Hurricane Madeline (2016)

Last updated
Hurricane Madeline
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Madeline 2016-08-29 2325Z.jpg
Hurricane Madeline at peak intensity east of Hawaii on August 29
FormedAugust 26, 2016
DissipatedSeptember 2, 2016
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 130 mph (215 km/h)
Lowest pressure950 mbar (hPa); 28.05 inHg
FatalitiesNone
DamageMinimal
Areas affected Hawaii
Part of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Madeline was the first of two tropical cyclones that threatened to make a landfall on Hawaii as a hurricane in 2016, the other being Hurricane Lester. The fourteenth named storm, eighth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Madeline developed out of an area of low pressure that formed well to the south-southwest of Baja California. By August 26, the disturbance developed to a tropical depression, before becoming a tropical storm shortly afterwards. Wind shear initially inhibited development, however as the cyclone turned northwest, Madeline underwent rapid intensification as an eye feature developed within the storm on August 29. Madeline ultimately peaked as a Category 4 major hurricane the next day. The hurricane then began to weaken as wind shear began to increase as it approached Hawaii. By September 1, Madeline weakened to a tropical storm and passed just south of the Big Island of Hawaii, dumping heavy rainfall, surf, and gusty winds to the island. The cyclone eventually degenerated into a remnant low on September 2 before dissipating later that day.

Contents

In advance of both Madeline and Lester to its east, the state of Hawaii began to prepare for a potentially historic strike, possibly two, as the hurricanes approached. Hurricane warnings were issued for the Big Island in preparation for the imminent landfall. As Madeline approached, somewhat weaker than expected, a state of emergency was declared for the entire state of Hawaii still, with dozens of emergency shelters opening on the Big Island. Public schools were closed through September 1 due to the hurricane, and officials advised to stay off any roads and remain indoors if possible. Madeline brought less damage then expected, mainly due to its southward jog and missing the state as a tropical storm, however, areas of Hawaii still experienced heavy rainfall, flooding, storm surge and gusty winds at times.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale

Map key
Saffir-Simpson scale
.mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Tropical depression (<=38 mph, <=62 km/h)

Tropical storm (39-73 mph, 63-118 km/h)

Category 1 (74-95 mph, 119-153 km/h)

Category 2 (96-110 mph, 154-177 km/h)

Category 3 (111-129 mph, 178-208 km/h)

Category 4 (130-156 mph, 209-251 km/h)

Category 5 (>=157 mph, >=252 km/h)

Unknown
Storm type
Tropical cyclone
Subtropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression Madeline 2016 track.png
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
ArrowUp.svg Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

On August 22, the National Hurricane Center began to monitor a broad area of low pressure that formed about 1,000 mi (1,600 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California. [1] Over the next few days, the disturbance gradually organized as it tracked westward across the Pacific. Thunderstorm activity increased early on August 25, [2] and as the disturbance further coalesced into the following day, it is estimated that Tropical Depression Fourteen-E formed at 18:00 UTC on August 26, about 1,125 miles (1,810 km) east-southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii. [3] Convective banding features formed to the west of the cyclone, and the depression was later upgraded to Tropical Storm Madeline at 00:00 UTC on August 27. Moving northwestwards under the influence of being located at the southwestern periphery of a mid-level ridge, Madeline strengthened slowly in an environment of moderate wind shear, before crossing 140°W and entering the Central Pacific basin at 00:00 UTC on August 28, at which point the power of issuing advisories on tropical cyclone was transferred to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. [3]

A weakening Hurricane Madeline near Hawaii on August 31, with the much stronger Hurricane Lester to its east Lester and Madeline 2016-08-31 2250Z.jpg
A weakening Hurricane Madeline near Hawaii on August 31, with the much stronger Hurricane Lester to its east

