2010 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated

2010 Pacific hurricane season
2010 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 29, 2010
Last system dissipatedDecember 21, 2010
Strongest storm
Name Celia
  Maximum winds160 mph (260 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure921 mbar (hPa; 27.2 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions13
Total storms8 (record low, tied with 1977)
Hurricanes3 (record low)
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
2
Total fatalities268 total
Total damage$1.62 billion (2010 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

The 2010 Pacific hurricane season is the least active Pacific hurricane season, alongside 1977, since reliable records began in 1971. It officially started on May 15, 2010 for the eastern Pacific, and June 1 for the central Pacific, and officially ended on November 30. Unlike the previous season, the first storm of the season, Agatha, formed during the month of May. Agatha developed on May 29 near the coast of Guatemala. In the second week of June, a sudden spree of tropical cyclones developed, and between June 16 and 22, four cyclones formed, including the two major hurricanes of the season, Celia and Darby, the first of which reached Category 5 intensity. However, following the record active June, July saw zero named storms. In August and September only 2 tropical storms and one hurricane formed. Tropical Depression Eleven-E caused a great deal of flooding in southern Mexico, causing millions of dollars in damage, as well as causing over 50 deaths and $500 million in damage in areas of Oaxaca and Guatemala. Tropical Storm Omeka was a rare off-season storm.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

1977 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1977 Pacific hurricane season was, at the time, the least active in recorded history. Only eight tropical storms formed, and four hurricanes; they would be tied and surpassed, respectively, by the 2010 Pacific hurricane season. There were no major hurricanes; the next time this happened would be the 2003 season. In addition, there was just one storm in each of May, June, July, August, and October, which is also low; the other three storms were in September. Activity in the central Pacific was zero, as no storms formed there nor moved in from the east.

2009 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2009 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season since 1994. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Contents

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2010 season
SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010)15.48.43.9 [1]
Record high activity 27 16 11 [2]
Record low activity 8 (tie)3 0 (tie) [3]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
NOAAMay 27, 20109–154–81–3 [4]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
832

On May 19, 2010, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released their forecast for the 2010 Central Pacific hurricane season, which would start on June 1. They expected two or three cyclones to form in or enter the region throughout the season, below the average of four or five storms. The below-average activity forecast was based on two factors: the first was the continuance of a period of decreased activity in the central Pacific; and second, the effects of a Neutral El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or La Niña, both of which reduce cyclone activity in the region. However, in light of the near-miss of Hurricane Felicia the previous year, forecasters at the Central Pacific Hurricane Center gave the public a basic message for the 2010 season, "Prepare! Watch! Act!". [5]

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration An American scientific agency within the US Department of Commerce that focuses on the oceans and the atmosphere

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

La Niña A coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño

La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern. The name La Niña originates from Spanish, meaning "the little girl", analogous to El Niño meaning "the little boy". It has also in the past been called anti-El Niño, and El Viejo. During a period of La Niña, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3 to 5°C. An appearance of La Niña persists for at least five months. It has extensive effects on the weather across the globe, particularly in North America, even affecting the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane seasons.

Hurricane Felicia (2009) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2009

Hurricane Felicia was the third strongest tropical cyclone of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, as well as the strongest storm to exist in the eastern Pacific at the time since Hurricane Daniel in 2006. Forming as a tropical depression on August 3, the storm supported strong thunderstorm activity and quickly organized. It became a tropical storm over the following day, and subsequently underwent rapid deepening to attain hurricane status. Later that afternoon, Felicia featured a well-defined eye as its winds sharply rose to major hurricane-force on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Further strengthening ensued, and Felicia peaked in intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 935 mbar. After reaching this strength, unfavorable conditions, such as wind shear, began to impact the storm while it took on a northwestward path. Henceforth, Felicia slowly weakened for several days; by August 8 it had been downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane, once again becoming a tropical storm the next day. It retraced westward towards Hawaii on August 10, all the while decreasing in organization. On August 11, Felicia weakened to tropical depression status, and soon degenerated into remnant low just prior to passing over the islands.

