Tropical Depression Nineteen-E (2018)

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Tropical Depression Nineteen-E
Tropical depression (SSHWS/NWS)
19E 2018-09-19 1830Z.jpg
Nineteen-E making landfall in Baja California Sur on September 19
FormedSeptember 19, 2018
DissipatedSeptember 20, 2018
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:35 mph (55 km/h)
Lowest pressure1002 mbar (hPa); 29.59 inHg
Fatalities12 direct, 2 indirect
Damage> $296 million (2018 USD)
Areas affected Baja California Sur, Northwestern Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E was a weak and short-lived tropical cyclone that caused flooding throughout Northwestern Mexico and several states within the United States. Nineteen-E originated from a tropical wave that left the west coast of Africa on August 29 to 30, 2018. It continued westward, crossed over Central America, and entered the northeastern Pacific Ocean by September 7. It then meandered to the southwest of Mexico for the next several days as it interacted with a mid-to-upper level trough. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to track the disturbance for the next several days as it traveled northward. A surface trough developed over the Baja California peninsula on September 18. Despite disorganization and having close proximity to land, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression in the Gulf of California on September 19, after having developed a circulation center and more concentrated convection. The system peaked with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg).

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.


One day after forming, the depression quickly deteriorated and dissipated after making landfall in Sonora. Overall, the depression affected eleven Mexican states, with torrential rainfall and flooding ensuing in Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, and Sonora. Thirteen individuals were killed in Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Sonora, and over $40 million USD in agricultural losses were recorded. Excessive rainfall led to the inundation of at least 300,000 structures in Sinaloa. Flood damage there is estimated to be in the hundreds of millions (USD). Remnant moisture from Nineteen-E led to severe flooding within the U.S. states of Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas and the death of one person. Damage estimates totaled about $250 million (USD) in the aforementioned states. Minor damage was also reported in New Mexico.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Nineteen-E 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E's origins can be traced back to a tropical wave that departed from the west coast of Africa in between August 29 and 30. On August 31, it generated Tropical Depression Six, which would later become Hurricane Florence. [1] The wave continued to track westward at low latitudes, leaving Florence behind in the far eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The wave eventually moved over Central America and crossed into the far northeastern Pacific Ocean by September 7. The wave then slowed down and leisurely moved westward, south of Mexico for the next week or so. Meanwhile, a mid-level shortwave trough dropped southward from the United States, entering Mexico on September 9. The trough continued to track southward for the next few days and a low- to mid-level low developed just south of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula on September 12. [1] Around that time, the NHC noted the system had potential for future tropical development. [2] The low moved southwestward for the next several days. The trough and a plume of moisture rushed northward towards the Baja California peninsula just as the tropical wave was arriving. An area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south of the southern coast of Mexico on September 14 at 12:00 UTC. [3] A surface trough with a north-to-south orientation developed over Baja California Sur on September 18 with thunderstorms having developed from the deep tropics to the Gulf of California. [4] [1]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Hurricane Florence Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Florence was a powerful and long-lived Cape Verde hurricane that caused catastrophic damage in the Carolinas in September 2018, primarily as a result of freshwater flooding. Florence dropped a maximum total of 35.93 inches (913 mm) of rain in Elizabethtown, North Carolina, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone recorded in the Carolinas, and also the eighth-wettest overall in the contiguous United States. The sixth named storm, third hurricane, and the first major hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Florence originated from a strong tropical wave that emerged off the west coast of Africa on August 30, 2018. Steady organization resulted in the formation of a tropical depression on the next day near Cape Verde. Progressing along a steady west-northwest trajectory, the system acquired tropical storm strength on September 1, and fluctuated in strength for several days over open ocean. An unexpected bout of rapid intensification ensued on September 4–5, culminating with Florence becoming a Category 4 major hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale (SSHWS), with estimated maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h).

