Hurricane Willa

Last updated
Hurricane Willa
Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Willa 2018-10-22 0525Z.jpg
Hurricane Willa at peak intensity west of Jalisco early on October 22
FormedOctober 20, 2018
DissipatedOctober 24, 2018
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:160 mph (260 km/h)
Lowest pressure925 mbar (hPa); 27.32 inHg
Fatalities6 total
Damage$536.8 million (2018 USD)
(Sixth-costliest in the East Pacific on record.)
Areas affected Central America, Mexico, Texas
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Willa was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa since Lane in 2006. The twenty-second named storm, thirteenth hurricane, tenth major hurricane, and record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Willa originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first began monitoring for tropical cyclogenesis in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, on October 14. The system subsequently crossed over Central America into the East Pacific, without significant organization. The NHC continued to track the disturbance until it developed into a tropical depression on October 20, off the coast of southwestern Mexico. Later in the day, the system became a tropical storm as it began to rapidly intensify. On October 21, Willa became a Category 4 major hurricane, before strengthening further to Category 5 intensity on the next day. Afterward, a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear weakened the hurricane, and early on October 24, Willa made landfall as a marginal Category 3 hurricane, in Sinaloa of the northwestern Mexico. Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating later on the same day over northeastern Mexico.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Hurricane Lane (2006) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 2006

Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002, Lane developed on September 13 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It moved northwestward, parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and made landfall in the state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U.S. state of Texas.

Contents

Up to its landfall, Willa prompted the issuance of hurricane and tropical storm watches and warnings for western Mexico. The hurricane killed six people, and caused $536.8 million (2018 USD) in damages, mostly around the area where it moved ashore, becoming the sixth-costliest Pacific hurricane on record.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Willa 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Willa's origins can be traced back to a tropical wave that departed from the west coast of Africa on October 2. Over the next few days, the wave produced intermittent bursts of deep convection near a well-defined mid-level circulation center; however, the convection was soon sheared away by strong vertical wind shear from the west and southwest as the system traveled westward at a speed between 15–20 kn (17–23 mph; 28–37 km/h). [1] On October 14, the NHC began monitoring the wave for tropical development while it was located in the southwestern Caribbean Sea. [2] On the next day, the system became better organized southeast of the Yucatán Peninsula, and the storm encountered more favorable conditions as it neared land; a Hurricane Hunter aircraft was scheduled to survey the system for further development. [3] However, organization was hindered as the system quickly made landfall in Belize on the next day. [4] Early on October 17, the tropical wave moved into the East Pacific and quickly organized; [5] however, the system failed to coalesce into a tropical cyclone and became increasingly disorganized and elongated on the next day. [6] Early on October 19, a new low-pressure trough developed to the east of the original low, [7] which organized into Tropical Storm Vicente later that day. [8] The original low to the west gradually organized while moving westward, and at 00:00 UTC on October 20, the system developed into a tropical depression while located approximately 265 mi (425 km) south of Manzanillo, Mexico. [1] At that time, the NHC noted that banding features had begun to develop south of the center and that the system had very cold cloud top temperatures of −85 to −91 °C (−121 to −132 °F). [9] Around 12:00 UTC, the system strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Willa while located about 290 mi (465 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo. [1] The NHC stated that outer banding features had increased and that the system had developed a tight inner core. [10]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Atmospheric convection

Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference layer in the atmosphere. Different lapse rates within dry and moist air masses lead to instability. Mixing of air during the day which expands the height of the planetary boundary layer leads to increased winds, cumulus cloud development, and decreased surface dew points. Moist convection leads to thunderstorm development, which is often responsible for severe weather throughout the world. Special threats from thunderstorms include hail, downbursts, and tornadoes.