On May 27, 12 days after the official start of the 2010 eastern Pacific hurricane season, NOAA released their forecast for the basin. Similar to the forecast for the central Pacific, below-average activity was expected, with nine to fifteen named storms forming, four to eight of which would become hurricanes and a further one to three would become major hurricanes. This lessened activity was based on the same two factors as the central Pacific, decreased activity since 1995 and the ENSO event. Overall, NOAA stated there was a 75% chance of below-average activity, 20% of near-normal and only a 5% chance of above-average. [6]

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

1995 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1995 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 1979. Of the eleven tropical cyclones that formed during the season, four affected land, with the most notable storm of the season being Hurricane Ismael, which killed at least 116 people in Mexico. The strongest hurricane in the season was Hurricane Juliette, which reached peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), but did not significantly affect land. Hurricane Adolph was an early-season Category 4 hurricane. Hurricane Henriette brushed the Baja California Peninsula in early September.

Seasonal summary

Activity by month compared to averages [7] [nb 1]
MonthActual activity vs. Averages [nb 2] ACE [nb 3]
StormsHurricanesMajorMonthYear
May [8] 1 (0–1)0 (0)0 (0)
June [9] 3 (2)2 (1)2 (0–1)>300%>300%
July [10] 0 (3–4)0 (2)0 (1)0%107%
August [11] 2 (4)1 (2)0 (1)40%75%
September [12] 1 (3)0 (2)0 (1)<5%46%
October [13] 0 (2)0 (1)0 (0-1)0%48%
November [14] 0 (0-1)0 (0)0 (0)0%~46%
Total [7] 7 (15)3 (9)2 (4)~46%

Continuing a trend of below-average activity that began in 1995, the 2010 season was quiet as expected. The Eastern Pacific proper saw record-low numbers of named storms and hurricanes, with only seven and three respectively forming. [7] Inclusive of the Central Pacific, the basin tied its record low activity of eight named storms set in 1977. [3] [15] The lack of storms was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) [nb 4] value of 50 units, roughly 46 percent of the long-term median. This ranked 2010 as the third-quietest since 1966, just above 1977 and 2007. The vast majority of the ACE stemmed from Hurricanes Celia and Darby, which collectively accounted for roughly 70 percent of the seasonal total. [7]

2007 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.

Inactivity was largely attributed to a moderately strong La Niña event which resulted in below-average sea surface temperatures across the basin. Another major factor limiting storm formation was the eastward displacement of 200 mb divergence. The displacement of this feature brought conditions that favor tropical development closer to the rugged terrain of Mexico and Central America, a factor known to disrupt low-level circulations. Accordingly, six of the seven named storms in the Eastern Pacific proper formed east of 106°W, four of which originated over the Gulf of Tehuantepec where the greatest depth of warm waters were restricted to. A final limiting factor was above-average wind shear across much of the basin east of 130°W and north of 10°N. [7]

Sea surface temperature Water temperature close to the oceans surface

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.

Geopotential height or geopotential altitude is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level, an adjustment to geometric height using the variation of gravity with latitude and vertical position. Thus, it can be considered a "gravity-adjusted height". One usually speaks of the geopotential height of a certain pressure level, which would correspond to the geopotential height at which that pressure occurs.

Divergence vector differential operator measuring the source or sink at a given point

In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that produces a scalar field, giving the quantity of a vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point.

The season began with record-high activity, featuring two major hurricanes in June. ACE values exceeded 300 percent of the long-term mean, though most was due to Category 5 Hurricane Celia. [9] Hurricane Celia was also the second-earliest forming storm of that intensity during the course of a season, surpassed only by Hurricane Ava in 1973. [3] The month featured an ACE value of 37.22, eclipsing the previous record set in 1984. [9] Furthermore, Darby was the earliest second major hurricane of a season, eclipsing 1978's Hurricane Daniel; [16] however, this has since been surpassed by Cristina in 2014, Blanca in 2015, and Bud in 2018. [17] [18] This activity abruptly halted and languished throughout the month of July. [7] No named storms developed during the month, marking the first such occurrence since 1966. However, due to the activity in June, ACE value for the season by the start of August remained slightly above normal, roughly 107 percent the yearly mean. [10] Through the remainder of the season, the basin observed record low activity with only three additional named storms developing. [13]