Once in the Central Pacific, Madeline changed little in intensity until 03:00 UTC on August 29, at which point Madeline began to undergo a period of rapid intensification as an eye feature developed in an organizing central dense overcast (CDO), and it was upgraded to a hurricane at 09:00 UTC that day. [4] Fueled by warm sea surface temperatures in excess of 27 °C (81 °F) and low wind shear, Madeline continued to rapidly strengthen, and by 21:00 UTC, it became a major hurricane – the fifth of the season. [5] The hurricane reached its peak intensity as a powerful Category 4 hurricane at 06:00 UTC the next day with winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 950 millibars (28.05 inHg). [3] By later that day, however, the cloud presentation of Madeline began to degrade as wind shear increased slightly due to an upper-level trough that was located near Hawaii, and by mid-day on August 30, as shown by an Air Force reconnaissance aircraft, the hurricane fell below major hurricane intensity by early on August 31 as it approached Hawaii. [6] Further weakening occurred and six hours later it had weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. [7] The eye later disappeared from satellite and reconnaissance data indicated that the low and mid-level centers were beginning to become elongated. [8] Later that day, the circulation became exposed from the convection as wind shear continued to impact the cyclone, and it eventually weakened to a tropical storm by early on September 1. [9] The deepest convection was pushed to the northeast of the center. Despite favorable sea surface temperatures, the wind shear continued to take its toll on Madeline, and although a new burst of convection over the center flared, [10] the tropical storm continued to further deteriorate in structure. Eventually, by late on September 2, Madeline opened up into a trough of low pressure south-southwest of Hawaii. [3]

Preparations and impact

Rainbow infrared satellite loop of Madeline making its closest approach to Hawaii on September 1 Madeline Rainbow 20160901 0100 UTC.gif
Rainbow infrared satellite loop of Madeline making its closest approach to Hawaii on September 1

As Madeline rapid intensified on August 29, posing a great threat to Hawaii, a hurricane watch was issued for Hawaii County. [11] A tropical storm warning and a tropical storm watch was issued for Hawaii County and Maui County respectively on the next day as Madeline moved closer to Hawaii. [12] The CPHC issued a hurricane warning for Hawaii County later that day, the first since Iselle in 2014. [13] The watches in Maui County was modified to tropical storm warning on August 31. [14] The hurricane warning was lowered to tropical storm warning later that day as Madeline weakened and failed to make a landfall in the state. [15] All warnings were discontinued on September 1 as Madeline weakened and moved away from the islands. [16]

Governor of Hawaii David Ige declared a state of emergency on August 30 as Madeline approached, subsequently citing that an emergency relief period be in effect from August 31 to September 9, in preparation of a possible impact from Hurricane Lester. [17] [18] More than a dozen emergency shelters were opened by the American Red Cross of Hawaii to offer food, water and other essential supplies. [19] All public schools were closed on the Big Island through September 1 as Madeline approached. [20] Residents were also strongly advised to stay inside during the storm. [21] The Umauma Bridge (Route 19) was closed in both directions in anticipation of high winds impacting the bridge. [22]

Although Madeline did affect the Big Island, it did not make the major landfall that was anticipated by some meteorologists. Instead, a southwards jog of the system caused much less impacts then what were actually anticipated. Still, Madeline produced heavy rain and gusty winds on the Big Island. In multiple locations, wind gusts exceeded 40 mph (65 km/h), the highest reported being in Waimea, which recorded a peak gust of 60 mph (95 km/h). [23] Total rainfall accumulations amounted up to 5–11 inches (13–28 cm) across the Big Island. A few low-lying, flood-prone roads in Hilo were inundated briefly but no significant damages were reported. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Jimena (2003) Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 2003

Hurricane Jimena was a strong tropical cyclone that brushed Hawaii in early September 2003. It was the tenth named storm and second hurricane of the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. Jimena formed on August 28 in the far Eastern Pacific Ocean as a tropical depression and moved westward where it rapidly became a hurricane the following day. The storm moved westward into the Central Pacific Ocean where it became a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After reaching its peak strength as a Category 2 hurricane, the storm began to weaken due to increasing wind shear. Jimena brushed past the Hawaiian Islands before becoming a tropical depression on September 3. The weakening storm then crossed the international dateline before dissipating on September 5, becoming one of the few storms to cross both 140ºW and International Date Line.