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

The disturbance moved into the Gulf of California on September 19. [5] A circulation center and more concentrated convection formed along the trough. Despite stronger wind shear and its proximity to land, the disturbance consolidated into a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC. The genesis of Nineteen-E was unexpected, having occurred after the NHC had downgraded the 5-day formation chance to low. The NHC stated that Nineteen-E was the first tropical cyclone to have formed over the Gulf of California based on records dating back to 1949. [1] Six hours later, the depression's maximum sustained winds peaked at 35 mph (55 km/h). [1] Around that time, the NHC noted that banding features had become slightly more defined and an area of strong convection was present in the eastern semicircle. [6] At 00:00 UTC on September 20, the depression's minimum central pressure decreased to 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg). Around 03:00 UTC, Nineteen-E made landfall between the cities of Ciudad Obregón and Guaymas in Sonora. [1] After moving ashore, the rugged terrain of Sonora quickly weakened the depression. Six hours after landfall, the NHC noted that the depression's convection had taken on a more linear look and that it had lost its closed surface circulation. [7] The NHC reported that Nineteen-E dissipated around 12:00 UTC that day. [1] Nineteen-E's remnants continued to travel northward, while causing severe flooding in Mexico. After entering the United States, the remnants tracked eastward and drew in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico, causing flash flooding in several states. [8]

Coordinated Universal Time Primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time

Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is often used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years.

The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, or RMW. Unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Wind measuring has been standardized globally to reflect the winds at 10 metres (33 ft) above the Earth's surface, and the maximum sustained wind represents the highest average wind over either a one-minute (US) or ten-minute time span, anywhere within the tropical cyclone. Surface winds are highly variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land.


A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated. Rainbands can be stratiform or convective, and are generated by differences in temperature. When noted on weather radar imagery, this precipitation elongation is referred to as banded structure. Rainbands within tropical cyclones are curved in orientation. Tropical cyclone rainbands contain showers and thunderstorms that, together with the eyewall and the eye, constitute a hurricane or tropical storm. The extent of rainbands around a tropical cyclone can help determine the cyclone's intensity.



Highest rainfall totals from Nineteen-E in Mexico and the United States
Mexico Sinaloa Ahome 15.06 in (382.5 mm)
Goritos14.15 in (359.4 mm)
El Carrizo10.67 in (271.0 mm)
Culiacán 10.65 in (270.4 mm)
United States Oklahoma Johnston County 15.81 in (401.6 mm)
Stonewall 15.50 in (393.7 mm)
Fittstown 15.04 in (382.0 mm)
Centrahoma 10.82 in (274.8 mm)
Texas Bonham 8.85 in (225 mm)
McKinney 8.71 in (221 mm)
References for rainfall values: [9] [8]

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E caused flooding throughout northwestern Mexico. In total, at least eleven Mexican states were affected by the depression, with Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa being impacted the hardest. [10] Torrential rainfall affected the Baja California peninsula for a few days before genesis occurred on September 19 through the system's dissipation. [11] The National Meteorological Service of Mexico reported that Baja California Sur received heavy rainfall, with totals of approximately 3–4 in (70–100 mm) and an isolated value of up to 4.88 in (124 mm) being reported in the southern portion of the state. [9] On September 19, in anticipation of hazardous effects from Nineteen-E, a green alert was issued off-shore of Mexico. [12]

On September 20, the depression made landfall in Sonora, Mexico. [7] The torrential rains associated with the depression were the most intense to impact the state in the last decade. According to Conagua, the National Water Commission, over 8 in (200 mm) of rain fell in a 10-hour period in some locations. [13] [14] At least 13 municipalities in Sinaloa received heavy rainfall, with a total of 5.5 in (140 mm) being recorded at El Cazanate. [1] In the municipality of Nogales, more than 300 tonnes of mud, stones, and garbage were removed from roads in order to make them passable for vehicles. [15] Additionally, two bodies were recovered by Nogales police after having been dragged across the border, into Arizona, by strong currents. [16] Over 100 people were rescued from floods and the total number affected is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. [17] Traffic on Federal Highway 15 in southern Sonora was interrupted as strong water currents flowed across the road. Authorities used social media to alert the public to stay off the highway. Additionally, 30 people were rescued from a passenger bus that had gotten stuck between streams. [18]

Nogales Municipality, Sonora Municipality in Sonora, Mexico

The Municipality of Nogales is a municipality of northern Sonora state, in Northwestern Mexico.

Tonne Metric unit of mass

The tonne, commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (UK). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.

