Hurricane Bud (2018)

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Hurricane Bud
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Bud 2018-06-11 2024Z.jpg
Hurricane Bud as a Category 3 storm on June 11
FormedJune 9, 2018
DissipatedJune 16, 2018
( Remnant low after June 15)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:140 mph (220 km/h)
Lowest pressure943 mbar (hPa); 27.85 inHg
Fatalities1 total
DamageMinimal
Areas affected Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States (especially Arizona)
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Bud was a powerful tropical cyclone that produced heavy rainfall and flash flooding across Northwestern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The second named storm and major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Bud originated from a tropical wave that departed from Africa on May 29. It then travelled across the Atlantic Ocean before crossing over South America and entering the Northeast Pacific Ocean late on June 6. The system then moved northwest and steadily organized, becoming a tropical depression late on June 9 and Tropical Storm Bud early the next day. Favorable upper-level winds and ample moisture allowed the storm to rapidly intensify to a hurricane late on June 10 and further to a major hurricane on June 11. Bud ultimately peaked the next morning with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 943 mbar (hPa; 27.85 inHg). It curved north while rapidly succumbing to the effects of ocean upwelling, making landfall on Baja California Sur as a minimal tropical storm early on June 15. On the next day, land interaction and increasing wind shear caused Bud to degenerate to a remnant low, and Bud dissipated completely on June 16.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Southwestern United States Geographical region of the USA

The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest, is the informal name for a region of the western United States. Definitions of the region's boundaries vary a great deal and have never been standardized, though many boundaries have been proposed. For example, one definition includes the stretch from the Mojave Desert in California to Carlsbad, New Mexico, and from the Mexico–United States border to the southern areas of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada. The largest metropolitan areas are centered around Phoenix, Las Vegas, Tucson, Albuquerque, and El Paso. Those five metropolitan areas have an estimated total population of more than 9.6 million as of 2017, with nearly 60 percent of them living in the two Arizona cities—Phoenix and Tucson.

Contents

Bud prompted the issuance of multiple watches and warnings for Baja California Sur and Western Mexico. Additionally, Bud caused one death in Mexico City. Damages from the storm were reported to be minimal. Rains from Bud brought relief to drought-stricken areas and slowed the growth of wildfires in the Southwestern United States.

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Bud 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Hurricane Bud originated from a tropical wave that left the west coast of Africa on May 29. The wave travelled westward across low latitudes in the tropical Atlantic with little convection for the next several days. Late on June 6, the wave crossed over northern South America and entered the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. [1] However, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) had been advertising the possibility of future tropical development since June 4. [2] Despite strong upper-level winds, the disturbance began to slowly organize late on June 7. [3] On the next day, thunderstorm activity increased considerably a few hundred miles south-southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec due to a passing Kelvin wave, with an area of low pressure forming early on June 9. [1] Deep convection wrapped around the western and southern semicircles of an increasingly defined circulation, prompting the NHC to designate the system as a tropical depression at 21:00 UTC on the same day, while it was positioned about 365 miles (590 km) south of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero. [4] As wind shear decreased, upper-level outflow improved and several bands of intense convection coalesced around the newly-formed cyclone; it intensified into Tropical Storm Bud six hours after formation. [5] [1]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

With a mid-level ridge positioned across much of Mexico, Bud travelled generally northwestward for the next several days. The storm's cloud pattern organized into a central dense overcast early on June 10, [6] and microwave imagery showcased the formation of a mid-level eye. Amid favorable environmental conditions, the NHC noted rapid intensification as a distinct possibility, especially as the inner core improved in structure. [7] By 18:00 UTC on June 10, a ragged eye became apparent intermittently on visible satellite imagery, and Bud was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane accordingly. [8] [1] An abrupt period of intensification quickly brought the cyclone to Category 2 strength by 06:00 UTC the next morning, [1] but this process temporarily levelled off as the eye became less distinct. [9] Bud ultimately attained Category 3 intensity by 12:00 UTC. [1] Thereafter, the ring of eyewall convection and the temperature of the storm's eye fluctuated. [10] After maintaining a clear eye for several hours, Bud attained its peak intensity as a Category 4 major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 943 mbar (hPa; 27.85 inHg), at 00:00 UTC on June 12. [11] [1]

Infrared satellite image of Bud on June 12, near its closest approach to Jalisco Bud 2018-06-12 IR.png
Infrared satellite image of Bud on June 12, near its closest approach to Jalisco