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Landfalling Pacific major hurricanes
Intensity is measured solely by wind speed
HurricaneSeasonWind speedRef.
Patricia 2015 150  mph (240  km/h) [11]
Madeline 1976 145 mph (230 km/h) [12]
Iniki 1992 [13]
Twelve 1957 140 mph (220 km/h) [14]
"Mexico" 1959 [14]
Kenna 2002 [15]
Olivia 1967 125 mph (205 km/h) [14]
Tico 1983 [16]
Lane 2006 [17]
Odile 2014 [18]
Olivia 1975 115 mph (185 km/h) [19]
Liza 1976 [12]
Kiko 1989 [20]
Willa 2018 [21]

Soon after its genesis, Willa began to rapidly intensify, with its low-level center becoming embedded beneath a central dense overcast. At the same time, Willa turned towards the northwest as it began traveling around the western edge of a mid-level ridge. [22] Environmental conditions under the cyclone and aloft were favorable, with very low wind shear, high levels of moisture, and sea surface temperatures of 29 °C (84 °F). [23] Around 06:00 UTC on October 21, Willa strengthened into a hurricane. [1] The system developed an intermittent pinhole eye in the center of its convection as outflow became well-established. [24] Twelve hours later, the NHC upgraded Willa to Category 3 status after its eye had become well-defined on both infrared and satellite imagery, making it the tenth major hurricane of the season. [1] [25] At approximately 06:00 UTC on October 22, Willa reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 925 mbar (27.3 inHg) while located about 195 mi (315 km) south-southwest of Cabo Corrientes, Mexico. At that time, the NHC stated that Willa's winds had increased by 110 knots, with the system strengthening from a tropical depression to a Category 5 hurricane in 48 hours. [nb 1] [1] Over the next few days, Willa recurved towards Mexico; the system turned to the north as it rounded the edge of the ridge and later to the northeast due to an approaching mid-to-upper-level trough. [27] [28]

Rapid intensification

Rapid intensification is a meteorological condition that occurs when a tropical cyclone intensifies dramatically in a short period of time. The United States National Hurricane Center (NHC) defines rapid intensification as an increase in the maximum 1-min sustained winds of a tropical cyclone of at least 30 knots in a 24-hour period.

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem for strong tropical storms and with systems of minimal hurricane strength as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

Sea surface temperature Water temperature close to the oceans surface

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.

Shortly after Willa reached peak intensity, microwave satellite imagery detected the presence of an outer eyewall, indicating that Willa was beginning to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle. [29] [30] Willa also began to interact with the smaller Tropical Storm Vicente to the southeast at about this time. [31] Despite a favorable environment, Willa began to weaken due to the ongoing structural changes, with the storm's eye becoming cloud-filled. [1] [32] On October 23 at 06:00 UTC, Willa weakened to Category 3 as southwesterly wind shear was increasing. [33] The weakening trend abated as the eyewall replacement cycle ended; Willa remained a low-end Category 3 hurricane as it approached Mexico. At approximately 17:45 UTC, Willa's eye passed over Isla San Jaunito and Isla María Madre, with 15-minute sustained winds of 77 kn (89 mph; 143 km/h) and gusts of 97 kn (112 mph; 180 km/h) being reported at the Isla María Madre airport. [1] At 01:20 UTC on October 24 (7:20 pm on October 23, local time), Willa made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane near Palmito del Verde  [ sv ], Sinaloa, with 1-minute sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 968 mbar (28.6 inHg). [1] At the same time, it was noted that Willa's eye was fading on satellite imagery. [28] Following landfall, mountainous terrain and southwesterly wind shear took a toll on the storm's strength, and Willa rapidly weakened, degenerating into a tropical storm by 06:00 UTC. [1] Six hours later, Willa dissipated over northeastern Mexico, with the NHC noting that the mid- and upper-level circulations had decoupled from the lower-level circulation. [34] The remnants of Willa continued to travel northeastward, bringing rain to multiple states in the United States. [1]

Eyewall replacement cycle

Eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes. When tropical cyclones reach this intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small, some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—an outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are in a cyclone's eyewall, the tropical cyclone usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm may re-intensify.

Tropical Storm Vicente (2018)

Tropical Storm Vicente was a weak and small tropical cyclone affected the southwestern Mexico in late October 2018, causing deadly flooding and mudslides. The twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Vicente originated from a trough of low pressure that formed within a large area of disturbed weather near Central America early on October 19. Around midday, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, which prompted the National Hurricane Center to begin issuing advisories. Later in day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. Despite having only been a weak tropical storm, Vicente developed an intermittent eye-like feature. Unfavorable conditions prevented strengthening until late on October 20. At that time, Vicente peaked with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar. A day later, Vicente began to weaken due increasing wind shear before slightly restrengthening early on October 22. On October 23, Vicente weakened into a tropical depression. Later in the day, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low after making landfall in southwestern Mexico, before dissipating soon afterward.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Preparations

Hurricane Willa nearing landfall in Sinaloa on October 23. Willa 2018-10-23 1950Z.jpg
Hurricane Willa nearing landfall in Sinaloa on October 23.

