 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Rick**1985September 8–1042 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Estelle* 1986 July 20–2136 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6] [16]
Javier Double-dagger-14-plain.png1986August 2512 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6]
Roslyn 1986October 18–2042 hours145 mph (230 km/h)Unknown [6]
Max 1987 September 12–1442 hours155 mph (250 km/h)Unknown [6]
Ramon 1987October 9–1036 hours140 mph (220 km/h)Unknown [6]
Hector 1988 August 2–436 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [17]
Fabio Dagger-14-plain.png1988August 312 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [18] [19]
Octave 1989 September 136 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [20]
Raymond 1989September 30 – October 130 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [21]
Hernan 1990 July 22–2560 hours155 mph (250 km/h)928 hPa (27.4 inHg) [6] [22]
Marie Dagger-14-plain.png1990September 1124 hours140 mph (220 km/h)944 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [23] [24]
Odile 1990September 26–2736 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [25]
Trudy Double-dagger-14-plain.png1990October 19–2778 hours155 mph (250 km/h)924 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6] [26]
Jimena Double-dagger-14-plain.png 1991 September 23–2648 hours130 mph (215 km/h)945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [27]
Kevin 1991September 29 – October 272 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [28]
Celia 1992 June 27–2842 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [29]
Estelle Double-dagger-14-plain.png1992July 12–1430 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [30]
Frank 1992July 17–1936 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [31]
Orlene 1992September 5–760 hours145 mph (230 km/h)934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [32]
Iniki Dagger-14-plain.png1992September 11–1224 hours145 mph (230 km/h)938 hPa (27.7 inHg) [6] [33]
Tina 1992September 29 – October 266 hours150 mph (240 km/h)932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6] [34]
Virgil 1992October 36 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [35]
Dora 1993 July 16–1724 hours130 mph (215 km/h)945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [36]
Fernanda 1993August 11–1342 hours145 mph (230 km/h)934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [37]
Keoni Dagger-14-plain.png1993August 16–1724 hours130 mph (215 km/h)Unknown [6] [38]
Greg 1993August 19–2030 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [39]
Jova 1993September 112 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [40]
Kenneth 1993September 10–1236 hours150 mph (240 km/h)932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6] [41]
Lidia 1993September 1124 hours150 mph (240 km/h)930 hPa (27 inHg) [6] [42]
Lane 1994 September 6–718 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [43]
Olivia 1994September 25–2624 hours150 mph (240 km/h)923 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6] [44]
Adolph 1995 June 186 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [45]
Barbara Double-dagger-14-plain.png1995July 10–1460 hours140 mph (220 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg) [6] [46]
Juliette 1995September 20–2124 hours150 mph (240 km/h)930 hPa (27 inHg) [6] [47]
Douglas** 1996 August 1–236 hours130 mph (215 km/h)946 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [48]
Felicia 1997 July 1918 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [49]
Jimena 1997August 27–2836 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [50]
Nora 1997September 216 hours130 mph (215 km/h)950 hPa (28 inHg) [6] [51]
Pauline Double-dagger-14-plain.png1997October 7–812 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [52]
Blas 1998 June 2524 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [53]
Estelle 1998August 26 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [54]
Howard Double-dagger-14-plain.png1998August 23–2660 hours150 mph (240 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [55]
Dora 1999 August 10–1372 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [56]
Carlotta 2000 June 21–2224 hours155 mph (250 km/h)932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6] [57]
