|Tropical depression (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 19, 2018|
|Dissipated||September 20, 2018|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:35 mph (55 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||1002 mbar (hPa); 29.59 inHg|
|Fatalities||12 direct, 2 indirect|
|Damage||> $296 million (2018 USD)|
|Areas affected||Baja California Sur, Northwestern Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas|
|Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season|
Tropical Depression Nineteen-E was a weak yet costly tropical cyclone that caused significant flooding throughout Northwestern Mexico and several states within the United States in September 2018. The storm was also the first known tropical cyclone to form over the Gulf of California. Nineteen-E originated from a tropical wave that left the west coast of Africa on August 29 to 30. It continued westward, crossed over Central America, and entered the northeastern Pacific Ocean by September 7. It then meandered to the southwest of Mexico for the next several days as it interacted with a mid-to-upper level trough. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to track the disturbance for the next several days as it traveled northward. A surface trough developed over the Baja California peninsula on September 18. Despite disorganization and having close proximity to land, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression in the Gulf of California on September 19, after having developed a circulation center and more concentrated convection. The system peaked with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg).
One day after forming, the depression quickly deteriorated and dissipated after making landfall in Sonora. Overall, the depression affected eleven Mexican states, with torrential rainfall and flooding ensuing in Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, and Sonora. Thirteen individuals were killed in Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Sonora, and over $40 million USD in agricultural losses were recorded. Excessive rainfall led to the inundation of at least 300,000 structures in Sinaloa. Flood damage there is estimated to be in the hundreds of millions (USD). Remnant moisture from Nineteen-E led to severe flooding within the U.S. states of Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas and the death of one person. Damage estimates totaled about $250 million (USD) in the aforementioned states. Minor damage was also reported in New Mexico.
Tropical Depression Nineteen-E's origins can be traced back to a tropical wave that departed from the west coast of Africa in between August 29 and 30. On August 31, it generated Tropical Depression Six, which would later become Hurricane Florence.The wave continued to track westward at low latitudes, leaving Florence behind in the far eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The wave eventually moved over Central America and crossed into the far northeastern Pacific Ocean by September 7. The wave then slowed down and leisurely moved westward, south of Mexico for the next week or so. Meanwhile, a mid-level shortwave trough dropped southward from the United States, entering Mexico on September 9. The trough continued to track southward for the next few days and a low- to mid-level low developed just south of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula on September 12. Around that time, the NHC noted the system had potential for future tropical development. The low moved southwestward for the next several days. The trough and a plume of moisture rushed northward towards the Baja California peninsula just as the tropical wave was arriving. An area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south of the southern coast of Mexico on September 14 at 12:00 UTC. A surface trough with a north-to-south orientation developed over Baja California Sur on September 18 with thunderstorms having developed from the deep tropics to the Gulf of California.
The disturbance moved into the Gulf of California on September 19. mph (55 km/h). Around that time, the NHC noted that banding features had become slightly more defined and an area of strong convection was present in the eastern semicircle. At 00:00 UTC on September 20, the depression's minimum central pressure decreased to 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg). Around 03:00 UTC, Nineteen-E made landfall between the cities of Ciudad Obregón and Guaymas in Sonora. After moving ashore, the rugged terrain of Sonora quickly weakened the depression. Six hours after landfall, the NHC noted that the depression's convection had taken on a more linear look and that it had lost its closed surface circulation. The NHC reported that Nineteen-E dissipated around 12:00 UTC that day. Nineteen-E's remnants continued to travel northward, while causing severe flooding in Mexico. After entering the United States, the remnants tracked eastward and drew in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico, causing flash flooding in several states.A circulation center and more concentrated convection formed along the trough. Despite stronger wind shear and its proximity to land, the disturbance consolidated into a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC. The genesis of Nineteen-E was unexpected, having occurred after the NHC had downgraded the 5-day formation chance to low. The NHC stated that Nineteen-E was the first tropical cyclone to have formed over the Gulf of California based on records dating back to 1949. Six hours later, the depression's maximum sustained winds peaked at 35
