Tropical Storm Ileana (2018)

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Tropical Storm Ileana
Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Ileana 2018-08-05 1725Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Ileana near peak intensity off the western coast of Mexico on August 5
FormedAugust 4, 2018
DissipatedAugust 7, 2018
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:65 mph (100 km/h)
Lowest pressure998 mbar (hPa); 29.47 inHg
Fatalities8 total
Damage≥ $737,000 (2018 USD)
Areas affectedWestern Mexico
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Tropical Storm Ileana was a tropical cyclone that affected Western Mexico, causing multiple deaths and flooding. The ninth named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Ileana originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on July 26 as it left the west coast of Africa. The wave travelled across the Atlantic Ocean with no thunderstorm activity, before crossing into the Eastern Pacific Ocean on August 4. The disturbance quickly and unexpectedly organized into a tropical depression later in the day. Initially, the depression was well defined, but it soon degraded due to unfavorable conditions. It began to strengthen on August 5, becoming Tropical Storm Ileana. On August 6, Ileana peaked with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a pressure of 998 mbar (29.47 inHg). Ileana began to develop an eyewall structure soon after, but became intertwined with nearby Hurricane John. John disrupted Ileana and ultimately absorbed it on August 7.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Contents

Ileana prompted the issuance of multiple watches and warnings along the coast of Baja California Sur and Western Mexico. Ileana caused a total of four deaths in Guerrero, with two occurring in Chilpancingo and the remainder in Acapulco. Additionally, Ileana caused flooding in the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Mexico.

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Guerrero State of Mexico

Guerrero, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acapulco.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Ileana 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The origins of Ileana can be traced back to a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring on July 26 as it departed from the west coast of Africa. The wave had virtually no convection as it crossed over the Atlantic. Once the wave entered the Eastern Pacific Ocean early on August 4, thunderstorm and convective activity rapidly increased. [1] At 17:00 UTC, the NHC raised its development chances to 50% after satellite imagery indicated an area of low pressure had formed a few hundred miles south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec and was showing signs of organization. [2] At 18:00 UTC, the system was designated as a tropical depression. [1] Around that time, the NHC noted the depression had a well defined low pressure center and a distinct, curved band of deep convection. [3] Six hours later, the structure of the depression had degraded due to wind shear from the north. The low-level center had become exposed in the northwest and convection in the east and south had decreased. [4] Despite the disruptive wind shear, the depression then began to strengthen, reaching tropical storm status on August 5, afterwhich it was assigned the name Ileana. [5] [1] At that time, Ileana had a fairly symmetrical shape and a central dense overcast-like feature had developed over the system. [6]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

National Hurricane Center division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Ileana continued to strengthen over the next day after entering an area with sea surface temperatures of 30 to 31 °C (86 to 88 °F). [7] On August 6 at 12:00 UTC, Ileana reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 998 mbar (29.47 inHg). [1] Around the same time, the NHC reported that Ileana had strong deep convection with cloud temperatures of −85 to −90 °C (−121 to −130 °F). Additionally, a banded eye feature had developed within the central dense overcast. [8] Soon after, microwave imagery and Acapulco radar showed the emergence of an eyewall structure at the mid-levels of the system. [9] By 21:00 UTC, Ileana was becoming increasingly intertwined in the outer bands of Hurricane John to the west as the two systems began to experience the Fujiwhara effect. [10] At 12:00 UTC on August 7, Ileana was completely absorbed by John. [1]

The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, or RMW. Unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Wind measuring has been standardized globally to reflect the winds at 10 metres (33 ft) above the Earth's surface, and the maximum sustained wind represents the highest average wind over either a one-minute (US) or ten-minute time span, anywhere within the tropical cyclone. Surface winds are highly variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land.

Acapulco City and municipality in Guerrero, Mexico

Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history. It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexico's largest beach and balneario resort city.

Fujiwhara effect

The Fujiwhara effect, sometimes referred to as the Fujiwara effect, Fujiw(h)ara interaction or binary interaction, is a phenomenon that occurs when two nearby cyclonic vortices orbit each other and close the distance between the circulations of their corresponding low-pressure areas. The effect is named after Sakuhei Fujiwhara, the Japanese meteorologist who initially described the effect. Binary interaction of smaller circulations can cause the development of a larger cyclone, or cause two cyclones to merge into one. Extratropical cyclones typically engage in binary interaction when within 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of one another, while tropical cyclones typically interact within 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) of each other.

Preparations and impact

As a precautionary measure, the Government of Mexico issued a Tropical Storm Watch for the coast of Mexico from Lazaro Cardenas to Cabo Corrientes on August 5 at 22:40 UTC. [11] At 03:00 UTC, the watch was upgraded to a Tropical Storm Warning. [12] Six hours later, the Government of Mexico issued a Hurricane Watch for Punta San Telmo to Playa Perula and a Tropical Storm Watch was also issued for the southern tip of Baja California Sur from Los Barilles to Todo Santos. [13] At 12:00 UTC, the Tropical Storm Warning was extended eastward to include Lazaro Cardenas to Tecpan de Galeana. [14] All watches and warnings were gradually discontinued after Ileana was no longer forecast to strengthen. [15] [16]

Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco

Cabo Corrientes is a cape on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Jalisco. It marks the southernmost point of the Bahía de Banderas, upon which the port and resort city of Puerto Vallarta stands. The municipality in which the cape lies is also called Cabo Corrientes.

In the Mexican state of Guerrero, Ileana caused a total of four deaths. On August 5, the body of 35-year-old man was discovered in the Huacapa River in Chilpancingo. The man had reportedly been pushing a car when a strong current pulled him down to the river where he drowned. Additionally, an 8-year-old and a 15-year-old fell into the Laguna de Tres Palos in Acapulco and drowned after their fishing boat capsized. [17] [18] There, multiple power outages occurred due to a fallen tree. A peak rainfall total of 3.54 inches (90 mm) was recorded at the Acapulco International Airport. The lowest rainfall total in the area, 0.46 inches (11.75 mm), was recorded at Renacimiento. [19] In the municipality of Coyuca de Benítez, at least 20 homes were inundated and numerous streets were flooded. [20] Rip currents along the coast of Chilpancingo resulted in the death of a tourist at La Condesa beach. He was rescued by lifeguards, but later died despite receiving medical treatment. [17] In the municipality of Santiago Choapam in Oaxaca, heavy rains from Ileana caused a landslide that left a house buried. [21] While in the Mexican state of Chiapas, Ileana caused another four deaths. In Jiquipilas on August 6, a car containing 18 individuals was dragged away by the current while attempting to cross a flooded bridge. Three children and one adult were later found dead. [22] In Michoacán, the state required MX$13.6 million (US$737,000) to repair the road and highway. [23]

Chilpancingo Place in Guerrero, Mexico

Chilpancingo de los Bravo is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. In 2010 it had a population of 187,251 people. The municipality has an area of 2,338.4 km2 (902.9 sq mi) in the south-central part of the state, situated in the Sierra Madre del Sur, on the bank of the Huacapa River. The city is on Mexican Federal Highway 95 which connects Acapulco to Mexico City. It is served by Chilpancingo National Airport, which is one of the five airports in the state.

Acapulco International Airport airport

Acapulco International Airport, officially General Juan N. Álvarez International Airport, is the main airport of Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, located 26 km from the city.

Coyuca de Benítez (municipality) Municipality in Guerrero, Mexico

Coyuca de Benítez is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Coyuca de Benítez. The municipality covers an area of 1,602.9 km².

In the state of Mexico, heavy rains from Ileana caused severe flooding. The Anillo Periférico and several other roads in Mexico City experienced flooding. As a result of the rains, the Mexico City Metro (STC) implemented safety measures for several of its lines. [24] [25] The San Jerónimo Canal overflowed in the El Rosal neighborhood in Magdalena Contreras. Additionally, two trees fell and total of 33 structures were inundated throughout Mexico City. In the Huixquilucan municipality, a sewage pipe overflowed and two homes were flooded. [26]

See also

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References

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  4. Brennan, Michael. Tropical Depression Eleven-E Discussion Number 2. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  5. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 5. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  6. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 5. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  7. Berg, Robbie. Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  8. Stewart, Stacy. Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 7. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  9. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  10. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 9. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  11. Berg, Robbie. Tropical Storm Ileana Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  12. Berg, Robbie. Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 6 N. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  13. Stewart, Stacy. Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  14. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Ileana Intermediate Advisory Number 7A. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  15. Pasch, Richard (6 August 2018). Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  16. Stewart, Stacy (7 August 2018). Tropical Storm Ileana Advisory Number 11. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  17. 1 2 Juan Cervantes (August 6, 2018). "Arrecian efectos de la tormenta "Ileana" en Guerrero". El Universal (in Spanish). Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  18. "Hallan cadáveres de dos niños en laguna de Acapulco". Sipse (in Spanish). Sipse. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  19. "Tormenta Ileana deja apagones a su paso por Acapulco". UnoTV (in Spanish). UnoTV. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  20. "Tormenta tropical "Ileana" deja cuatro muertos en Guerrero". Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). Diario de Yucatán. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  21. Olivera, Alondra (7 August 2018). "Tormenta "IIeana" provoca deslizamiento y sepulta vivienda en Oaxaca". La Silla Rota (in Spanish). La Silla Rota. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  22. "Tormenta 'Ileana' y huracán 'John' causan 7 muertes". Excélsior (in Spanish). Huffington Post. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  23. "Sin daños por paso de huracanes Ileana y John en Michoacán" (in Spanish). Capital Michoacán. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  24. Nohemi (5 August 2018). "Se activa alerta amarilla por lluvias en varias delegaciones de la CDMX". Regeneracion (in Spanish). Regeneracion. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  25. "Lluvias dejan inundaciones en la capital". La Silla Rota (in Spanish). La Silla Rota. 5 August 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  26. "Lluvia provoca encharcamientos en nueve delegaciones de CDMX". Televisa News (in Spanish). Televisa News. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.

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