On October 21, at 15:00 UTC, the Government of Mexico issued a Hurricane Watch for the western coast of Mexico from San Blas to Mazatlán, and a Tropical Storm Watch from Playa Perula to San Blas. [35] At 21:00 UTC, the Tropical Storm Watch for Playa Perula to San Blas was changed to a Tropical Storm Warning. At the same time, a Tropical Storm Watch was issued for Mazatlán to Bahia Tempehuaya. [36] At 03:00 UTC on October 22, the Hurricane Watch for San Blas to Mazatlan was replaced with a Hurricane Warning. [37] The warnings were discontinued on October 24, after Willa weakened to a tropical storm over Durango. [38]

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

San Blas, Nayarit Municipality in Nayarit, Mexico

San Blas is both a municipality and municipal seat located on the Pacific coast of Mexico in Nayarit.

Mazatlán Place in Sinaloa, Mexico

Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The city serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipio, known as the Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at 23°13′N106°25′W on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California Peninsula.

Sinaloa Governor Quirino Ordaz Coppel declared a state of emergency for seven municipalities. [39] About 40,000 people in Jalisco, Nayarit, and Sinaloa evacuated their homes due to the storm, [40] utilizing 2,900 shelters, assisted by the Mexican Army, Navy, and emergency crews. Businesses and industries in the storm's path closed. Mazatlán International Airport closed during the storm, as did nearby hotels. [41] Emergency authorities evicted over 4,250 people in costal cities from their homes and established 58 shelters before the storm hit. [42]

On October 23, Vicente and Willa together forced the Norwegian Bliss cruise ship to divert to San Diego, California. [43]

Impact

Mexico

Landsat image of the Nueces River overflowing its banks, November 1, 2018. Flooding Along the Nueces River.jpg
Landsat image of the Nueces River overflowing its banks, November 1, 2018.

Hurricane Willa's landfall in Sinaloa left two municipalities isolated Escuinapa and Rosario. [44] [45] High winds damaged homes and knocked down trees, which blocked roads. The storm left 96,200 people without power in four states: Sinaloa, where it moved ashore, as well as Nayarit, Durango, and Michoacán. In Escuinapa, the storm damaged the hospital and the municipal water system, [41] and the preliminary damage were confirmed at MX$350 million (US$17.9 million). [46] In Morelia, the damage were at MX$35 million (US$1.79 million), [47] while loss in Lerdo, Durango were about MX$140 million (US$7.14 million). [48]

Known Pacific hurricanes with at least $500 million in damage
StormSeasonDamageRef.
Manuel 2013 $4.2 billion [49]
Iniki 1992 $3.1 billion [50]
Beatriz 1993 $1.7 billion [51]
Odile 2014 $1.25 billion [52]
Agatha 2010 $1.1 billion [53]
Willa 2018 $537 million [54] [55] [56] [57]
Paul 1982 $520 million [58] [59] [60]
Octave 1983 $513 million [61]
Norman 1978 $500 million [62] [63]

In the state of Nayarit, Willa killed four people three drowned along the San Pedro River, and the other was discovered by fishermen. Across the state, the hurricane displaced more than 10,000 people. [64] A hydro-agricultural system in northern Mexico was damaged, resulting in MX$700 million (US$35.7 million) in losses. [65] Total damage in the state was estimated at MX$10 billion (US$510 million). [66] Heavy rainfall killed two more people in Nogales, Sonora, where floods also swept away cars and entered homes and businesses. [67]

Due to the unsettled weather produced by Willa and the nearby Tropical Storm Vicente, numerous oil tankers were unable to unload fuel at ports in Manzanillo and Tuxpan. Combined with the closure of a major pipeline that transports petroleum to Guadalajara, this caused a fuel shortage in Jalisco, with some 500 gas stations being affected. [68]