Arizona state of the United States of America

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

In Sinaloa, one person was killed in the community of Goritos where 14.150 in (359.41 mm) of rain fell. [1] [19] In Culiacán, a total of six deaths occurred. One person drowned after heavy rainfall occurred. [20] Additionally, three people were counted as missing after being swept away by flood waters and are presumed dead. [17] [10] Two indirect deaths occurred from electrocution. [21] Classes at all levels of education were cancelled in several municipalities as a result of the flooding. [18] [15] Many roads were damaged, with sinkholes appearing on Federal Highway 15. [17] More than 16,000 people were evacuated and 13 shelters were set up due to severe flooding. [21] [11] Moreover, a freight train derailed while traveling from Retes Station to Techa in Mocorito. [22] Damage to agriculture exceeded 800 million pesos ($41 million USD) in Sinaloa after 14,000 hectares (35,000 acres) of agricultural fields and hydro-agricultural infrastructure were inundated. [1] In total, over 500,000 birds and 15,000 heads of cattle, goats, and pigs were killed and swept away by the currents of engorged rivers. As a result, approximately 58,000 jobs were impacted. Over 300,000 structures were inundated in Sinaloa, including 160 schools; in the coastal city of Los Mochis, 70,000 buildings were damaged. [23] Aon estimated the flood damage in Sinaloa to be in the hundreds of millions (USD). [24]

In the state of Chihuahua, three people were reported dead. A 51-year-old man and a 45-year-old woman drowned in the municipality of Satevó after being dragged by strong currents. In Namiquipa, the body of a 45-year-old man was recovered after he drowned while attempting to cross an engorged stream. [10] [17] Rainfall in the southwestern portion of the state was 2.0–3.9 in (50–99 mm), with a small region reporting up to 7.83 in (199 mm). [9] In Guanajuato, heavy rainfall forced the reopening of floodgates at the Ignacio Allende Dam. [18]

United States

Remnants of Tropical Depression Nineteen-E over the Central United States on September 21 19E 2018-09-21 1950Z.jpg
Remnants of Tropical Depression Nineteen-E over the Central United States on September 21

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E's remnant moisture also caused flooding in the U.S. states of Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas after drawing strength from the Gulf of Mexico. [8] In those states, damage estimates totaled about $250 million (USD). [25] Minimal damage was also reported in the state of New Mexico. [26]

In Arizona, Nineteen-E caused flash flooding at multiple locations on September 19. Approximately 2–3 in (50–80 mm) of rain fell near Sahuarita, causing washes of up to 2 ft (0.6 m) that left several individuals stranded in their vehicles. [27] In Thatcher, 1.5–2.5 in (38–63 mm) of rain fell, causing two homes to flood. Additionally, multiple roads flooded after a drainage canal overflowed. Several dorm rooms at Eastern Arizona College flooded, along with several apartments in the area. [28] [29] Near Silverbell, 3 ft (0.9 m) of water ran over the intersection of two roads. [30] Near Vicksburg, severe rain caused flash flooding, resulting in road closures near Interstate 10. [31] It was also reported that 1.56 in (39.6 mm) of rain fell in Tucson, [28] where a person walking near the Pantano Wash was rescued after being overcome by rising waters. [29] In New Mexico, it was reported that a large cottonwood tree blew down near the Kirtland Air Force Base after winds of 50 knots (58 mph; 93 km/h) occurred. Damage was reported at approximately $1,000 (USD). [32] The National Weather Service stated that no other damage had been reported for New Mexico. In Albuquerque a peak rainfall total of 1.40 in (35.6 mm) was reported. [26]

In Texas, Nineteen-E brought torrential rains that caused significant flooding in many areas. In Everman, a suburb of Fort Worth, water was reportedly up to 6 ft (2 m) deep in places. Over 60 homes were inundated, which forced many people to evacuate. [33] On September 23, the body of a 23-year-old was recovered from a creek in Fort Worth. [34] 14 people had to be rescued from broken-down cars in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. [35] Near Austin, 61 people from a wedding venue had to be rescued by firefighters. Additionally, the Shady River RV Resort off of State Highway 29 and near Interstate 35 was evacuated. [36] In Arlington, a 23-year-old man drowned after being swept off a bridge. At Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, over 8 in (200 mm) of rain fell. In Dallas, 15 people, including 5 police officers, were rescued from rising waters. Additionally, in Killeen, 34 patients were evacuated from the Metroplex Hospital after a lightning strike knocked out power to the facility. [37] Several roads in Nolan, [38] Jones, [39] Tom Green, [40] , Uvalde, Rockwall, Fannin [35] , Sutton, and Schleicher Counties were closed due to flooding and damage. [41] Near Farmersville, high water along a railway bridge led to a train derailment. While no one was injured, numerous freight train cars went off the rails. [35] In Electra, water up to 1 ft (0.3 m) deep was flowing over multiple city streets. [42] In Knox City, a vehicle stalled after its driver attempted to drive through flood waters. [43] Additionally, Sonora was hit with a 25 ft (7.6 m) wall of water after the spillways to several dams were activated. Water flooded all access points to the town, preventing first responders from entering. Over 250 homes in the village were either damaged or destroyed by the flood waters. [44]