Hurricane Celia (2010) Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2010

Hurricane Celia was a powerful, early-season Category 5 tropical cyclone that existed over the open waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean during late June 2010. Forming out of a tropical wave about 370 mi (595 km) southeast of Acapulco, Mexico on June 18, Celia quickly organized as deep convection consolidated around the center, attaining hurricane status by June 20. Over the following days, the hurricane's winds fluctuated as wind shear impeded significant development hindering it from becoming potentially dangerous. Once this shear lightened on June 24, the storm rapidly intensified to attain its peak strength with winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and an estimated barometric pressure of 921 mbar. Not long after reaching this strength, wind shear increased and the system entered a dry, stable environment. Over the following 42 hours, Hurricane Celia's sustained winds decreased to tropical storm force and the system began to stall over the open ocean by June 27. Despite highly unfavorable conditions, the storm managed to retain tropical storm status through June 28 and degenerated into a non-convective remnant low that evening. The remnants of Celia drifted northward, completing a counter-clockwise loop, and dissipated on June 30.

1973 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific ocean

The 1973 Pacific hurricane season was an event in tropical cyclone meteorology. The most important system this year was Hurricane Ava, which was the most intense Pacific hurricane known at the time. Several other much weaker tropical cyclones came close to, or made landfall on, the Pacific coast of Mexico. The most serious of these was Hurricane Irah, which downed power and communication lines in parts of the Baja California Peninsula; the other landfalling storms caused rain and some flooding. No tropical cyclone this season caused any deaths.

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

The record inactivity experienced in the Northeastern Pacific also took place in the Northwestern Pacific. Since reliable records began in the 1970s, there has been no precedent for both basins experiencing exceptionally low tropical cyclone formation. Moreover, this general lack of storm formation was reflected in all cyclone basins except the Atlantic. On average, the Northeastern Pacific accounts for 16 percent of the world's storms; however, during 2010, it accounted for roughly 10 percent (7 out of 67 cyclones). [19]

Systems

Tropical Storm OmekaTropical Storm Georgette (2010)Tropical Depression Eleven-E (2010)Hurricane Frank (2010)Hurricane Celia (2010)Tropical Storm Agatha (2010)Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale2010 Pacific hurricane season

Tropical Storm Agatha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Agatha 2010-05-29 1705Z.jpg   Agatha 2010 track.png
DurationMay 29 – May 30
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

Early May 29, the season's first tropical depression consolidated near the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Large-scale southwesterly flow prompted the system to move slowly northeast. Scatterometer data indicated the depression soon strengthened into a tropical storm, at which time it was assigned the name Agatha. Attaining peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), Agatha soon made landfall late on May 29 near Champerico, Guatemala, just south of the border with Mexico. Once onshore, the mountainous terrain of Guatemala caused the storm to quickly dissipate early on May 30. [20]

Although a weak tropical cyclone, Agatha brought torrential rainfall to much of Central America. [21] Daily accumulations peaked at 16.78 in (426 mm) in Montufar, Guatemala and 19.0 in (483 mm) in Ilopango, El Salvador. [20] [22] According to Guatemala's president, Álvaro Colom, some areas received more than 3.3 ft (1 m) of rain. [23] The ensuing flash floods and landslides proved catastrophic, especially in Guatemala where at least 174 people died. [24] In El Salvador, 11 people were killed and damage from the storm reached $112.1 million. [22] Honduras also suffered significant losses from the storm with 18 fatalities and at least $18.5 million in damage. [25] One person was also killed in Nicaragua. [26] The storm also associated with a very large sinkhole.

Tropical Depression Two-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Two-E Jun 16 2010 1700Z.jpg   2-E 2010 track.png
DurationJune 16 – June 17
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1007  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa on June 2 and entered the Atlantic Ocean. Tracking westward, the system eventually reached the eastern Pacific on June 13. As it approached the Gulf of Tehuantepec, convection increased, despite strong wind shear. Early on June 16, sufficient development had taken place for the NHC to classify the wave as a tropical depression, at which time the depression was situated roughly 110 mi (175 km) south of Salina Cruz, Mexico. A scatterometer pass over the storm revealed it to have attained peak winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) later that day. Thereafter, wind shear took its toll on the system and its low-level circulation ultimately dissipated early on June 17 while still off the coast of Mexico. [27]