United States

On October 24, the remnants of Hurricane Willa brought heavy rainfall and thunderstorms to Texas, which had already been saturated from excessive rainfall within the past month. A Flash Flood Warning was issued for Galveston County, in southeastern Texas. [69] [70]

Aftermath

After Willa moved ashore in southwestern Mexico, Mexican officials in Nayarit sent 76 vehicles with medical supplies to reach the most affected residents in the northern part of the state. [64] For one week, officials made Mexican Federal Highway 15D a toll road free of charge, and instead collected more than MX$1.1 million (US$57,000) in donations for the residents left homeless by the hurricane. [71]

In the Escuinapa Municipality in Sinaloa, it was reported that over 2,000 families were living under plastic rooves six months after the storm. Additionally, Mayor Emmet Soto Grave stated that there were many irregularities in the damage reported by the previous government. In total, 144 houses had been counted from October 23–28, while more than 2,000 were actually affected. After President Andrés Manuel López Obrador had federal officials visit the city, more inaccuracies regarding damage to roads, educational institutions, and areas of tourism were discovered. [72] Around the same time, the National Water Commission reported that the Baluarte River had seen a major increase in chromium, mercury, and nickel concentrations a month after the storm. [73]

Notes

  1. Operationally, Willa was reported as having intensified by 105 knots to a high-end Category 4 hurricane in 48 hours, [26] but the timing of the system's peak intensity was adjusted in the post-storm reanalysis. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Kenna Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2002

Hurricane Kenna was at the time tied as the second-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico. Kenna was the sixteenth tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and third Category 5 hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season. After forming on October 22 to the south of Mexico from a tropical wave, forecasters consistently predicted the storm to strengthen much less than it actually did. Moving into an area of favorable upper-level conditions and warm sea surface temperatures, Kenna quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h) as a Category 5 hurricane, on October 25, while located about 255 mi (410 km) southwest of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Weakening as it turned to the northeast, the hurricane made landfall near San Blas, Nayarit as a Category 4 hurricane, with sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h), before dissipating on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.

Hurricane Norbert (2008) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2008

Hurricane Norbert is tied with Hurricane Jimena as the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the west coast of Baja California Sur in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2008 hurricane season, Norbert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave south of Acapulco on October 3. Strong wind shear initially prevented much development, but the cyclone encountered a more favorable environment as it moved westward. On October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Norbert, and the system intensified further to attain hurricane intensity by October 6. After undergoing a period of rapid deepening, Norbert reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar. As the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over Mexico, it began an eyewall replacement cycle which led to steady weakening. Completing this cycle and briefly reintensifying into a major hurricane, a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, Norbert moved ashore Baja California Sur as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 11. After a second landfall at a weaker intensity the following day, the system quickly weakened over land and dissipated that afternoon.

Hurricane Kiko (1989) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 1989

Hurricane Kiko was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to have hit the eastern coast of Mexico's Baja California peninsula during recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko formed out of a large mesoscale convective system on August 25. Slowly tracking northwestward, the storm rapidly intensified into a hurricane early the next day. Strengthening continued until early August 27, when Kiko reached its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). The storm turned west at this time, and at around 0600 UTC, the storm made landfall near Punta Arena at the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The hurricane rapidly weakened into a tropical storm later that day and further into a tropical depression by August 28, shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean. The depression persisted for another day while tracking southward, before being absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Lorena. Though Kiko made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, its impact was relatively minor. Press reports indicated that 20 homes were destroyed and numerous highways were flooded by torrential rains.

Tropical Depression One-E (2009) Pacific tropical depression in 2009

Tropical Depression One-E was the earliest known tropical cyclone to impact the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The first system of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, One-E formed out of an area of disturbed weather on June 18, 2009, and initially tracked slowly northwards. Throughout the day, convection developed around the center of circulation and the system was anticipated to become a tropical storm. Late on June 18, the National Hurricane Center noted that the system was on the verge of becoming a tropical storm; it would have been named Andres had this occurred. However, the following day, strong wind shear caused the depression to rapidly degenerate into a trough of low pressure before dissipating off the coast of Sinaloa.

2017 Pacific hurricane season event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes, though the season was significantly less active than the previous three seasons. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month.