Hurricane Dora (1999) Category 4 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1999

Hurricane Dora was one of few tropical cyclones to track across all three north Pacific basins and the first since Hurricane John in 1994. The fourth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1999 Pacific hurricane season, Dora developed on August 6 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. Forming as a tropical depression, the system gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora later that day. Thereafter Dora began heading in a steadily westward direction, before becoming a hurricane on August 8. Amid warm sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, the storm continued to intensify, eventually peaking as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on August 12.

Hurricane Flossie (2007) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2007

Hurricane Flossie was a powerful Pacific tropical cyclone that brought squally weather and light damage to Hawaii in August 2007. The sixth named storm, second hurricane, first and only major hurricane of the inactive 2007 Pacific hurricane season, Flossie originated from a tropical wave that emerged off Africa on July 21. After traversing the tropical Atlantic, the wave crossed Central America and entered the eastern Pacific on August 1. There, a favorable environment allowed it to become a tropical depression and a tropical storm shortly thereafter on August 8.

2012 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.

2015 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season is the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

2016 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

2017 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was significantly less active than the previous three Pacific hurricane seasons, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the respective regions. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as illustrated in 2017 by the formation of the season's first named storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, on May 10,. At the time, this was the earliest formation of a tropical storm on record in the eastern Pacific. The season saw near-average activity in terms of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month. Damage across the basin reached $375.28 million (2017 USD), while 45 people were killed by the various storms.

Tropical Storm Omeka Pacific tropical storm in 2010

Tropical Storm Omeka was the latest forming Eastern Pacific named storm since reliable records began in the 1960s. The storm was part of the 2010 Pacific typhoon and hurricane season. On December 18, 2010, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) began monitoring a subtropical cyclone near the International Dateline for possible tropical cyclogenesis. Over the following two days, the system tracked southwestward, entering the Western Pacific basin. It then began to transition into a tropical cyclone. Shortly before crossing the dateline on December 20, the CPHC assessed the system to have become a tropical storm. The storm was assigned the name Omeka several hours later as it moved into the CPHC's area of responsibility – which is from 140°W to the International Dateline. Upon doing so, Omeka attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (100 km/h). Later on December 20, wind shear in the region increased, causing the system to weaken. By December 21, the center of Omeka was devoid of convection and dissipated on the next day. Omeka brushed Lisianski Island but caused no damage.

Tropical Storm Flossie (2013) Pacific tropical storm in 2013

Tropical Storm Flossie yielded stormy weather to Hawaii in late July 2013. The sixth tropical cyclone and named storm of the annual hurricane season, Flossie originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 9. Tracking westward across the Atlantic with little development, it passed over Central America and into the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 18, where favorable environmental conditions promoted steady organization. By 0600 UTC on July 25, the wave acquired enough organization to be deemed a tropical depression; it intensified into a tropical storm six hours later. Continuing westward, Flossie attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) on July 27 before entering the central Pacific Ocean. There, unfavorable upper-level winds established a weakening trend; on July 30, Flossie weakened to a tropical depression, and by 1200 UTC that same day, the storm degenerated into a remnant low, northeast of Kauai.

Hurricane Genevieve (2014)

Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the first tropical cyclone to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.

Hurricane Iselle Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2014

Hurricane Iselle was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii in recorded history. The tenth named storm, fifth hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the 2014 hurricane season, Iselle developed from an area of disturbed weather southwest of Mexico on July 31, 2014. Assuming a west-northwest course that it would maintain throughout its existence, generally favorable atmospheric conditions allowed for gradual strengthening, with the cyclone attaining hurricane status a day after formation. Continued strengthening progressed for several days up until August 4, when Iselle reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 947 mbar, making it a Category 4 hurricane. Thereafter, Iselle encountered hostile environmental conditions and quickly weakened before making landfall on the Big Island on August 8 as a moderate tropical storm. Its passage over the island disrupted the cyclone, and Iselle later dissipated on August 9.