Due to its proximity to land, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued in advance of the storm when the system was first classified. This was discontinued when the system dissipated. [27] Rainfall associated with the depression extended as far north as Oaxaca. In San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec, 82 homes were damaged by flood waters and 40 others were affected in the town of Zimatlán de Alvarez. [28] Some homes lost their roofs and a few trees were downed as a result of high winds. [29]

Tropical Storm Blas

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
TS Blas 06-17 1740UTC.JPG   Blas 2010 track.png
DurationJune 17 – June 21
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994  mbar  (hPa)

On May 30, a new tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa and entered the Atlantic Ocean. Little convective development took place as it traversed the region; however, as it crossed Central America between June 9 and 10, it began to show signs of strengthening. By June 13, an area of low pressure developed within the wave and slowly developed a surface circulation over the following 48 hours as it remained nearly stationary over open waters. Early on June 17, deep convection was able to maintain itself over the system, prompting the NHC to classify the low as Tropical Depression Three-E; at this time, the depression was situated 305 mi (490 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Within hours of becoming a tropical depression, a ship in the region reported sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), indicating that the system had developed into a tropical storm. The newly upgraded storm, now named Blas by the NHC, began to track slowly to the northwest, and later nearly due west, in response to a strengthening ridge over Mexico. [30]

Strong wind shear prevented Blas from strengthening further over the following day; however, by June 19, the system entered a region of weaker shear. This allowed convection to develop over the center of circulation and that afternoon, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a pressure of 992 mbar (hPa; 29.29 inHg). Shortly thereafter, cooler sea surface temperatures took their toll on Blas, causing the storm to gradually weaken. By June 21, the system weakened to a tropical depression as convection diminished. Hours later, it degenerated into a non-convective remnant low while situated about 715 mi (1,150 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The remnants of Blas persisted through June 23 as they continued westward, before it dissipated to a weak upper-level low. [30]

Hurricane Celia

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Celia 2010-06-25 0830Z.jpg   Celia 2010 track.png
DurationJune 18 – June 28
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  921  mbar  (hPa)

Celia formed out of a tropical wave on June 18, quickly organized into a tropical storm, and later into a hurricane the following day as deep convection consolidated around the center. On June 21, the storm further intensified into a Category 2 hurricane; however, over the following days, Celia's winds fluctuated. The system briefly attained major hurricane status on June 23 before temporarily succumbing to wind shear. Once this shear lightened the next day, Celia rapidly intensified to attain its peak intensity with winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and an estimated barometric pressure of 921  mbar (hPa; 27.20  inHg). [31]

Not long after reaching this strength, wind shear increased and the system entered a dry, stable environment. Over the following 42 hours, sustained winds decreased to tropical storm force and the system began to stall over the open ocean by June 27. Despite highly unfavorable conditions, the storm managed to retain tropical storm status through June 28 and degenerated into a non-convective remnant low that evening. The remnants of Celia continued to drift towards the north before finally dissipating on June 30, about 990 mi (1,590 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. [31]

Hurricane Darby

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Darby jun 25 2010 1955Z.jpg   Darby 2010 track.png
DurationJune 23 – June 28
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  959  mbar  (hPa)

The second, and final, major hurricane of the season, Hurricane Darby originated from a vigorous tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on June 8. Initially well-organized, the wave rapidly deteriorated within 24 hours; it continued westward without redevelopment and entered the Eastern Pacific on June 19. The following day, an area of low pressure developed within the system as it slowed and turned towards the west-northwest. Gradually organizing, the low strengthened into a tropical depression on June 23 while situated roughly 380 mi (610 km) south-southeast of Salina Cruz, Mexico. Over the following two days, Darby underwent two periods of rapid intensification. At the end of the second phase on June 25, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) and a pressure of 959 mbar (hPa; 28.32 inHg). Though a strong storm, Darby was unusually small with tropical storm force winds extending only 70 mi (110 km) from its center. [32]