|Mexico||Sinaloa||Ahome||15.06 in (382.5 mm)|
|Goritos||14.15 in (359.4 mm)|
|El Carrizo||10.67 in (271.0 mm)|
|Culiacán||10.65 in (270.4 mm)|
|United States||Oklahoma||Johnston County||15.81 in (401.6 mm)|
|Stonewall||15.50 in (393.7 mm)|
|Fittstown||15.04 in (382.0 mm)|
|Centrahoma||10.82 in (274.8 mm)|
|Texas||Bonham||8.85 in (225 mm)|
|McKinney||8.71 in (221 mm)|
|References for rainfall values:|
Tropical Depression Nineteen-E caused flooding throughout northwestern Mexico. In total, at least eleven Mexican states were affected by the depression, with Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa being impacted the hardest. 3–4 in (70–100 mm) and an isolated value of up to 4.88 in (124 mm) being reported in the southern portion of the state. On September 19, in anticipation of hazardous effects from Nineteen-E, a green alert was issued off-shore of Mexico.Torrential rainfall affected the Baja California peninsula for a few days before genesis occurred on September 19 through the system's dissipation. The National Meteorological Service of Mexico reported that Baja California Sur received heavy rainfall, with totals of approximately
On September 20, the depression made landfall in Sonora, Mexico. 8 in (200 mm) of rain fell in a 10-hour period in some locations. At least 13 municipalities in Sinaloa received heavy rainfall, with a total of 5.5 in (140 mm) being recorded at El Cazanate. In the municipality of Nogales, more than 300 tonnes of mud, stones, and garbage were removed from roads in order to make them passable for vehicles. Additionally, two bodies were recovered by Nogales police after having been dragged across the border, into Arizona, by strong currents. Over 100 people were rescued from floods and the total number affected is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. Traffic on Federal Highway 15 in southern Sonora was interrupted as strong water currents flowed across the road. Authorities used social media to alert the public to stay off the highway. Additionally, 30 people were rescued from a passenger bus that had gotten stuck between streams.The torrential rains associated with the depression were the most intense to impact the state in the last decade. According to Conagua, the National Water Commission, over
In Sinaloa, one person was killed in the community of Goritos where 14.150 in (359.41 mm) of rain fell. In Culiacán, a total of six deaths occurred. One person drowned after heavy rainfall occurred. Additionally, three people were counted as missing after being swept away by flood waters and are presumed dead. Two indirect deaths occurred from electrocution. Classes at all levels of education were cancelled in several municipalities as a result of the flooding. Many roads were damaged, with sinkholes appearing on Federal Highway 15. More than 16,000 people were evacuated and 13 shelters were set up due to severe flooding. Moreover, a freight train derailed while traveling from Retes Station to Techa in Mocorito. Damage to agriculture exceeded 800 million pesos ($41 million USD) in Sinaloa after 14,000 hectares (35,000 acres) of agricultural fields and hydro-agricultural infrastructure were inundated. In total, over 500,000 birds and 15,000 heads of cattle, goats, and pigs were killed and swept away by the currents of engorged rivers. As a result, approximately 58,000 jobs were impacted. Over 300,000 structures were inundated in Sinaloa, including 160 schools; in the coastal city of Los Mochis, 70,000 buildings were damaged. Aon estimated the flood damage in Sinaloa to be in the hundreds of millions (USD).
In the state of Chihuahua, three people were reported dead. A 51-year-old man and a 45-year-old woman drowned in the municipality of Satevó after being dragged by strong currents. In Namiquipa, the body of a 45-year-old man was recovered after he drowned while attempting to cross an engorged stream. 2.0–3.9 in (50–99 mm), with a small region reporting up to 7.83 in (199 mm). In Guanajuato, heavy rainfall forced the reopening of floodgates at the Ignacio Allende Dam.Rainfall in the southwestern portion of the state was
Tropical Depression Nineteen-E's remnant moisture also caused flooding in the U.S. states of Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas after drawing strength from the Gulf of Mexico.In those states, damage estimates totaled about $250 million (USD). Minimal damage was also reported in the state of New Mexico.
In Arizona, Nineteen-E caused flash flooding at multiple locations on September 19. Approximately 2–3 in (50–80 mm) of rain fell near Sahuarita, causing washes of up to 2 ft (0.6 m) that left several individuals stranded in their vehicles. In Thatcher, 1.5–2.5 in (38–63 mm) of rain fell, causing two homes to flood. Additionally, multiple roads flooded after a drainage canal overflowed. Several dorm rooms at Eastern Arizona College flooded, along with several apartments in the area. Near Silverbell, 3 ft (0.9 m) of water ran over the intersection of two roads. Near Vicksburg, severe rain caused flash flooding, resulting in road closures near Interstate 10. It was also reported that 1.56 in (39.6 mm) of rain fell in Tucson, where a person walking near the Pantano Wash was rescued after being overcome by rising waters. In New Mexico, it was reported that a large cottonwood tree blew down near the Kirtland Air Force Base after winds of 50 knots (58 mph; 93 km/h) occurred. Damage was reported at approximately $1,000 (USD). The National Weather Service stated that no other damage had been reported for New Mexico. In Albuquerque a peak rainfall total of 1.40 in (35.6 mm) was reported.
In Texas, Nineteen-E brought torrential rains that caused significant flooding in many areas. In Everman, a suburb of Fort Worth, water was reportedly up to 6 ft (2 m) deep in places. Over 60 homes were inundated, which forced many people to evacuate. On September 23, the body of a 23-year-old was recovered from a creek in Fort Worth. 14 people had to be rescued from broken-down cars in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Near Austin, 61 people from a wedding venue had to be rescued by firefighters. Additionally, the Shady River RV Resort off of State Highway 29 and near Interstate 35 was evacuated. In Arlington, a 23-year-old man drowned after being swept off a bridge. At Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, over 8 in (200 mm) of rain fell. In Dallas, 15 people, including five police officers, were rescued from rising waters. Additionally, in Killeen, 34 patients were evacuated from the Metroplex Hospital after a lightning strike knocked out power to the facility. Several roads in Nolan, Jones, Tom Green, Uvalde, Rockwall, Fannin, Sutton, and Schleicher Counties were closed due to flooding and damage. Near Farmersville, high water along a railway bridge led to a train derailment. While no one was injured, numerous freight train cars went off the rails. In Electra, water up to 1 ft (0.3 m) deep was flowing over multiple city streets. In Knox City, a vehicle stalled after its driver attempted to drive through flood waters. Additionally, Sonora was hit with a 25 ft (7.6 m) wall of water after the spillways to several dams were activated. Water flooded all access points to the town, preventing first responders from entering. Over 250 homes in the village were either damaged or destroyed by the flood waters.
In Oklahoma, Nineteen-E caused widespread flooding after dropping large amounts of rain. The highest recorded rainfall total in far northern Johnston County was approximately 15.81 in (401.6 mm). In Pontotoc County, four water rescues were conducted and a state of emergency was declared as rainfall and flooding associated with Nineteen-E made many roads near the city of Ada impossible to navigate. In Fittstown and Stonewall, some roads were washed out. In a 12-hour period, 12.44 in (316.0 mm) of rain fell in Fittstown; this was the most rainfall recorded in a 12-hour span since the Oklahoma Mesonet was founded in 1990. In total, 10 roads in the county were closed due to being washed out; the cost to repair these roads was estimated at $350,000 (USD). Additionally, roads in several other counties were closed and/or washed out as a result of severe flooding, including U.S. 77.
In Arkansas, Nineteen-E caused flash flooding that resulted in the closure of several roads. The Northeast Arkansas District Fair in Jonesboro was cancelled due to the anticipation of severe flooding. 7 in (200 mm) of rain fell in Searcy County and White County. The flash flooding that occurred because of this rainfall closed several roadways. First responders helped to free vehicles that were stalled in the water and placed barricades in areas affected by the flooding.Nearly
In Mexico, severe flooding in Sonora and Sinaloa prompted the execution of numerous disaster plans and safety measures. In Sinaloa, the extent and severity of the flooding was conveyed by the public through the use of social media platforms.On September 27, the municipalities of Ahome, Culiacán, Angostura, Badiraguato, Choix, Guasave, El Fuerte, Mocorito, Sinaloa, Salvador Alvarado, and Navolato were all declared disaster areas by the Government of Mexico. In Culiacán, the Autonomous University of the West and part of the Autonomous University of Sinaloa were designated as temporary shelters for people affected by the depression. After the extent of the flooding became known, the Marine Plan was activated for Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa to help victims of the floods. Moreover, the Mexican Army initiated the DN-3 plan for natural disasters and deployed some 2,000 soldiers in Sinaloa and Sonora to aid in relief efforts. In Sinaloa, four aircraft were sent to assist in cleanup efforts, three search and rescue teams were deployed, and two helicopters were used to transport supplies to flood victims. Additionally, 17 helicopters were sent to perform reconnaissance in Sonora and transport supplies. The governor of Sinaloa, Quirino Ordaz Coppel, encouraged citizens to contribute food, water, and clothing in order to assist with the relief effort. Several days later, the National Fund for Natural Disasters (Fonden) was activated to assist local and regional governments in responding to the flooding. Additionally, the Macrosimulacro 2018, a nationwide disaster evacuation drill, was suspended as a precautionary measure in Sonora and Baja California Sur. In the latter state, safety devices were implemented to prevent people from crossing swollen streams.
In the United States, severe flooding in Texas resulted in both local and federal efforts being established in order to provide aid to victims. On September 28, Governor Greg Abbott issued a disaster declaration for Ellis, Sutton, Tarrant,Fannin, and Uvalde Counties in response to widespread and severe property damage caused by the floods. On February 25, 2019, President Donald Trump declared a number of counties, including the counties impacted by the remnants of Nineteen-E from September 20–21, a major disaster area after a series of storms impacted the state from September through November. In Sutton County, the Bank & Trust and the San Angelo Area Foundation set up relief funds for Sonora. Additionally, the San Angelo Health Foundation donated a total of $250,000 (USD) to the Sonora Flood Relief Fund for flood damage that occurred on September 21. Combined with over 450 other donations and grants, the relief fund reached a total of approximately $750,000 (USD). Lions Clubs International and other private organizations and charities also donated supplies and money to the relief effort. Various state agencies evaluated damage to infrastructure and provided funding for repairs as well. Moreover, Texas musicians scheduled multiple concerts in order to raise funds for flood relief in Sonora. A few days after the floods, American Red Cross representatives arrived to help aid the recovery efforts. In Tarrant County, it was reported that various relief organizations were attempting to help with cleanup and recovery efforts within the Fort Worth suburb of Everman. The city set up a disaster relief station to provide assistance to displaced residents on September 22.
Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm, and one of the rare cyclones to make landfall in Baja California. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.
Hurricane Marty was the deadliest tropical cyclone of the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. Forming on September 18, it became the 13th tropical storm and fourth hurricane of the year. The storm moved generally northwestward and steadily intensified despite only a marginally favorable environment for development, and became a Category 2 hurricane before making two landfalls on the Baja California peninsula and mainland Mexico.
Hurricane John was the eleventh named storm, seventh hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. Hurricane John developed on August 28 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. Favorable conditions allowed the storm to intensify quickly, and it attained peak winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) on August 30. Eyewall replacement cycles and land interaction with western Mexico weakened the hurricane, and John made landfall on southeastern Baja California Sur with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) on September 1. It slowly weakened as it moved northwestward through the Baja California peninsula, and dissipated on September 4. Moisture from the remnants of the storm entered the southwest United States.
Tropical Storm Emilia was a rare tropical cyclone that affected the Baja California Peninsula in July 2006. The sixth tropical depression and fifth tropical storm of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, it developed on July 21 about 400 miles (650 km) off the coast of Mexico. It moved northward toward the coast, reaching peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) before turning westward and encountering unfavorable conditions. Emilia later turned to the north, passing near Baja California as a strong tropical storm. Subsequently, the storm moved further away from the coast, and on July 27 it dissipated.
Hurricane Isis was the only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from an interaction between a tropical wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico. It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California. Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for several days before dissipating over the U.S. state of Idaho on September 8.
Hurricane Lester was the first Pacific tropical cyclone to enter the United States as a tropical storm since 1967. The twelfth named storm and seventh hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Lester formed on August 20 from a tropical wave southwest of Mexico. The tropical storm moved generally northwestward while steadily intensifying. After turning to the north, approaching the Mexican coast, Lester attained hurricane status. The hurricane reached peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) before making landfall on west-central Baja California. The system weakened while moving across the peninsula and then over northwestern Mexico. Not long after entering Arizona, Lester weakened to a tropical depression, and degenerated into an extratropical low on August 24, 1992, over New Mexico. The storm's remnants later merged with the remnants of Hurricane Andrew and another frontal system on August 29.