Hurricane Jova (2011) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 2011

Hurricane Jova was a strong Pacific hurricane that made landfall over Jalisco, Mexico. The tenth tropical depression and named storm, ninth hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the 2011 Pacific hurricane season, Jova developed from an area of showers and thunderstorms that became better organized in early October. Moving towards the west-northwest, the area became better organized, and late on October 5, the National Hurricane Center began issuing advisories on Tropical Depression Ten-E. Steadily organizing, the storm was upgraded to Tropical Storm Jova later the following day, and by October 8, the storm had been classified as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. The storm attained Category 2 hurricane status late on October 9, and after a round of rapid intensification early on October 10, Jova had become a major hurricane.

Tropical Storm Beatriz (1993) Pacific tropical storm in 1993

Tropical Storm Beatriz of 1993 was a strong tropical storm that made landfall in Mexico during the moderately active 1993 Pacific hurricane season. The storm caused $1.7 billion in damages throughout Mexico.

2018 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic ocean

The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.

Hurricane Manuel Pacific hurricane in 2013

Hurricane Manuel was the most destructive eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record. Manuel brought widespread flooding across much of Mexico in September 2013, along with Hurricane Ingrid, which hit the opposite side of the nation the same day as Manuel, the first such occurrence since 1958. The fifteenth named storm and seventh hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Manuel originated from a strong area of low pressure south of Acapulco on September 13. Within favorable conditions aloft, the storm intensified into a tropical storm as it tracked northward. The following day, Manuel curved westward and strengthened to a point just shy of hurricane intensity before making its first landfall at that intensity on September 15. Due to interaction with land, the tropical storm quickly weakened, and its center dissipated over western Mexico on September 16. However, the storm's remnants continued to track northwestward into the Gulf of California, where they reorganized into a tropical cyclone the next day. Manuel regained tropical storm status on September 18 as it began to curve northeastward. Shortly thereafter, Manuel attained Category 1 hurricane intensity, before making its final landfall just west of Culiacán at peak intensity. Over land, Manuel quickly weakened due to interaction with Mexico's high terrain, and the storm dissipated early on September 20.

Tropical Storm Trudy (2014)

Tropical Storm Trudy was a short-lived tropical cyclone in October 2014 that caused significant flooding in southern Mexico. The storm originated from an area of low pressure associated with a monsoon trough near Central America in early October. A slow-moving system, the low eventually consolidated into a tropical depression on October 17 near the Mexican coastline. Favorable environmental conditions aided rapid development of Trudy. Within 15 hours of its designation, an eye formed over the storm's center. Trudy ultimately achieved its peak as a strong tropical storm with 65 mph (100 km/h) winds as it made landfall just southeast of Marquelia, Mexico. The region's mountainous terrain quickly weakened Trudy and the cyclone dissipated early on October 19. Though the cyclone dissipated, its remnant energy later contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Hanna in the Atlantic.

Hurricane Odile Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2014

Hurricane Odile is tied for the most intense landfalling tropical cyclone in the Baja California Peninsula during the satellite era. Sweeping across the peninsula in September 2014, Odile inflicted widespread damage, particularly in the state of Baja California Sur, in addition to causing lesser impacts on the Mexican mainland and Southwestern United States. The precursor to Odile developed into a tropical depression south of Mexico on September 10 and quickly reached tropical storm strength. After meandering for several days, Odile began to track northwestward, intensifying to hurricane status before rapidly reaching its Category 4 hurricane peak intensity on September 14. The cyclone slightly weakened before making landfall near Cabo San Lucas with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). Odile gradually weakened as it tracked across the length of the Baja California Peninsula, briefly crossing into the Gulf of California before degenerating into a remnant system on September 17. These remnants tracked northeastward across the Southwestern United States before they were no longer identifiable on September 19.

Hurricane Carlos (2015)

Hurricane Carlos was an unusually small tropical cyclone which affected the western coast of Mexico in June 2015. Forming as the third named storm and hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Carlos developed from a trough first noted by the National Hurricane Center on June 7. The disturbance gradually organized and was designated as a tropical depression three days later while south of the Mexican Pacific coast. Drifting slowly northwestward, the depression was upgraded further to a tropical storm. Although persistent wind shear and dry air hampered intensification early on, Carlos strengthened into a hurricane on June 13 after moving into a more favorable environment. However, the return of dry air and upwelling of cooler waters caused the system to deteriorate into a tropical storm. Paralleling the Mexican coast, Carlos later regained hurricane intensity on June 15 and attained peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) a day later. The reprieve was brief, however, as the onset of wind shear, land interaction, and dry air afterward led to rapid weakening. On June 17, Carlos degenerated into a remnant area of low pressure, having made landfall in Jalisco earlier that day. By the morning of June 18, Carlos was declared to have completely dissipated.