Hurricane Ana Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 2014

Hurricane Ana was the second tropical cyclone in 2014 to threaten the U.S. state of Hawaii with a direct hit, after Iselle in August. The twenty-first named storm and fifteenth hurricane of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season, Ana formed from a disturbance that formed in the Central Pacific in mid-October. It rapidly consolidated, and a tropical depression developed by October 13. Aided by favorable conditions, Ana gradually strengthened while moving westward, threatening to pass over the island chain of Hawaii once or several times as indicated by early forecasts. By October 17, it had strengthened to a hurricane south of Hawaii and reached its peak intensity shortly afterwards while also making its closest approach. Afterwards, Ana weakened and began to fluctuate in intensity as it turned to the north and eventually northeast as it rounded a subtropical ridge and interacted with a cold front before becoming a hurricane briefly again on October 25. Ana transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 26, and raced across the northwest Pacific before dissipating by October 28 after it came ashore in Western Canada.

Hurricane Darby (2016) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 2016

Hurricane Darby was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Hawaii as a tropical storm. The fifth named storm of the busy 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Darby originated from a low pressure area that developed in the Eastern Pacific well southwest of Mexico during July 2016. It gained sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression on July 11, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Darby the next day. Further intensification ensued, and Darby became a hurricane on July 13. Over the next three days, Darby slowly strengthened to Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale, becoming a major hurricane. Cool waters and dry air caused Darby to weaken over the next three days, although Darby managed to restrengthen slightly on July 21 before weakening once again as the storm neared Hawaii. Just after midnight on July 24, Darby made landfall on the Big Island. Darby weakened into a remnant low two days later.

2019 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season which produced nineteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed, the fewest since 2010. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2022 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2022 Pacific hurricane season is the current cycle of the annual tropical cyclone season in the Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; both will end on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclogenesis occurs in these regions of the Pacific and are adopted by convention.

Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lasting tropical cyclone that traversed the Pacific Ocean during late July and August 2018. Hector was the eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. It originated from a disturbance that was located north of South America on July 22. The disturbance tracked westward and entered the eastern Pacific around July 25. It gradually organized over the next several days, becoming a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on July 31. The system was upgraded into a tropical storm about 12 hours later and received the name Hector. Throughout most of its existence, the cyclone traveled due west or slightly north of west. A favorable environment allowed the fledgling tropical storm to rapidly intensify to its initial peak as a Category 2 hurricane by 18:00 UTC on August 2. Wind shear caused Hector to weaken for a brief period before the storm began to strengthen again. Hector reached Category 3 status by 00:00 UTC on August 4 and went through an eyewall replacement cycle soon after, which caused the intensification to halt. After the replacement cycle, the cyclone continued to organize, developing a well-defined eye surrounded by cold cloud tops.

Hurricane Olivia (2018) Category 4 hurricane in the Pacific Ocean

Hurricane Olivia was a Category 4 hurricane that impacted Hawaii as a weakening tropical storm in mid-September 2018, causing severe flooding and wind damage. Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. It was the fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. A tropical depression formed southwest of Mexico on September 1, and slowly organized while hindered by northeasterly wind shear, strengthening into Tropical Storm Olivia a day later. Olivia began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak as a high-end Category 3 hurricane on September 5. Soon after, the cyclone began to weaken, before unexpectedly re-intensifying on September 6. Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7, with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 951 mbar (28.08 inHg). Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin on September 9 while continuing to decay. For much of its existence, Olivia had tracked westward to northwestward under the influence of a subtropical ridge. The cyclone weakened to a tropical storm on September 12, while turning towards the west-southwest as a result of trade winds. Olivia made brief landfalls on Maui and Lanai, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), later in the day. Olivia fluctuated in intensity as it tracked away from the Hawaiian Islands, before transitioning to a post-tropical cyclone on September 14. It opened up into a trough of low-pressure several hours later.

Hurricane Walaka Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Walaka was a Category 5 hurricane that brought high surf and a powerful storm surge to the Hawaiian Islands. Walaka was the nineteenth named storm, twelfth hurricane, eighth major hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane Douglas (2020) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Douglas was a strong tropical cyclone that became the closest passing Pacific hurricane to the island of Oahu on record, surpassing the previous record held by Hurricane Dot in 1959. The eighth tropical cyclone, fourth named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the slightly below-average 2020 Pacific hurricane season, Douglas originated from a tropical wave which entered the basin in mid-July. Located in favorable conditions, the wave began to organize on July 19. It became a tropical depression on July 20 and a tropical storm the following day. After leveling off as a strong tropical storm due to dry air, Douglas began rapid intensification on July 23, becoming the season's first major hurricane the following day and peaking as a Category 4 hurricane. After moving into the Central Pacific basin, Douglas slowly weakened as it approached Hawaii. The storm later passed north of the main islands as a Category 1 hurricane, passing dangerously close to Oahu and Kauai, causing minimal damage, and resulting in no deaths or injuries. Douglas weakened to tropical storm status on July 28, as it moved away from Hawaii, before degenerating into a remnant low on July 29 and dissipating on the next day.

Hurricane Pali Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 2016

Hurricane Pali was the earliest-forming Pacific hurricane on record, and the first Pacific hurricane to occur in January since Hurricane Ekeka in 1992. The first tropical cyclone of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Pali originated as an area of low pressure within a persistent trough, near the equator on January 6, 2016. Deep convection gradually built up around the center of the disturbance as the system curved northward, before it organized into a tropical depression on the next day, making the system the earliest recorded tropical cyclone in the Pacific hurricane basin. The system quickly reached tropical storm status and was named Pali. For the next couple of days, Pali slowly moved northward, while slowly curving towards the west, and the storm strengthened somewhat before weakening, due to the presence of wind shear. On January 10, Pali slowly turned eastward and proceeded to re-strengthen, as wind shear diminished.

References

  1. John Cangialosi (August 22, 2016). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  2. Michael Brennan (August 25, 2016). "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 John P. Cangialosi; Sam Houston; Tom Birchard (March 4, 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Madeline" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  4. "Hurricane Madeline Discussion Number 11". Central Pacific Hurricane Center . August 29, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  5. "Hurricane Madeline Discussion Number 13". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. August 29, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  6. "Hurricane Madeline Discussion Number 18". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. August 30, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  7. "Hurricane Madeline Special Discussion Number 19". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. August 31, 2016. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  8. "Hurricane Madeline Discussion Number 20". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. August 31, 2016. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  9. "Tropical Storm Madeline Discussion Number 23". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. September 1, 2016. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  10. "Tropical Storm Madeline Discussion Number 25". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. September 1, 2016. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  11. Tom Birchard (August 29, 2016). Hurricane Madeline Advisory Number 13. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  12. Jeff Powell (August 30, 2016). Hurricane Madeline Advisory Number 16. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  13. Derek Wroe (August 30, 2016). Hurricane Madeline Advisory Number 17. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  14. Tom Birchard (August 31, 2016). Hurricane Madeline Advisory Number 21. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  15. Derek Wroe (August 31, 2016). Hurricane Madeline Advisory Number 22. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  16. Tom Birchard (September 1, 2016). Tropical Storm Madeline Advisory Number 25. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  17. "Hawaii Governor Declares State of Emergency, Schools Close Ahead of Tropical Storm Madeline". weather.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  18. David Ige (August 30, 2016). "OFFICE OF GOVERNOR STATE OF HAWAII" (PDF). Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  19. Staff, HNN. "Emergency shelters no longer open on the Big Island". hawaiinewsnow.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  20. Staff, HNN. "LIST: Closures, changes due to Tropical Storm Madeline". hawaiinewsnow.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  21. Arevalo, Elyssa; Namata, Brigette (29 August 2016). "Hawaii Island braces for effects of Hurricane Madeline". khon2.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  22. "Department of Transportation - Umauma Bridge to temporarily close in anticipation of high winds". hidot.hawaii.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  23. Jonathan Belles (2 September 2016). "Hurricane Madeline Recap in the Pacific" . Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  24. "August 2016 Precipitation Summary". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . 8 September 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017.