In Oklahoma, Nineteen-E caused widespread flooding after dropping large amounts of rain. The highest recorded rainfall total in far northern Johnston County was approximately 15.81 in (401.6 mm). [8] In Pontotoc County, four water rescues were conducted and a state of emergency was declared as rainfall and flooding associated with Nineteen-E made many roads near the city of Ada impossible to navigate. In Fittstown and Stonewall, some roads were washed out. [8] In a 12-hour period, 12.44 in (316.0 mm) of rain fell in Fittstown; this was the most rainfall recorded in a 12-hour span since the Oklahoma Mesonet was founded in 1990. [45] In total, 10 roads in the county were closed due to being washed out; the cost to repair these roads was estimated at $350,000 (USD). [46] Additionally, roads in several other counties were closed and/or washed out as a result of severe flooding, including U.S. 77. [47] [48]

In Arkansas, Nineteen-E caused flash flooding that resulted in the closure of several roads. The Northeast Arkansas District Fair in Jonesboro was cancelled due to the anticipation of severe flooding. [49] Nearly 7 in (200 mm) of rain fell in Searcy County and White County. The flash flooding that occurred because of this rainfall closed several roadways. First responders helped to free vehicles that were stalled in the water and placed barricades in areas affected by the flooding. [50]


In Mexico, severe flooding in Sonora and Sinaloa prompted the execution of numerous disaster plans and safety measures. In Sinaloa, the extent and severity of the flooding was conveyed by the public through the use of social media platforms. [51] On September 27, the municipalities of Ahome, Culiacán, Angostura, Badiraguato, Choix, Guasave, El Fuerte, Mocorito, Sinaloa, Salvador Alvarado, and Navolato were all declared disaster areas by the Government of Mexico. [52] [53] In Culiacán, the Autonomous University of the West and part of the Autonomous University of Sinaloa were designated as temporary shelters for people affected by the depression. [13] After the extent of the flooding became known, the Marine Plan was activated for Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa to help victims of the floods. [11] Moreover, the Mexican Army initiated the DN-3 plan for natural disasters and deployed some 2,000 soldiers in Sinaloa and Sonora to aid in relief efforts. [54] [51] In Sinaloa, four aircraft were sent to assist in cleanup efforts, three search and rescue teams were deployed, and two helicopters were used to transport supplies to flood victims. Additionally, 17 helicopters were sent to perform reconnaissance in Sinora and transport supplies. [54] The governor of Sinaloa, Quirino Ordaz Coppel, encouraged citizens to contribute food, water, and clothing in order to assist with the relief effort. [19] Several days later, the National Fund for Natural Disasters (Fonden) was activated to assist local and regional governments in responding to the flooding. [55] Additionally, the Macrosimulacro 2018, a nationwide disaster evacuation drill, [56] was suspended as a precautionary measure in Sonora and Baja California Sur. [57] In the latter state, safety devices were implemented to prevent people from crossing swollen streams. [18]

In the United States, severe flooding in Texas resulted in both local and federal efforts being established in order to provide aid to victims. On September 28, Governor Greg Abbott issued a disaster declaration for Ellis, Sutton, Tarrant, [58] Fannin, and Uvalde Counties in response to widespread and severe property damage caused by the floods. [59] On February 25, 2019, President Donald Trump declared a number of counties, including the counties impacted by the remnants of Nineteen-E from September 20–21, [59] a major disaster area after a series of storms impacted the state from September through November. [60] In Sutton County, the Bank & Trust and the San Angelo Area Foundation set up relief funds for Sonora. [61] Additionally, the San Angelo Health Foundation donated a total of $250,000 (USD) to the Sonora Flood Relief Fund for flood damage that occurred on September 21. Combined with over 450 other donations and grants, the relief fund reached a total of approximately $750,000 (USD). [62] Lions Clubs International and other private organizations and charities also donated supplies and money to the relief effort. Various state agencies evaluated damage to infastructure and provided funding for repairs as well. [63] Moreover, Texas muscians scheduled multiple concerts in order to raise funds for flood relief in Sonora. [64] A few days after the floods, American Red Cross representatives arrived to help aid the recovery efforts. [65] In Tarrant County, it was reported that various relief organizations were attempting to help with cleanup and recovery efforts within the Fort Worth suburb of Everman. [66] The city set up a disaster relief station to provide assistance to displaced residents on September 22. [67]