Not long after peaking, a large area of westerly winds, produced by Hurricane Alex over the Gulf of Mexico, caused Darby to stall offshore before turning to the east, being drawn into the circulation of the larger storm. Increased wind shear produced by the "massive outflow of Alex" caused the small storm to rapidly weaken. [32] By June 28, Darby had diminished to a tropical depression and later to a remnant low off the coast of Mexico. The low persisted for another day before fully dissipating offshore. [32]

While offshore, authorities in Mexico advised residents to be cautious of heavy rains from Darby. Alerts were issued for several areas; however, the storm dissipated before reaching land. [33] [34] The combined effects of Hurricanes Alex and Darby resulted in heavy rains over much of Chiapas, amounting to 12 to 16 in (300 to 400 mm) in some areas. Flash flooding damaged 43 homes and affected 60,000 people. [35]

Tropical Depression Six-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
06E 2010-07-15 1808Z.jpg   6-E 2010 track.png
DurationJuly 14 – July 16
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

On July 11, a low pressure formed southwest of Central America. [36] The next day, the system began to organize. [37] After a decrease in convection, [38] the system became more concentrated. [39] After additional development, the NHC upgraded the disturbance into Tropical Depression Six-E on July 14. [40] Six-E slowed down forward momentum, and slowly turned north. The depression did not develop further, and it degenerated into an area of low pressure on July 16. However, the remnant low of the system continued moving westward for the next couple days, before fully dissipating on July 18. [41]

Though relatively far from land, the depression's outer bands brought locally heavy rains to portions of Colima and Jalisco. [42]

Tropical Storm Estelle

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Estelle aug 7 2010 1810Z.jpg   Estelle 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 6 – August 10
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994  mbar  (hPa)

After an unusual, record inactive July, an area of disturbed weather formed off the south coast of Mexico, on August 4 from a tropical wave that left Africa 13 days earlier. [43] The system became better organized throughout the next day, and was upgraded into a tropical depression on August 6, 138 mi (222 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. Initially, there was uncertainty regarding the storm's path. [44] It reached tropical storm status on the same day. On August 8, the storm showed signs of weakening. It was downgraded into a tropical depression the next day. Estelle became a remnant low on August 10, dissipating shortly thereafter. [43]

Though the center of Estelle remained offshore, its outer bands brought moderate to heavy rains and increased surf to coastal areas of Guerrero, Michoacán, Colima, and Jalisco on August 7. [45] The following day, a detachment of clouds associated with the storm brought locally heavy rains to Mazatlán, resulting in localized street flooding. [46]

Tropical Depression Eight-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
08E aug 20 2010.jpg   08E 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 20 – August 21
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

On August 3, a tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa and tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean. By August 15, the wave crossed Central America and entered the Eastern Pacific. Over the following five days, development was relatively slow at first, resulting in forecasters at the NHC not predicting the system to become a tropical cyclone. However, on August 20, a low pressure area formed and quickly became a tropical depression. At this time, the system was situated roughly 185 mi (295 km) west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Tracking northwestward in response to a mid-level ridge over northwestern Mexico, the depression moved through a region of moderate wind shear, preventing further development. Once over cooler waters on August 21, convection began to wane and the system degenerated into a remnant low later that day. Continuing along the same path, the remnants of the depression dissipated early on August 23, over open waters. [47]

Hurricane Frank

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Frank 2010 off the coast of Mexico.jpg   Frank 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 21 – August 28
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  978  mbar  (hPa)

The wave that became Frank was first noticed on August 15 south of the Windward Islands. Tropical Depression Nine-E formed on August 21 south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It developed into a tropical storm the following morning. On August 23, Frank continued to intensify, but later faced shear and entered a period of weakening. However, on August 24, as shear decreased, it began to reorganize and strengthen again, becoming a hurricane on August 25. Frank also formed an eye feature that persisted for about a day. Two days later, Frank weakened back into a tropical storm. Frank encountered unfavorable conditions of high shear and cool waters, causing it to rapidly weakening overnight. Frank became a remnant low on August 28.