Hurricane Henriette was a minimal Category 1 hurricane that affected portions of Mexico in late August and early September 2007. The storm, which caused nine fatalities, formed from an area of disturbed weather on August 30, 2007, and became a tropical storm the next day. The cyclone moved parallel to the Mexican Pacific coast, but its proximity to the shore resulted in heavy rainfall over land. The most affected city was Acapulco, Guerrero, where six people were killed by landslides, and where over 100 families had to be evacuated after the La Sabana River flooded. Henriette then turned north and headed towards the Baja California peninsula, and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Henriette made its first landfall east of Cabo San Lucas at peak intensity, causing the death of one woman due to high surf.
Tropical Storm Julio was a tropical storm that made landfall on the southern tip of Baja California Sur in August 2008. The tenth named storm of the 2008 Pacific hurricane season, it developed from a tropical wave on August 23 off the coast of Mexico. It moved parallel to the coast, reaching peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) before moving ashore and weakening. On August 26 it dissipated in the Gulf of California. Julio was the third tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Pacific Ocean basin during the season, after Tropical Storm Alma, which struck Nicaragua in May, and Tropical Depression Five-E, which moved ashore along southwestern Mexico in July. The storm brought locally heavy rainfall to southern Baja California, killing one person and leaving several towns isolated. Moisture from Julio reached Arizona, producing thunderstorms, including one which damaged ten small planes in Chandler.
The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.
Hurricane Norbert is tied with Hurricane Jimena as the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the west coast of Baja California Sur in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2008 hurricane season, Norbert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave south of Acapulco on October 3. Strong wind shear initially prevented much development, but the cyclone encountered a more favorable environment as it moved westward. On October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Norbert, and the system intensified further to attain hurricane intensity by October 6. After undergoing a period of rapid deepening, Norbert reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar. As the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over Mexico, it began an eyewall replacement cycle which led to steady weakening. Completing this cycle and briefly reintensifying into a major hurricane, a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, Norbert moved ashore Baja California Sur as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 11. After a second landfall at a weaker intensity the following day, the system quickly weakened over land and dissipated that afternoon.
The 2009 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season since 1994. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.
Tropical Storm Lowell was a moderate tropical storm that developed during the 2008 Pacific hurricane season. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and thirteen named storm of the season, Lowell formed out of a western side of a trough on September 6. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Lowell, peaking as a moderate tropical storm. It pass directly over Socorro Island and began a weakening trend. It weakened into depression before landfall in Baja California Sur and dissipated before striking Sonora. It later joined with a frontal boundary and Hurricane Ike which caused severe damage as far inland as Chicago. In all, the storm had caused 6 deaths and $15.5 million damage.
Tropical Storm Patricia was a short-lived tropical cyclone that briefly affected parts of Baja California Sur before rapidly degenerating over water. Developing from a tropical wave that traversed the Atlantic Ocean during September 2009, Patricia was first classified as a tropical depression on October 11 several hundred miles south of the Baja California Peninsula. The system quickly intensified into a tropical storm as it tracked in a general northward direction. By October 12, Patricia attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 996 mbar. The following day, increasing wind shear and unfavorable conditions caused the storm to rapidly weaken. By the morning of October 14, Patricia had degenerated into a non-convective remnant low pressure area near the southern coastline of Baja California Sur. The remnants of the storm persisted until October 15, at which time they dissipated over open waters.
Tropical Storm Georgette was a short-lived tropical storm that struck the Baja California Sur in September 2010. Georgette originated from an area of disturbed weather over the eastern Pacific on September 20. The next day, the system was upgraded into a tropical storm a short distance south of Baja California Sur. As the storm moved over the peninsula, it weakened to a tropical depression. It continued north and as such made landfall on mainland Mexico on September 22. Georgette dissipated early the next day while located inland over Sonora. Although officials noted the threat for heavy rainfall across northwest Mexico and Baja California, damage was minimal and no deaths were reported in the country. However, remnant moisture moved into New Mexico, producing flooding that killed one person.
Hurricane Linda was a strong tropical cyclone in September 2015 that resulted in heavy rains across portions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The seventeenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the season, Linda developed southwest of Mexico from a low pressure area on September 5. Under warm sea surface temperatures and low to moderate wind shear, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Linda by September 6 and a hurricane by the next day. A well-defined eye soon formed within the storm's central dense overcast and Linda reached its peak intensity as a 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3 major hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on September 8. Thereafter, the storm moved into a stable environment and an area of lower sea surface temperatures, causing rapid weakening. Convective activity dissipated and Linda degenerated into a remnant low on September 10. The lingering system persisted southwest of Baja California, ultimately opening up into a trough on September 14.