Adolph 2001 May 28–2930 hours145 mph (230 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg) [6] [58]
Juliette Double-dagger-14-plain.png2001September 24–2642 hours145 mph (230 km/h)923 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6] [59]
Fausto 2002 August 24–2524 hours145 mph (230 km/h)936 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [60]
Ele 2002August 296 hours130 mph (215 km/h)945 hPa (27.9 inHg)
Howard 2004 September 2–318 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [61]
Javier 2004September 13–1554 hours150 mph (240 km/h)930 hPa (27 inHg) [6] [62]
Kenneth 2005 September 18–1918 hours130 mph (215 km/h)947 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [63]
Daniel 2006 July 20–2372 hours150 mph (240 km/h)933 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [64]
John 2006August 3012 hours130 mph (215 km/h)948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [65]
Flossie 2007 August 11–1360 hours140 mph (220 km/h)949 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6] [66]
Norbert 2008 October 86 hours130 mph (215 km/h)945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [67]
Felicia 2009 August 5–736 hours145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6] [68]
Jimena 2009August 30 – September 160 hours155 mph (250 km/h)931 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6] [69]
Adrian 2011 June 1018 hours140 mph (220 km/h)944 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6] [70]
Dora 2011July 21–2230 hours155 mph (250 km/h)929 hPa (27.4 inHg) [6] [71]
Eugene 2011August 3–418 hours140 mph (220 km/h)942 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [72]
Hilary Double-dagger-14-plain.png2011September 23–2760 hours145 mph (230 km/h)942 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6] [73]
Kenneth 2011November 22–2318 hours145 mph (230 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg) [6] [74]
Emilia 2012 July 1012 hours140 mph (220 km/h)945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [75]
Amanda 2014 May 25–2636 hours155 mph (250 km/h)932 hPa (27.5 inHg)
Cristina 2014June 1218 hours150 mph (240 km/h)935 hPa (27.6 inHg)
Iselle 2014August 4–518 hours140 mph (220 km/h)947 hPa (28.0 inHg)
Odile 2014September 1412 hours140 mph (220 km/h)918 hPa (27.1 inHg)
Simon 2014October 46 hours130 mph (215 km/h)946 hPa (27.9 inHg)
Andres 2015 June 124 hours145 mph (230 km/h)937 hPa (27.7 inHg) [76] [77] [78]
Blanca Double-dagger-14-plain.png2015June 3–624 hours145 mph (230 km/h)936 hPa (27.6 inHg) [79]
Dolores 2015July 156 hours130 mph (215 km/h)946 hPa (27.9 inHg) [80]
Hilda Dagger-14-plain.png2015August 812 hours140 mph (220 km/h)946 hPa (27.9 inHg) [81]
Ignacio Dagger-14-plain.png2015August 29–3024 hours145 mph (230 km/h)942 hPa (27.8 inHg) [82]
Jimena 2015August 29 – September 184 hours155 mph (250 km/h)932 hPa (27.5 inHg)
Kilo Double-dagger-14-plain.png2015August 30–3136 hours140 mph (220 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg)
Olaf*2015October 19–2142 hours150 mph (240 km/h)938 hPa (27.7 inHg)
Sandra 2015November 2618 hours150 mph (240 km/h)934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [83]
Blas 2016 July 66 hours140 mph (220 km/h)947 hPa (28.0 inHg)
Georgette 2016July 2512 hours130 mph (215 km/h)952 hPa (28.1 inHg)
Lester Double-dagger-14-plain.png2016August 29–3136 hours145 mph (230 km/h)944 hPa (27.9 inHg)
Madeline Dagger-14-plain.png2016August 306 hours130 mph (215 km/h)950 hPa (28 inHg)
Seymour 2016October 25–2624 hours150 mph (240 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg)
Fernanda Double-dagger-14-plain.png 2017 July 14–1630 hours145 mph (230 km/h)947 hPa (28.0 inHg)
Kenneth 2017August 216 hours130 mph (215 km/h)952 hPa (28.1 inHg)
Aletta 2018 June 812 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg)
Bud 2018June 1212 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg)
Hector Double-dagger-14-plain.png*2018August 5–1096 hours155 mph (250 km/h)936 hPa (27.6 inHg)
Norman Double-dagger-14-plain.png2018August 30 – September 354 hours150 mph (240 km/h)937 hPa (27.7 inHg)
Olivia 2018September 76 hours130 mph (215 km/h)951 hPa (28.1 inHg) [84]
Rosa 2018September 2818 hours145 mph (230 km/h)940 hPa (28 inHg)
Sergio 2018October 424 hours140 mph (220 km/h)943 hPa (27.8 inHg)

Notes:

  • Dagger-14-plain.png The storm noted formed or attained Category 4 status in the central Pacific basin but may have formed in the eastern Pacific basin
  • Double-dagger-14-plain.png The storm noted attained Category 4 status more than once
  • * The storm noted was both a Category 4 in the eastern and central Pacific basins
  • ** The storm noted originated in the Atlantic basin, but later intensified into a Category 4 hurricane in the eastern Pacific basin
  • # Storms that attained Category 4 status at one point but intensified into Category 5 at a later time are not included.
  • As the Pacific hurricane database only goes back to 1949, the 1943 Mazatlán hurricane is not included, although it attained Category 4-equivalent winds at 136 mph (219 km/h). It is unknown if the winds observed were sustained. [6] [85]

  • Storms that formed in the eastern or central Pacific but strengthened to reach Category 4 status in the western Pacific basin (west of 180° W) are not included. [86] [87]

Landfalls

Landfalls by month [6]
MonthNumber of storms
June
2
August
2
September [nb 2]
10
October
15

Of the 126 Category 4 hurricanes that have formed in the eastern and central Pacific basins, 28 have made landfall. Of them, four made landfall at Category 4 intensity, three at Category 3, eleven at Categories 2 and 1, eight as tropical storms, and six as tropical depressions. Several of these storms weakened slightly after attaining Category 4 status as they approached land; [6] [85] this is usually a result of dry air, shallower water due to shelving, cooler waters, or interaction with land. [88] Only in six years – 1976, 1983, 1992, 1997, 2014 and 2018 – more than one Category 4 hurricane made landfall, and only during one year – 2018 – did four Category 4 hurricanes made landfall. [6]

NameYearCategory 4Category 3Category 2Category 1Tropical stormTropical depressionSource(s)
Unnamed 1957 Sinaloa  state      [6] [89]
Dot 1959    Kauaʻi    [6]
"Mexico" 1959 Colima state      [6] [12]
Liza 1976  Sonora  state     [6] [89]
Madeline 1976 Guerrero  state      [6] [89]
Ignacio 1979      Michoacán  state [6]
Raymond 1983      Maui, Oʻahu, Kauaʻi [6] [14]
Tico 1983  Sinaloa  state     [6] [89]
Norbert 1984     Baja California Sur  state  [6]
Roslyn 1986    Sinaloa  state   [6] [89]
Raymond 1989     Baja California Sur  state
Sonora  state
  [6] [90]
Orlene 1992      Big Island [6] [32]
Iniki 1992 Kauaʻi       [6] [33]
Virgil 1992   Michoacán  state    [6] [35] [89]
Lidia 1993   Sinaloa  state    [6] [42] [89]
Nora 1997    Baja California Sur  state
Baja California  state
   [6] [51]
Pauline 1997   Oaxaca  state    [6] [52] [89]
Juliette 2001     Baja California Sur  state Sonora  state [6] [59]
Javier 2004      Baja California Sur  state [6] [62]
John 2006   Baja California Sur  state    [6] [65]
Norbert 2008   Baja California Sur  state Sonora  state   [6] [67]
Jimena 2009   Baja California Sur  state    [6] [69]
Iselle 2014     Big Island  
Odile 2014  Baja California Sur  state   Sonora  state 
Blanca 2015     Baja California Sur  state 
Bud 2018     Baja California Sur  state 
Olivia 2018     Maui, Lānaʻi   [91]
Rosa 2018      Baja California  state
Sergio 2018     Baja California Sur  state
Sonora  state
 
Note:

If a storm makes landfall in the same Mexican state more than once, it is only listed for the most intense landfall.

See also

Footnotes

Notes
  1. The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, devised in 1971, is used to categorize the intensity of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. [1]
  2. Though Hurricane Juliette of 2001 made a second landfall in October, it did so after it re-generated. The landfall is included in the "September" total but not the "October" total.
General
Specific
  1. 1 2 Schott, Timothy; Landsea, Christopher W.; Hafele, Gene; Lorens, Jeffrey; Taylor, Arthur; Thurm, Harvey; Ward, Bill; Willis, Mark; et al. (2010-08-25). "The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale" (PDF). United States: National Hurricane Center . Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  2. Landsea, Christopher W. (2006-04-21). "TCFAQ D4) What does "maximum sustained wind" mean? How does it relate to gusts in tropical cyclones?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory . United States: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  3. "View Official Products". United States National Weather Service . United States: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  4. 1 2 Longshore 1998, pp. 249–250
  5. Landsea, Christopher W. "TCFAQ B5) What happens to the name of a tropical cyclone if it moves from the Atlantic regions to the Northeast Pacific, or vice versa?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory . United States: Hurricane Research Division . Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 "HURDAT tracks for East Pacific 1949–2011". Hurricane Research Division . United States: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  7. 1 2 Blake et al. 2009, p. 6
  8. Graham, Steve; Riebeek, Holli (2006-11-01). "Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth: Feature Articles". Earth Observatory . United States: National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  9. Longshore 1998, p. 110
  10. Dorst, Neal (2010-01-21). "TCFAQ G1) When is hurricane season?". Hurricane Research Division . United States: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
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The 2001 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season. The most notable storm that year was Hurricane Juliette, which caused devastating floods in Baja, California, leading to 12 fatalities and $400 million worth of damage. Two other storms were notable in their own rights, Hurricane Adolph became the strongest May Hurricane until 2014 when both records set by Adolph and Juliette were broken by Hurricanes Amanda and Odile. Tropical Storm Barbara passed just north of Hawaii, bringing minimal impact. The season officially began on May 15, 2001 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 2001 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2001. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in this part of the Pacific Ocean. The first storm developed on May 25, while the last storm dissipated on November 3.

2000 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2000 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average Pacific hurricane season, although most of the storms were weak and short-lived. There were few notable storms this year. Tropical Storms Miriam, Norman, and Rosa all made landfall in Mexico with minimal impact. Hurricane Daniel briefly threatened the U.S. state of Hawaii while weakening. Hurricane Carlotta was the strongest storm of the year and the second-strongest June hurricane in recorded history. Carlotta killed 18 people when it sank a freighter. Overall, the season was significantly more active than the previous season, with 19 tropical storms. In addition, six hurricanes developed. Furthermore, there were total of two major hurricanes, Category 3 or greater on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.

1994 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season was the final season of the eastern north Pacific's consecutive active hurricane seasons that unofficially started in 1982. The season officially started on May 15, 1994, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1994, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone formed on June 18, while the last system dissipated on October 26. This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, with all but two becoming tropical storms or hurricanes. A total of 10 hurricanes occurred, including five major hurricanes.

1992 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind only the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

1991 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1991 Pacific hurricane season was a near-average Pacific hurricane season. The worst storm this year was Tropical Storm Ignacio, which killed ten people in Mexico. Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Ignacio injured forty people in Mexico, and Hurricane Fefa caused flooding in Hawaii. Hurricane Kevin was the strongest system of the season and became the then longest-lasting hurricane in the eastern north Pacific basin. Hurricane Nora was the strongest November storm at that time.

Hurricane Dora (1999) Category 4 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1999

Hurricane Dora was one of few tropical cyclones to track across all three north Pacific basins. The fourth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1999 Pacific hurricane season, Dora developed on August 6 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. Forming as a tropical depression, it gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora later that day. Thereafter, Dora began heading in a steadily westward, before becoming a hurricane on August 8. Under warm sea surface temperatures (SST's) and low wind shear, the storm continued to intensify, eventually peaking as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on August 12. While passing south of Hawaii, Dora significantly fluctuated in intensity, ranging from peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane to a low-end Category 1 hurricane. While crossing the International Dateline on August 20, Dora weakened to a tropical storm. After weakening to a tropical depression on August 22, Dora dissipated on August 23 while centered several hundred miles north of Wake Island.

Hurricane Rosa (1994) Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 1994

Hurricane Rosa was the only Pacific hurricane to make landfall during the above-average 1994 Pacific hurricane season. It killed at least 4 people in Mexico. Moisture from the hurricane was a factor in widespread flooding in the U.S. state of Texas that killed 22 people and caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage in October 1994. The pre-Rosa tropical depression formed on October 8 before degenerating the next day. It reformed on October 10 and steadily strengthened as it approached Mexico. Ultimately peaking as a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale right before landfall, Rosa was the final hurricane, nineteenth tropical storm, and second-last tropical cyclone of the 1994 Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane Gilma (1994) Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 1994

Hurricane Gilma was one of the most intense Pacific hurricanes on record and the second of three Category 5 hurricanes during the active 1994 Pacific hurricane season. Developing from a westward tracking tropical wave over the open waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 21, the pre-Gilma tropical depression was initially large and disorganized. Gradual development took place over the following day before rapid intensification began. By July 23, the storm intensified into a hurricane and later a Category 5 storm on July 24. As Gilma reached this intensity, it crossed into the Central Pacific basin, the fourth consecutive storm to do so.

Timeline of the 1991 Pacific hurricane season

The 1991 Pacific hurricane season produced 16 tropical depressions, 14 of which became tropical storms or hurricanes. The season officially started on May 15, 1997 in the Eastern Pacific—designated as the area east of 140°W—and on June 1, 1997 in the Central Pacific, which is between the International Date Line and 140°W. The season officially ended in both basins on November 30, 1997. These dates typically limit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. This timeline documents all the storm formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, as well as dissipation. The timeline also includes information which was not operationally released, meaning that information from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center, such as information on a storm that was not operationally warned on, has been included.