In Mexico, six deaths were reported. A total 30 homes were destroyed with 26 others damaged. Two major roads were damaged with another road blocked due to a landslides. Several rivers overflowed their banks as well. [48] In the wake of the storm, 110 communities requested assistance from the government. By September 14, an estimated 200,000 food packages were distributed to the region. Losses from Hurricane Frank exceeded 100 million pesos ($8.3 million USD). [49]

Tropical Depression Ten-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Ten-E 2010-09-03 1750Z.jpg   Ten-E 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 4
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

Tropical Depression Ten-E originated from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on August 14. Tracking westward, the wave eventually crossed Central America and entered the Pacific Ocean on August 26. Gradual organization took place by early September as deepening convection. During September 3, a low-level circulation developed within the system and the NHC classified it as a tropical depression. At this time, the depression was situated roughly 255 mi (410 km) south-southeast of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. Located between a strong ridge over Mexico and trough over the north Pacific Ocean, the system tracked northwestward throughout the remainder of its existence. Maximum sustained winds never exceeded 35 mph (55 km/h) before moving into a region cooler waters and moderate wind shear. The combination of these two factors caused convection to diminish; the depression degenerated into a non-convective remnant low on September 4 before dissipating the following day. [50]

Tropical Depression Eleven-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
11E 2010-09-04 1700Z.jpg   Hermine 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 4
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

During mid-August, a westward moving tropical wave in the Atlantic Ocean spawned Hurricane Danielle. [51] The southern portion of this system continued its track and later entered the Eastern Pacific on August 29. By September 2, convection consolidated over the Gulf of Tehuantepec and a low-level circulation developed as it moved in a general northward direction. Classified a tropical depression the following day, [52] the National Hurricane Center initially expected it to attain tropical storm status before moving over land. [53] A ship in the region measured gale-force winds, supporting this forecast but later analysis revealed that these winds were associated with a broad monsoon trough which the depression was embedded within. Failing to intensify, the system made landfall near Salina Cruz, Mexico and rapidly weakened. Maintaining its circulation, the depression survived its crossing of Mexico and regenerated into Atlantic Tropical Storm Hermine. The crossover of this storm is regarded as an uncommon occurrence, [52] taking place only a handful of times since reliable records in the Atlantic began in 1851. [54]

Due to the depression's proximity to land, tropical storm warnings were issued for southern Mexico. [52] The depression produced a swath of heavy rain along its immediate track, with localized peaks over 10 in (250 mm) and a storm maximum of 13.6 in (350 mm) in Alvarado, Veracruz. [55] Flooding affected more than 25,000 people in Oaxaca and 6,000 people in Guerrero. [56] [57] The monsoon trough in which the depression was embedded was responsible for tremendous damage across Central America, [52] including at least 54 fatalities and $500 million in damage across Guatemala. [58] [59] At least three others perished in Costa Rica. [60]

Tropical Storm Georgette

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Georgette sept 21 2010.jpg   Georgette 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 20 – September 23
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  999  mbar  (hPa)

Georgette originated from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 1. Tracking westward across the Atlantic, the wave eventually spawned an area of low pressure, which developed into Hurricane Karl on September 14. The wave itself continued through the Caribbean Sea, and entered the Eastern Pacific on September 17, but signification development was not anticipated. Tracking northwestward, the low gradually organized into a tropical depression by September 20, at which time it was situated south of Baja California Sur. Shortly thereafter, it intensified into a tropical storm and was named Georgette. On September 21, Georgette attained its peak intensity with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 999 mbar (hPa; 29.50 inHg). The storm struck Baja California Sur later that day before weakening to a tropical depression. It continued north as a depression and made landfall on mainland Mexico on September 22. The system dissipated over northern Mexico early on September 23. [61]

Tropical Storm Omeka

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Omeka 2010-12-19 0057Z.jpg   Omeka 2010 track.png
DurationDecember 18 – December 21
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

On December 16, an extratropical cyclone over the Northern Pacific Ocean began showing signs of tropical cyclogenesis. Drifting southeastward around the International Dateline, the system developed into a subtropical depression within the Central Pacific basin on December 18, becoming the latest-forming system east of 180° and north of the equator in the Pacific Ocean on record. Turning southwest, the system intensified into a subtropical storm later that day before crossing into the Western Pacific. While west of the dateline, the system attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Gaining more tropical characteristics, the storm transitioned into a fully tropical system a few hours after crossing the dateline for a third time. Upon doing so, it was recognized by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center and given the name Omeka. Turning to the northeast, gradual weakening took place over the following days, before Omeka dissipated north of the Hawaiian Islands, on December 21.