Tropical Storm Carlotta was a moderate tropical cyclone that caused flooding in several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta, the third named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On June 12, a broad area of low pressure developed several hundred miles south of Mexico and strengthened into a tropical storm by June 15. The next day, the system stalled unexpectedly within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar while located only 30 mi south-southeast of Acapulco. The system then began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the storm weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. The system weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.
Hurricane Rosa brought widespread flooding to northwestern Mexico and the Southwestern United States in late September 2018, and was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from an Atlantic tropical wave that crossed the West African coast on September 6. The wave proceeded westward across the Atlantic, traversing Central America before entering the Gulf of Tehuantepec on September 22. There, the weather system acquired cyclonic features and became a tropical storm on September 25. Within a favorable atmosphere, Rosa entered a period of rapid intensification on September 27, peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph a day later. Over the next few days, Rosa turned north and then northeast while steadily weakening, making landfall in Baja California as a tropical depression on October 2. After crossing over into the Gulf of California, the remnant system split apart and merged with an upper-level low off the coast of California by October 3.
Hurricane Sergio was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that affected the Baja California Peninsula as a tropical storm and caused significant flooding throughout southern Texas in early October 2018. Sergio became the eighth Category 4 hurricane in the East Pacific for 2018, breaking the old record of seven set in 2015. The twentieth named storm, eleventh hurricane, and ninth major hurricane of the season, Sergio originated from a system that was located over northwestern South America on September 24. The National Hurricane Center monitored the disturbance for several days as the system organized into a tropical storm on September 29. Sergio gradually strengthened for the next couple of days as it traveled west-southwestward, becoming a hurricane on October 2. The storm then turned towards the northwest as it underwent rapid intensification and an eyewall replacement cycle, before peaking as a Category 4 hurricane on October 4, with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h). The hurricane maintained peak intensity for 12 hours before undergoing a second eyewall replacement and turning towards the southwest. The system then began another period of intensification, achieving a secondary peak with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) on October 6. The next day, Sergio began a third eyewall replacement cycle, falling below major hurricane strength. At the same time, the system unexpectedly assumed some annular characteristics. Over the next few days, the cyclone curved from the southwest to the northeast, weakening into a tropical storm on October 9. Sergio made landfall as a tropical storm on October 12 on the Baja California Peninsula, and later in northwestern Mexico as a tropical depression before dissipating early on October 13.
Hurricane Willa was a strong tropical cyclone that brought torrential rains and destructive winds to southwestern Mexico, particularly the states of Sinaloa and Nayarit, during late-October, 2018. Willa was the fifth costliest Pacific hurricane on record, as well as the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa since Lane in 2006. The twenty-fifth tropical cyclone, twenty-second named storm, thirteenth hurricane, tenth major hurricane, and record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Willa originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to monitor for tropical cyclogenesis in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 14. However, the system subsequently crossed over Central America into the East Pacific, without significant organization. The NHC continued to track the disturbance until it developed into a tropical depression on October 20, off the coast of southwestern Mexico. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Willa later in the day as a period of rapid intensification commenced. Ultimately, Willa peaked as a Category 5 hurricane with sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) on the next day. Afterward, a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear weakened the hurricane, and early on October 24, Willa made landfall as a marginal Category 3 hurricane in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating later on the same day over northeastern Mexico.
Hurricane Lorena was a strong tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall, flooding, and mudslides to Southwestern Mexico and the Baja California Peninsula in September 2019. Lorena was the thirteenth named storm and seventh hurricane of 2019 Pacific hurricane season. Lorena formed from the stronger of two disturbances off the coast of Mexico. The disturbance closest to Mexico became Tropical Storm Lorena, while the other disturbance became Tropical Storm Mario. Lorena strengthened in a favorable environment, and made landfall as a 75 mph Category 1 hurricane in southwestern Mexico on September 18, but weakened back to a tropical storm due to land interaction. However, after moving back over water between Baja California Sur and mainland Mexico, Lorena re-strengthened into a hurricane, and reached its peak intensity with 85 mph winds and a minimum barometric pressure of 986 millibars. Lorena made a second landfall on Baja California Sur, and quickly weakened thereafter. Lorena degenerated to a remnant low over the Gulf of California. The remnant low moved inland over Mexico and quickly dissipated.
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