Despite exhibiting trochoidal oscillations as is typical for major hurricanes, Bud continued to move generally north-northwestward after peak. Progressively cooler water and ocean heat content values near zero resulted in significant ocean upwelling underneath the cyclone, leading to a rapid reduction in central convection. Bud then began to weaken, falling to Category 1 intensity by 06:00 UTC on June 13 as its eye disappeared. [12] [1] Bud continued to weaken, falling to tropical storm status 6 hours later. The cyclone then levelled off in strength as the ocean upwelling beneath it abated. [13] Bud made landfall near Cabo San Lucas shortly after 02:00 UTC on June 15, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), before progressing into the Gulf of California. Strong wind shear and land interaction reduced the storm to a remnant low by 12:00 UTC. On June 16 at 06:00 UTC, Bud's remnant low dissipated. [1]

Cabo San Lucas City in Baja California Sur, Mexico

Cabo San Lucas, or simply Cabo, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. As of 2015, the population of the city was 81,111 inhabitants. Cabo San Lucas together with San José del Cabo is known as Los Cabos. Together they form a metropolitan area of 305,983 inhabitants.

Preparations and impact

Tropical Storm Bud approaching the Baja California Peninsula on June 14 TS Bud on June 14, 2018.jpg
Tropical Storm Bud approaching the Baja California Peninsula on June 14

At 21:00 UTC on June 10, as Bud strengthened off the coast of Mexico, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm watch from Manzanillo to Cabo Corrientes, with the possibility that Bud's large wind field could bring gale-force winds to that portion of the Mexican coast. [8] The watch was later discontinued at 21:00 UTC on June 11 as Bud began to move away from the area. [14] Later on, as Bud was anticipated to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula as a tropical storm, tropical storm warnings were issued for much of southern Baja California Sur on June 13, including the cities of La Paz and Cabo San Lucas. [15] As Bud neared landfall, new tropical storm watches were issued for La Paz to San Evaristo, as well as from Altata to Huatabampo on the mainland. [16] An orange alert was also instated for the popular tourist destination of Los Cabos Municipality, where roughly 21,000 tourists were residing during the storm. [17] These watches and warnings were progressively discontinued as Bud moved further into the Gulf of California and weakened to a tropical depression on June 15. [18] [19]

Manzanillo, Colima Place in Colima, Mexico

Manzanillo is a city, seat of Manzanillo Municipality, in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port that is responsible for handling Pacific cargo for the Mexico City area. It is the largest producing municipality for the business sector and tourism in the state of Colima.

Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco

Cabo Corrientes is a cape on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Jalisco. It marks the southernmost point of the Bahía de Banderas, upon which the port and resort city of Puerto Vallarta stands. The municipality in which the cape lies is also called Cabo Corrientes.

Baja California Peninsula peninsula of North America on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

Tropical Storm Bud made landfall near Cabo San Lucas just after 02:00 UTC on June 15 with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (55 km/h), [1] bringing heavy rains and gusty winds to the southern Baja California Peninsula. [20] A weather station in Cabo San Lucas recorded sustained winds of 39 mph (63 km/h) and a gust to 47 mph (76 km/h). [21] Another station recorded a gust to 66 mph (106 km/h). [20] Schools within Los Cabos Municipality were closed, and ten flights at Los Cabos International Airport were cancelled, [17] though the airport resumed normal operations soon after. [22] Ports in the municipality were also closed beginning June 13. [22] The Carnival Splendor was forced to divert from Puerto Vallarta to San Diego. [23] [24] Overall, damage was significantly less than that wrought by Hurricane Odile four years prior. [22] [1] It was also reported that rainfall from Bud killed a child in Mexico City. [25]

The remnants of Bud sent a plume of moisture into the Southwestern United States, bringing much needed rainfall to the drought-stricken region. Tucson, Arizona reported its first precipitation since February 28, with 0.17 in (4.3 mm) of rain on June 15. Flash flood watches were issued for parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado. [26] Rain from Bud slowed the growth of the 416 Fire in southwestern Colorado and a fire in southern Wyoming. [27] [28]

See also

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Timeline of the 2017 Pacific hurricane season

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Tropical Storm Lidia (2017) Pacific tropical storm in 2017

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2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

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Tropical Storm Vicente (2018)

Tropical Storm Vicente was a weak and small tropical cyclone affected the southwestern Mexico in late October 2018, causing deadly flooding and mudslides. The twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Vicente originated from a trough of low pressure that formed within a large area of disturbed weather near Central America early on October 19. Around midday, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, which prompted the National Hurricane Center to begin issuing advisories. Later in day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. Despite having only been a weak tropical storm, Vicente developed an intermittent eye-like feature. Unfavorable conditions prevented strengthening until late on October 20. At that time, Vicente peaked with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar. A day later, Vicente began to weaken due increasing wind shear before slightly restrengthening early on October 22. On October 23, Vicente weakened into a tropical depression. Later in the day, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low after making landfall in southwestern Mexico, before dissipating soon afterward.

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