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in East Pacific in 2010. This is the same list used in the 2004 season. [62] In March 2011, the World Meteorological Organization announced that it would not retire any names. However, in April 2015, the WMO announced that the name Isis was being retired, due to the rise of the terrorist group with the same name. [63] The name Ivette was chosen to replace it. Otherwise, this list was used again in the 2016 season. [64]

  • Isis (unused)
  • Javier (unused)
  • Kay (unused)
  • Lester (unused)
  • Madeline (unused)
  • Newton (unused)
  • Orlene (unused)
  • Paine (unused)
  • Roslyn (unused)
  • Seymour (unused)
  • Tina (unused)
  • Virgil (unused)
  • Winifred (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 2010 are shown below; however, only the name Omeka was used.

  • Pewa (unused)
  • Unala (unused)
  • Wali (unused)

Retirement

In April 2015, the name Isis was removed from the naming lists after being deemed inappropriate because of the eponymous militant group. It was replaced with Ivette for the 2016 season. [65]

Season effects

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed during the 2010 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their names, duration, peak strength, areas affected, damage, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2010 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2010 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Agatha May 29 – 30Tropical storm45 (75)1001Southwestern Mexico (Chiapas), Central America (Guatemala)1,112.6204
Two-EJune 16 – 17Tropical depression35 (55)1007Southwestern MexicoMinorNone
BlasJune 17 – 21Tropical storm65 (100)994NoneNoneNone
Celia June 18 – 28Category 5 hurricane160 (260)921Southwestern Mexico, Clipperton Island NoneNone
DarbyJune 23 – 28Category 3 hurricane120 (195)959Southwestern MexicoNoneNone
Six-EJuly 14 – 16Tropical depression35 (55)1006Western MexicoNoneNone
EstelleAugust 6 – 10Tropical storm65 (100)994Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico, Northwestern MexicoNoneNone
Eight-EAugust 20 – 21Tropical depression35 (55)1003NoneNoneNone
Frank August 21 – 28Category 1 hurricane90 (150)978Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico8.36
Ten-ESeptember 3 – 4Tropical depression35 (55)1003NoneNoneNone
Eleven-E September 3 – 4Tropical depression35 (55)1004Southwestern Mexico, Central America5000 (57)
Georgette September 20 – 23Tropical storm40 (65)999 Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern MexicoMinor0 (1)
Omeka December 18 – 21Tropical storm60 (95)997 Hawaii NoneNone
Season Aggregates
13 systemsMay 29 – December 21 160 (260)9211,620.9210 (58) 

See also

Related Research Articles

2000 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season without a tropical cyclone in the month of July since 1993. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.

2004 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2004 Pacific hurricane season was notable in that no tropical cyclone of at least tropical storm intensity moved ashore, an unusual occurrence. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it officially ended in both basins on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form. Activity throughout the year fell slightly below the long-term average, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. The season was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of 71 units.

2005 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2005 Pacific hurricane season continued the trend of generally below-average activity that began a decade prior. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it lasted until November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Activity began with the formation of Hurricane Adrian, the fourth-earliest-forming tropical storm on record in the basin at the time. Adrian led to flash flooding and several landslides across Central America, resulting in five deaths and $12 million in damage. Tropical storms Calvin and Dora caused minor damage along the coastline, while Tropical Storm Eugene led to one death in Acapulco. In early October, Otis produced tropical storm-force winds and minor flooding across the Baja California peninsula. The remnants of Tropical Depression One-C in the central Pacific, meanwhile, caused minor impacts in Hawaii. The strongest storm of the period was Hurricane Kenneth, which attained peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) over the open Pacific. Cooler than average ocean temperatures throughout the year aided in below-average activity through the course of the season, which ended with 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes, 2 major hurricanes, and an Accumulated cyclone energy index of 75 units.