See also

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Hurricane Rosa was the only Pacific hurricane to make landfall during the above-average 1994 Pacific hurricane season. It killed at least 4 people in Mexico. Moisture from the hurricane was a factor in widespread flooding in the U.S. state of Texas that killed 22 people and caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage in October 1994. The pre-Rosa tropical depression formed on October 8 before degenerating the next day. It reformed on October 10 and steadily strengthened as it approached Mexico. Ultimately peaking as a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale right before landfall, Rosa was the final hurricane, nineteenth tropical storm, and second-last tropical cyclone of the 1994 Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane Norbert (2008) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2008

Hurricane Norbert is tied with Hurricane Jimena as the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the west coast of Baja California Sur in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2008 hurricane season, Norbert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave south of Acapulco on October 3. Strong wind shear initially prevented much development, but the cyclone encountered a more favorable environment as it moved westward. On October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Norbert, and the system intensified further to attain hurricane intensity by October 6. After undergoing a period of rapid deepening, Norbert reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar. As the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over Mexico, it began an eyewall replacement cycle which led to steady weakening. Completing this cycle and briefly reintensifying into a major hurricane, a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, Norbert moved ashore Baja California Sur as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 11. After a second landfall at a weaker intensity the following day, the system quickly weakened over land and dissipated that afternoon.

Tropical Storm Lowell (2008) Pacific tropical storm in 2008

Tropical Storm Lowell was a moderate tropical storm that developed during the 2008 Pacific hurricane season. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and thirteen named storm of the season, Lowell formed out of a western side of a trough on September 6. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Lowell, peaking as a moderate tropical storm. It pass directly over Socorro Island and began a weakening trend. It weakened into depression before landfall in Baja California Sur and dissipated before striking Sonora. It later joined with a frontal boundary and Hurricane Ike which caused severe damage as far inland as Chicago. In all, the storm had caused 6 deaths and $15.5 million damage.

Hurricane Kiko (1989) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 1989

Hurricane Kiko was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to have hit the eastern coast of Mexico's Baja California peninsula during recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko formed out of a large mesoscale convective system on August 25. Slowly tracking northwestward, the storm rapidly intensified into a hurricane early the next day. Strengthening continued until early August 27, when Kiko reached its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). The storm turned west at this time, and at around 0600 UTC, the storm made landfall near Punta Arena at the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The hurricane rapidly weakened into a tropical storm later that day and further into a tropical depression by August 28, shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean. The depression persisted for another day while tracking southward, before being absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Lorena. Though Kiko made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, its impact was relatively minor. Press reports indicated that 20 homes were destroyed and numerous highways were flooded by torrential rains.

Tropical Depression One-E (2009) Pacific tropical depression in 2009

Tropical Depression One-E was the earliest known tropical cyclone to impact the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The first system of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, One-E formed out of an area of disturbed weather on June 18, 2009, and initially tracked slowly northwards. Throughout the day, convection developed around the center of circulation and the system was anticipated to become a tropical storm. Late on June 18, the National Hurricane Center noted that the system was on the verge of becoming a tropical storm; it would have been named Andres had this occurred. However, the following day, strong wind shear caused the depression to rapidly degenerate into a trough of low pressure before dissipating off the coast of Sinaloa.

Tropical Storm Patricia (2009) Pacific tropical storm in 2009

Tropical Storm Patricia was a short-lived tropical cyclone that briefly affected parts of Baja California Sur before rapidly degenerating over water. Developing from a tropical wave that traversed the Atlantic Ocean during September 2009, Patricia was first classified as a tropical depression on October 11 several hundred miles south of the Baja California Peninsula. The system quickly intensified into a tropical storm as it tracked in a general northward direction. By October 12, Patricia attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 996 mbar. The following day, increasing wind shear and unfavorable conditions caused the storm to rapidly weaken. By the morning of October 14, Patricia had degenerated into a non-convective remnant low pressure area near the southern coastline of Baja California Sur. The remnants of the storm persisted until October 15, at which time they dissipated over open waters.

Tropical Storm Georgette (2010) Pacific tropical storm in 2010

Tropical Storm Georgette was a short-lived tropical storm that struck the Baja California Sur in September 2010. Georgette originated from an area of disturbed weather over the eastern Pacific on September 20. The next day, the system was upgraded into a tropical storm a short distance south of Baja California Sur. As the storm moved over the peninsula, it weakened to a tropical depression. It continued north and as such made landfall on mainland Mexico on September 22. Georgette dissipated early the next day while located inland over Sonora. Although officials noted the threat for heavy rainfall across northwest Mexico and Baja California, damage was minimal and no deaths were reported in the country. However, remnant moisture moved into New Mexico, producing flooding that killed one person.

Hurricane Linda (2015)

Hurricane Linda was a strong tropical cyclone in September 2015 that resulted in heavy rains across portions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The seventeenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the season, Linda developed southwest of Mexico from a low pressure area on September 5. Under warm sea surface temperatures and low to moderate wind shear, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Linda by September 6 and a hurricane by the next day. A well-defined eye soon formed within the storm's central dense overcast and Linda reached its peak intensity as a 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3 major hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on September 8. Thereafter, the storm moved into a stable environment and an area of lower sea surface temperatures, causing rapid weakening. Convective activity dissipated and Linda degenerated into a remnant low on September 10. The lingering system persisted southwest of Baja California, ultimately opening up into a trough on September 14.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Tropical Storm Carlotta (2018) Tropical Storm in the Pacific of 2018

Tropical Storm Carlotta was a tropical cyclone that caused flooding within several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the south of Mexico. On June 12, a broad area of low pressure formed several hundred miles south of the aforementioned country and strengthened into a tropical storm by June 15. On the next day, the storm unexpectedly stalled within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar while located only 30 mi south-southeast of Acapulco. Soon after, Carlotta began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the system weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. The storm weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.

Hurricane Rosa (2018)

Hurricane Rosa was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from a broad area of low pressure that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on September 22. The disturbance moved westward and then west-northwestward for a few days, before developing into a tropical depression on September 25. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rosa. One day later, Rosa became a hurricane. On September 27, Rosa began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph and a minimum central pressure of 936 mbar on the next day. Over the next couple of days, Rosa turned towards the northeast. By September 29, Rosa had weakened into a Category 2 hurricane due to ongoing structural changes and less favorable conditions. Later on the same day, Rosa re-intensified slightly. On September 30, Rosa resumed weakening as its core structure eroded. Early on October 1, Rosa weakened into a tropical storm. On October 2, Rosa weakened to a tropical depression and made landfall in Baja California. Later in the day, Rosa's remnants crossed into the Gulf of California, with its surface and mid-level remnants later separating entirely. The mid-level remnants of Rosa continued to travel north, reaching northeast Arizona late in the day. On October 3, Rosa's remnants were absorbed into an upper-level low situated off the coast of California.

Hurricane Sergio (2018)

Hurricane Sergio was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that affected the Baja California Peninsula as a tropical storm. Sergio became the eighth Category 4 hurricane in the East Pacific for 2018, breaking the old record of seven which was set in 2015. The twentieth named storm, eleventh hurricane, and ninth major hurricane of the season, Sergio originated from a broad area of low pressure that formed a few hundred miles south-southeast of the southern coast of Mexico on September 26. The National Hurricane Center monitored the disturbance for a few days until it organized into a tropical storm, after which it was assigned the name Sergio. The system gradually strengthened for the next couple of days, becoming a hurricane on October 2. Sergio then began a period of rapid intensification, becoming a major hurricane later that day. Intensification then halted for about twelve hours before resuming on October 3. The next day, Sergio peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph and a minimum central pressure of 942 mbar. Sergio maintained peak intensity for six hours before beginning to weaken. On October 5, the system bottomed out as a low-end Category 3 hurricane. Sergio then began another period of intensification, achieving a secondary peak on October 6. The next day, Sergio began to weaken again, falling below major hurricane strength. At the same time, Sergio unexpectedly assumed the structure of an annular tropical cyclone. By October 9, Sergio had weakened into a tropical storm. On October 12, Sergio made landfall as a tropical storm on the Baja California Peninsula, and later in northwestern Mexico as a tropical depression before dissipating early on October 13.


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