Hurricane Patricia Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2015

Hurricane Patricia was the second-most intense tropical cyclone on record worldwide, behind Typhoon Tip in 1979, with a minimum atmospheric pressure of 872 mbar. Originating from a sprawling disturbance near the Gulf of Tehuantepec, south of Mexico, in mid-October 2015, Patricia was first classified a tropical depression on October 20. Initial development was slow, with only modest strengthening within the first day of its classification. The system later became a tropical storm and was named Patricia, the twenty-fourth named storm of the annual hurricane season. Exceptionally favorable environmental conditions fueled explosive intensification on October 22. A well-defined eye developed within an intense central dense overcast and Patricia grew from a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane in just 24 hours—a near-record pace. On October 23, the hurricane achieved its record peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 215 mph (345 km/h). This made it the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Western Hemisphere, and the strongest globally in terms of 1-minute maximum sustained winds.

Hurricane Sandra (2015)

Hurricane Sandra was the latest-forming major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific basin, the strongest November Pacific hurricane on record, and the record eleventh major hurricane of the 2015 Pacific hurricane season. Originating from a tropical wave, Sandra was first classified as a tropical depression on November 23 well south of Mexico. Environmental conditions, including high sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, were highly conducive to intensification and the storm quickly organized. A small central dense overcast developed atop the storm and Sandra reached hurricane status early on November 25 after the consolidation of an eye. Sandra reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a pressure of 934 mbar early on November 26. This made Sandra the strongest November hurricane on record in the Northeastern Pacific. Thereafter, increasing shear degraded the hurricane's structure and weakening ensued. Rapid weakening took place on November 27 and Sandra's circulation became devoid of convection as it diminished to a tropical storm that evening. The cyclone degenerated into a remnant low soon thereafter and ultimately dissipated just off the coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, on November 29.

Hurricane Newton (2016) Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 2016

Hurricane Newton was the first hurricane to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula since Odile in 2014. The fifteenth named storm and the ninth hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Newton formed as a tropical depression out of an area of low pressure off of the coast of Mexico on September 4. Despite only moderately favorable conditions, the storm quickly intensified while moving north and became a hurricane roughly a day after being designated. Attaining peak intensity early on September 6, Newton then proceeded to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula shortly afterwards. It quickly weakened and degenerated into a remnant low on September 7, before dissipating the next day.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Tropical Storm Gordon (2018) Atlantic tropical storm in 2018

Tropical Storm Gordon was a tropical storm that caused moderate damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in early September 2018. The seventh named storm of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Gordon developed from a tropical wave that was first monitored in the Caribbean Sea on August 30. The wave moved west-northwestward toward the east coast of Florida and gradually organized. The disturbance was marked as Potential Tropical Cyclone Seven on September 2 while near the Bahamas, and early on September 3, it became Tropical Storm Gordon, moving onto the southwest coast of Florida shortly afterward. Steady intensification began after it left the coast of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico, reaching its peak intensity as a high-end tropical storm late on September 4, before it made landfall just east of Pascagoula, Mississippi, shortly afterwards. Gordon then rapidly weakened inland, before weakening into a remnant low on September 6. Gordon's remnants lingered over Arkansas for two days, and opened up into a trough on September 8. At least three deaths were attributed to the storm, and Gordon caused approximately $200–250 million in damages.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Michael J. Brennan (April 2, 2019). Hurricane Willa (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center . Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  2. Stacy Stewart (October 14, 2018). Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  3. Eric Blake (October 15, 2018). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 2:00 pm EDT, Mon Oct 15 2018 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  4. Stacy R. Stewart (October 16, 2018). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 8:00 am EDT, Tue Oct 16 2018 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  5. David Zelinsky (October 17, 2018). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 11:00 pm PDT, Tue Oct 16 2018 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  6. Robbie Berg (October 18, 2018). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 11:00 am PDT, Thur Oct 18 2018 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  7. David Zelinsky (October 28, 2018). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook: 5:00 pm PDT, Thu Oct 18 2018 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  8. Robbie Berg (October 19, 2018). Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 2 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  9. Stacy R. Stewart (October 20, 2018). Tropical Depression Twenty-Four-E Discussion Number 1 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  10. Robbie Berg (October 20, 2018). Tropical Storm Willa Discussion Number 2. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  11. Kimberlain, Todd B.; Blake, Eric S.; Cangialosi, John P. (February 1, 2016). Hurricane Patricia (pdf) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  12. 1 2 Emil B., Gunther (April 1977). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1976". Monthly Weather Review. Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center. 105 (4): 508–522. Bibcode:1977MWRv..105..508G. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0508:EPTCO>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  13. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (1993). The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 24, 2003.
  14. 1 2 3 Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  15. Franklin, James L. (December 26, 2002). Hurricane Kenna (pdf) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  16. Emil B., Gunther; Cross, R. L. (July 1984). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1983". Monthly Weather Review. Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center. 112 (7): 1419–1440. Bibcode:1984MWRv..112.1419G. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1419:ENPTCO>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  17. Knabb, Richard D. (November 30, 2006). Hurricane Lane (pdf) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  18. Cangialosi, John P.; Kimberlain, Todd B. (December 19, 2014). Hurricane Odile (pdf) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  19. Robert A., Baum (April 1976). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1975". Monthly Weather Review. Weather Service Forecast Center. 104 (4): 475–488. Bibcode:1976MWRv..104..475B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1976)104<0475:ENPTCO>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  20. Mayfield, Britt Max (November 18, 1989). Hurricane Kiko (Report). Preliminary Report. Miami, Florida: National Weather Service. p. 6. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  21. Brennan, Michael J. (April 2, 2019). Hurricane Willa (pdf) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  22. Robbie Berg (October 20, 2018). Tropical Storm Willa Discussion Number 3 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  23. John Cangialosi (October 21, 2018). Tropical Storm Willa Discussion Number 4 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  24. Stacy Stewart (October 21, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 5 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  25. John Cangialosi (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 8 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  26. Stacy Stewart (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 9. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  27. John Cangialosi (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 9 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  28. 1 2 Lixion Avilia (October 24, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 16. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  29. Daniel Brown (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 10 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  30. Daniel Brown (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Public Advisory Number 10 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  31. Pasch, Richard (October 23, 2018). Tropical Storm Vicente Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  32. Daniel Brown (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 11 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  33. Stacy R. Stewart (October 23, 2018). Hurricane Willa Discussion Number 14 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  34. Stacy Stewart (October 24, 2018). Tropical Depression Willa Discussion Number 17. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  35. Daniel Brown (October 21, 2018). Hurricane Willa Public Advisory Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  36. Daniel Brown (October 21, 2018). Hurricane Willa Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  37. John Cangialosi (October 22, 2018). Hurricane Willa Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  38. Stacy Stewart (October 24, 2018). Tropical Storm Willa Intermediate Advisory Number 16A. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  39. "Descarta Quirino Ordaz muertes por paso de huracán 'Willa'" (in Spanish). Río Doce. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  40. Eél María Angulo (October 24, 2018). "México: el huracán Willa toca tierra en Sinaloa". France 24 (in Spanish). Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  41. 1 2 "Willa deja 13.000 evacuados y severos daños materiales a su paso por México" [Willa leaves 13,000 evacuated and severe material damage as it passes through Mexico]. El País (in Spanish). October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  42. Alba Moraleda (October 23, 2018). "Willa se disipa en el noroeste de México tras tocar tierra anoche en Sinaloa con categoría 3". Telemundo (in Spanish). Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  43. Mark Saunders. "Tropical storms force Norwegian Bliss cruise ship to divert to San Diego". 10news. ABC. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  44. "Huracán Willa deja sin luz y agua a varias comunidades de Sinaloa y provoca daños carreteros" [Hurricane Willa leaves several communities in Sinaloa without light and water and causes road damages] (in Spanish). Animal Politico. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  45. Galimberti, Katy (October 26, 2018). "Willa Floods".
  46. Guadalupe Martínez (October 30, 2018). "Confirman de manera preliminar daños por 350 MDP en Escuinapa por "Willa"" (in Spanish). Reacción Informativa. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  47. Ireri Piña (October 25, 2018). "Necesarios 35 mdp para solventar daños por "Willa"" (in Spanish). Contramuro. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  48. "Hay daños evidentes en Lerdo por lluvias" (in Spanish). El Siglo de Durango. November 3, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  49. Steve Jakubowski; Adityam Krovvidi; Adam Podlaha; Steve Bowen. "September 2013 Global Catasrophe Recap" (PDF). Impact Forecasting. AON Benefield. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
  50. Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones tables update (PDF) (Report). United States National Hurricane Center. January 12, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  51. "Hurricanes and Typhoons with Economic Losses of One Billion Dollars or More, 1950-2005" (XLS). Earth Policy. 2008.
  52. Albarrán, Elizabeth (2014-12-10). "Aseguradores pagaron 16,600 mdp por daños del huracán Odile" [Insurers paid 16,600 MDP for Hurricane Odile damages] (in Spanish). El Economista. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
  53. Jack L. Beven (January 10, 2011). "Tropical Storm Agatha Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  54. "Hay daños evidentes en Lerdo por lluvias" [There is obvious damage in Lerdo due to rain] (in Spanish). El Siglo de Durango. November 3, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  55. Ireri Piña (October 25, 2018). "Necesarios 35 mdp para solventar daños por "Willa"" [35 MDP required to address damages by "Willa"] (in Spanish). Contramuro. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  56. Guadalupe Martínez (October 30, 2018). "Confirman de manera preliminar daños por 350 MDP en Escuinapa por "Willa"" (in Spanish). Reacción Informativa. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  57. Espinosa, Gabriela (November 11, 2018). "Ascienden a $10 mil millones los daños que causó 'Willa' en Nayarit". La Jornada (in Spanish). Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  58. "Guatemala - Disaster Statistics". Prevention Web. 2008. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  59. "5 day toll in El Salvador, 630 killed, crops, destroyed". Achorage Daily Times. September 23, 1982. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  60. "El Salvador Death Toll hits 565 as more bodies found". September 22, 1982. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  61. Brenda W. Rotzull (October 7, 1983). "Domestic News". United Press International.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  62. Tucson, Arizona National Weather Service (2008). "Tropical Storm Octave 1983". National Weather Service . Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  63. Oard, Michael (March 1, 2015). The New Weather Book (Wonders of Creation). Master Books. p. 54. ISBN   0890518610.
  64. 1 2 Karina Cancino (October 25, 2018). "Cuatro muertos y 150 mil damnificados por paso de 'Willa' en Nayarit" (in Spanish). El Financiero. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  65. Victor Rochín (October 30, 2018). "Estiman daños en red hidroagrícola en el norte, por mas de de 700 millones de pesos" [Estimated damage to the hydro-agricultural network in the north is more than 700 million pesos] (in Spanish). El Financiero. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  66. Vargas, Gustavo (November 11, 2018). "Polo Domínguez: Daños en Nayarit por Willa podrían ser de 10 mil millones de pesos" (in Spanish). NTV. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  67. "'Willa' pega en Sinaloa y deja 2 muertos en Sonora" (in Spanish). Milenio. October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  68. "Jalisco fuel shortages due to hurricane, tropical storm, pipeline taps". November 6, 2018. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  69. Aaron Barker; Eric Braate (October 24, 2018). "Hurricane Willa leftovers to bring rain to Houston on Wednesday". KPRC Click2Houston. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  70. Holly Yan (October 24, 2018). "Willa will drench US states and could turn into a nor'easter". Cable News Network. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  71. "Exitosa colecta para damnificados de Willa olvidados por el gobierno" (in Spanish). La Journada. November 25, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  72. Adriana Carlos (March 24, 2019). "En Sinaloa, aún hay más de 2 mil viviendo en casas provisionales por 'Willa'". Milenio (in Spanish). Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  73. Sibely Cañedo (March 29, 2019). "Tras el Huracán Willa, suben niveles de metales en río Baluarte". Nororeste (in Spanish). Retrieved April 20, 2019.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe National Weather Service .