2003 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2003 Pacific hurricane season was the first season to feature no major hurricanes – storms of Category 3 intensity or higher – since 1977. It produced an unusually large number of tropical cyclones which affected Mexico. The most notable cyclones during the year were Hurricanes Ignacio and Marty, which killed 2 and 12 people in Mexico, respectively, and were collectively responsible for about US$1 billion in damage. Three other Pacific storms, two of which were hurricanes, and three Atlantic storms also had a direct impact on Mexico. The only other significant storm of the season was Hurricane Jimena, which passed just to the south of Hawaii, the first storm to directly threaten Hawaii for several years.

2001 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2001 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season. The most notable storm that year was Hurricane Juliette, which caused devastating floods in Baja, California, leading to 12 fatalities and $400 million worth of damage. Two other storms were notable in their own rights, Hurricane Adolph became the strongest May Hurricane until 2014 when both records set by Adolph and Juliette were broken by Hurricanes Amanda and Odile. Tropical Storm Barbara passed just north of Hawaii, bringing minimal impact. The season officially began on May 15, 2001 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 2001 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2001. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in this part of the Pacific Ocean. The first storm developed on May 25, while the last storm dissipated on November 3.

2000 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2000 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average Pacific hurricane season, although most of the storms were weak and short-lived. There were few notable storms this year. Tropical Storms Miriam, Norman, and Rosa all made landfall in Mexico with minimal impact. Hurricane Daniel briefly threatened the U.S. state of Hawaii while weakening. Hurricane Carlotta was the strongest storm of the year and the second-strongest June hurricane in recorded history. Carlotta killed 18 people when it sank a freighter. Overall, the season was significantly more active than the previous season, with 19 tropical storms. In addition, six hurricanes developed. Furthermore, there were total of two major hurricanes, Category 3 or greater on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.

1998 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1998 Pacific hurricane season was a below average Pacific hurricane season. It had six major hurricanes, which was well above average. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in that region. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, about ten days later than the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Hurricane Madeline, dissipated on October 20. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone was low, with just one tropical depression observed in the region. Two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific also entered the central Pacific; the former did so as a hurricane.

1992 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind only the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

1989 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

2008 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.

Hurricane Juliette (1995) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 1995

Hurricane Juliette was the strongest hurricane and final tropical cyclone of the inactive 1995 Pacific hurricane season. The tenth named storm of the season, Juliette formed on September 16 from a tropical wave off the southwest coast of Mexico. For the majority of its track, the storm moved toward the west-northwest, and Juliette quickly intensified to major hurricane status. On September 20, the hurricane reached peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h). Later it turned toward the northeast, briefly threatening the Baja California Peninsula, although the hurricane never affected land.

2013 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.2 billion in damages. The season produced above normal activity; however, the majority of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.

2014 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was a very active year, with 22 named storms developing, ranking it as the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

Timeline of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season

The 2010 Pacific hurricane season was one of the least active seasons on record, featuring the fewest named storms since 1977. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific—east of 140°W—and on June 1 in the central Pacific—between the International Date Line and 140°W—and lasted until November 30. These dates typically cover the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. The season's first storm, Tropical Storm Agatha, developed on May 29; the season's final storm, Tropical Storm Omeka, degenerated on December 21.

Hurricane Adrian (2011)

Hurricane Adrian was an intense, albeit short-lived early-season category 4 hurricane that took part during the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. Adrian originated from an area of disturbed weather which had developed during the course of early June, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. On June 7, it acquired a sufficiently organized structure with deep convection to be classified as a tropical cyclone, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated it as Tropical Depression One-E, the first one of 2011. It further strengthened to be upgraded into a tropical storm later that day. Adrian moved rather slowly; briefly recurving northward after being caught in the steering winds. After steady intensification, it was upgraded into a hurricane on June 9. The storm subsequently entered a phase of rapid intensification, developing a distinct eye with good outflow in all quadrants. Followed by this period of rapid intensification, it obtained sustained winds fast enough to be considered a major hurricane and reached its peak intensity as a category 4 hurricane that evening.

Hurricane Genevieve (2014)

Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Hurricane Olivia (2018)

Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.

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Notes

  1. Values are only for the Eastern Pacific (east of 140°W).
  2. Storm averages are those in parenthesis.
  3. Percentage of average ACE through the end of the month
  4. Accumulated Cyclone Energy, broadly speaking, is a measure of the power of a hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs.