2010 Pacific hurricane season

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2010 Pacific hurricane season
2010 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 29, 2010
Last system dissipatedDecember 21, 2010
Strongest storm
Name Celia
  Maximum winds160 mph (260 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure921 mbar (hPa; 27.2 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions13
Total storms8 (record low, tied with 1977)
Hurricanes3 (record low)
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
2
Total fatalities268 total
Total damage$1.62 billion (2010 USD)
(Third-costilest Pacific hurricane season on record)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

The 2010 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since modern records, tied with 1977. The season saw only eight named storms, alongside a record-breaking low of three hurricanes. However, of those three, two of them became major hurricanes, and one hurricane, Celia, reached Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Also had the second-fewest ACE units on record, as many of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Contents

Unlike the previous season, the first storm of the season, Agatha, formed during the month of May. Agatha developed on May 29 near the coast of Guatemala. In the second week of June, a sudden spree of tropical cyclones developed, and between June 16 and 22, four cyclones formed, including the two major hurricanes of the season, Celia and Darby, the first of which reached Category 5 intensity. However, following the record active June, July saw zero named storms. In August and September only 2 tropical storms and one hurricane formed. Tropical Depression Eleven-E caused a great deal of flooding in southern Mexico, causing millions of dollars in damage, as well as causing over 50 deaths and $500 million in damage in areas of Oaxaca and Guatemala. Tropical Storm Omeka was a rare off-season storm.

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2010 season
SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010)15.48.43.9 [1]
Record high activity 27 16 (tie) 11 [2]
Record low activity 8 (tie)3 0 (tie) [3]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
NOAAMay 27, 20109–154–81–3 [4]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
832

On May 19, 2010, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released their forecast for the 2010 Central Pacific hurricane season, which would start on June 1. They expected two or three cyclones to form in or enter the region throughout the season, below the average of four or five storms. The below-average activity forecast was based on two factors: the first was the continuance of a period of decreased activity in the central Pacific; and second, the effects of a Neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or La Niña, both of which reduce cyclone activity in the region. However, in light of the near-miss of Hurricane Felicia the previous year, forecasters at the Central Pacific Hurricane Center gave the public a basic message for the 2010 season, "Prepare! Watch! Act!". [5]

On May 27, 12 days after the official start of the 2010 eastern Pacific hurricane season, NOAA released their forecast for the basin. Similar to the forecast for the central Pacific, below-average activity was expected, with nine to fifteen named storms forming, four to eight of which would become hurricanes and a further one to three would become major hurricanes. This lessened activity was based on the same two factors as the central Pacific, decreased activity since 1995 and the ENSO event. Overall, NOAA stated there was a 75% chance of below-average activity, 20% of near-normal and only a 5% chance of above-average due to a strong La Niña. [6]

Seasonal summary

Tropical Storm OmekaTropical Storm Georgette (2010)Tropical Depression Eleven-E (2010)Hurricane Frank (2010)Hurricane Celia (2010)Tropical Storm Agatha (2010)Saffir–Simpson scale2010 Pacific hurricane season
Activity by month compared to averages [7] [nb 1]
MonthActual activity vs. Averages [nb 2] ACE [nb 3]
StormsHurricanesMajorMonthYear
May [8] 1 (0–1)0 (0)0 (0)
June [9] 3 (2)2 (1)2 (0–1)>300%>300%
July [10] 0 (3–4)0 (2)0 (1)0%107%
August [11] 2 (4)1 (2)0 (1)40%75%
September [12] 1 (3)0 (2)0 (1)<5%46%
October [13] 0 (2)0 (1)0 (0-1)0%48%
November [14] 0 (0-1)0 (0)0 (0)0%~46%
Total [7] 7 (15)3 (9)2 (4)~46%

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index for the 2010 Pacific hurricane season (Eastern Pacific and Central Pacific combined) as calculated by Colorado State University using data from the National Hurricane Center was 51.2 units. [nb 4] [15] This ranked as the second-quietest since 1966. The vast majority of the ACE stemmed from Hurricanes Celia and Darby, which collectively accounted for roughly 70 percent of the seasonal total. [7]

Continuing a trend of below-average activity that began in 1995, the 2010 season was quiet as expected. The Eastern Pacific proper saw record-low numbers of named storms and hurricanes, with only seven and three respectively forming. [7] Inclusive of the Central Pacific, the basin tied its record low activity of eight named storms set in 1977. [3] [16]

Inactivity was largely attributed to a moderately strong La Niña event which resulted in below-average sea surface temperatures across the basin. Another major factor limiting storm formation was the eastward displacement of 200 mb divergence. The displacement of this feature brought conditions that favor tropical development closer to the rugged terrain of Mexico and Central America, a factor known to disrupt low-level circulations. Accordingly, six of the seven named storms in the Eastern Pacific proper formed east of 106°W, four of which originated over the Gulf of Tehuantepec where the greatest depth of warm waters were restricted to. A final limiting factor was above-average wind shear across much of the basin east of 130°W and north of 10°N. [7]

List of costliest Pacific hurricane seasons (as of 2021)
RankCostSeason
1$4.56 billion 2013
2$3.15 billion 1992
3$1.62 billion 2010
4> $1.52 billion 2014
5> $1.46 billion 2018
6$834 million 1982
7$760 million 1998
8$735 million 1994
9$566 million 2015
10$551 million 1997
Least intense Pacific hurricane seasons [17]
RankSeason ACE value
1 1977 22.3
2 2010 51.2
3 2007 51.6
4 1996 53.9
5 2003 56.6
6 1979 57.4
7 2004 71.1
8 1981 72.8
9 2013 74.8
10 2020 77.3

The season began with record-high activity, featuring two major hurricanes in June. ACE values exceeded 300 percent of the long-term mean, though most was due to Category 5 Hurricane Celia. [9] Hurricane Celia was also the second-earliest forming storm of that intensity during the course of a season, surpassed only by Hurricane Ava in 1973. [3] The month featured an ACE value of 37.22, eclipsing the previous record set in 1984. [9] Furthermore, Darby was the earliest second major hurricane of a season, eclipsing Hurricane Daniel (1978); [18] however, this has since been surpassed by Cristina in 2014, Blanca in 2015, and Bud in 2018. [19] [20] This activity abruptly halted and languished throughout the month of July. [7] No named storms developed during the month, marking the first such occurrence since 1966. However, due to the activity in June, ACE value for the season by the start of August remained slightly above normal, roughly 107 percent the yearly mean. [10] Through the remainder of the season, the basin observed record low activity with only three additional named storms developing. [13]

The record inactivity experienced in the Northeastern Pacific also took place in the Northwestern Pacific. Since reliable records began in the 1970s, there has been no precedent for both basins experiencing exceptionally low tropical cyclone formation. Moreover, this general lack of storm formation was reflected in all cyclone basins except the Atlantic. On average, the Northeastern Pacific accounts for 16 percent of the world's storms; however, during 2010, it accounted for roughly 10 percent (7 out of 67 cyclones). [21]

Systems

Tropical Storm Agatha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Agatha 2010-05-29 1705Z.jpg   Agatha 2010 track.png
DurationMay 29 – May 30
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

Early May 29, the season's first tropical depression consolidated near the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Large-scale southwesterly flow prompted the system to move slowly northeast. Scatterometer data indicated the depression soon strengthened into a tropical storm, at which time it was assigned the name Agatha. Attaining peak winds of 45 mph (70 km/h), Agatha soon made landfall late on May 29 near Champerico, Guatemala, just south of the border with Mexico. Once onshore, the mountainous terrain of Guatemala caused the storm to quickly dissipate early on May 30. [22]

Although a weak tropical cyclone, Agatha brought torrential rainfall to much of Central America. [23] Daily accumulations peaked at 16.78 in (426 mm) in Montufar, Guatemala and 19.0 in (483 mm) in Ilopango, El Salvador. [22] [24] According to Guatemala's president, Álvaro Colom, some areas received more than 3.3 ft (1 m) of rain. [25] The ensuing flash floods and landslides proved catastrophic, especially in Guatemala where at least 174 people died. [26] In El Salvador, 11 people were killed and damage from the storm reached $112.1 million. [24] Honduras also suffered significant losses from the storm with 18 fatalities and at least $18.5 million in damage. [27] One person was also killed in Nicaragua. [28] The storm also associated with a very large sinkhole.

Tropical Depression Two-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Two-E Jun 16 2010 1700Z.jpg   2-E 2010 track.png
DurationJune 16 – June 17
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1007  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa on June 2 and entered the Atlantic Ocean. Tracking westward, the system eventually reached the eastern Pacific on June 13. As it approached the Gulf of Tehuantepec, convection increased, despite strong wind shear. Early on June 16, sufficient development had taken place for the NHC to classify the wave as a tropical depression, at which time the depression was situated roughly 110 mi (175 km) south of Salina Cruz, Mexico. A scatterometer pass over the storm revealed it to have attained peak winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) later that day. Thereafter, wind shear took its toll on the system and its low-level circulation ultimately dissipated early on June 17 while still off the coast of Mexico. [29]

Due to its proximity to land, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued in advance of the storm when the system was first classified. This was discontinued when the system dissipated. [29] Rainfall associated with the depression extended as far north as Oaxaca. In San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec, 82 homes were damaged by flood waters and 40 others were affected in the town of Zimatlán de Alvarez. [30] Some homes lost their roofs and a few trees were downed as a result of high winds. [31]

Tropical Storm Blas

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
TS Blas 06-17 1740UTC.JPG   Blas 2010 track.png
DurationJune 17 – June 21
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994  mbar  (hPa)

On May 30, a new tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa and entered the Atlantic Ocean. Little convective development took place as it traversed the region; however, as it crossed Central America between June 9 and 10, it began to show signs of strengthening. By June 13, an area of low pressure developed within the wave and slowly developed a surface circulation over the following 48 hours as it remained nearly stationary over open waters. Early on June 17, deep convection was able to maintain itself over the system, prompting the NHC to classify the low as Tropical Depression Three-E; at this time, the depression was situated 305 mi (490 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Within hours of becoming a tropical depression, a ship in the region reported sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h), indicating that the system had developed into a tropical storm. The newly upgraded storm, now named Blas by the NHC, began to track slowly to the northwest, and later nearly due west, in response to a strengthening ridge over Mexico. [32]

Strong wind shear prevented Blas from strengthening further over the following day; however, by June 19, the system entered a region of weaker shear. This allowed convection to develop over the center of circulation and that afternoon, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) and a pressure of 992 mbar (hPa; 29.29 inHg). Shortly thereafter, cooler sea surface temperatures took their toll on Blas, causing the storm to gradually weaken. By June 21, the system weakened to a tropical depression as convection diminished. Hours later, it degenerated into a non-convective remnant low while situated about 715 mi (1,150 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The remnants of Blas persisted through June 23 as they continued westward, before it dissipated to a weak upper-level low. [32]

Hurricane Celia

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Celia 2010-06-25 0830Z.jpg   Celia 2010 track.png
DurationJune 18 – June 28
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  921  mbar  (hPa)

Celia formed out of a tropical wave on June 18, quickly organized into a tropical storm, and later into a hurricane the following day as deep convection consolidated around the center. On June 21, the storm further intensified into a Category 2 hurricane; however, over the following days, Celia's winds fluctuated. The system briefly attained major hurricane status on June 23 before temporarily succumbing to wind shear. Once this shear lightened the next day, Celia rapidly intensified to attain its peak intensity with winds of 160 mph (255 km/h) and an estimated barometric pressure of 921 mbar (hPa; 27.20  inHg). [33]

Not long after reaching this strength, wind shear increased and the system entered a dry, stable environment. Over the following 42 hours, sustained winds decreased to tropical storm force and the system began to stall over the open ocean by June 27. Despite highly unfavorable conditions, the storm managed to retain tropical storm status through June 28 and degenerated into a non-convective remnant low that evening. The remnants of Celia continued to drift towards the north before finally dissipating on June 30, about 990 mi (1,590 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. [33]

Hurricane Darby

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Darby jun 25 2010 1955Z.jpg   Darby 2010 track.png
DurationJune 23 – June 28
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  959  mbar  (hPa)

The second, and final, major hurricane of the season, Hurricane Darby originated from a vigorous tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on June 8. Initially well-organized, the wave rapidly deteriorated within 24 hours; it continued westward without redevelopment and entered the Eastern Pacific on June 19. The following day, an area of low pressure developed within the system as it slowed and turned towards the west-northwest. Gradually organizing, the low strengthened into a tropical depression on June 23 while situated roughly 380 mi (610 km) south-southeast of Salina Cruz, Mexico. Over the following two days, Darby underwent two periods of rapid intensification. At the end of the second phase on June 25, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) and a pressure of 959 mbar (hPa; 28.32 inHg). Though a strong storm, Darby was unusually small with tropical storm force winds extending only 70 mi (115 km) from its center. [34]

Not long after peaking, a large area of westerly winds, produced by Hurricane Alex over the Gulf of Mexico, caused Darby to stall offshore before turning to the east, being drawn into the circulation of the larger storm. Increased wind shear produced by the "massive outflow of Alex" caused the small storm to rapidly weaken. [34] By June 28, Darby had diminished to a tropical depression and later to a remnant low off the coast of Mexico. The low persisted for another day before fully dissipating offshore. [34]

While offshore, authorities in Mexico advised residents to be cautious of heavy rains from Darby. Alerts were issued for several areas; however, the storm dissipated before reaching land. [35] [36] The combined effects of Hurricanes Alex and Darby resulted in heavy rains over much of Chiapas, amounting to 12 to 16 in (300 to 400 mm) in some areas. Flash flooding damaged 43 homes and affected 60,000 people. [37]

Tropical Depression Six-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
06E 2010-07-15 1808Z.jpg   6-E 2010 track.png
DurationJuly 14 – July 16
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

On July 11, a low pressure formed southwest of Central America. [38] The next day, the system began to organize. [39] After a decrease in convection, [40] the system became more concentrated. [41] After additional development, the NHC upgraded the disturbance into Tropical Depression Six-E on July 14. [42] Six-E slowed down forward momentum, and slowly turned north. The depression did not develop further, and it degenerated into an area of low pressure on July 16. However, the remnant low of the system continued moving westward for the next couple days, before fully dissipating on July 18. [43]

Though relatively far from land, the depression's outer bands brought locally heavy rains to portions of Colima and Jalisco. [44]

Tropical Storm Estelle

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Estelle aug 7 2010 1810Z.jpg   Estelle 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 6 – August 10
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994  mbar  (hPa)

After an unusual, record inactive July, an area of disturbed weather formed off the south coast of Mexico, on August 4 from a tropical wave that left Africa 13 days earlier. [45] The system became better organized throughout the next day, and was upgraded into a tropical depression on August 6, 138 mi (222 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. Initially, there was uncertainty regarding the storm's path. [46] It reached tropical storm status on the same day. On August 8, the storm showed signs of weakening. It was downgraded into a tropical depression the next day. Estelle became a remnant low on August 10, dissipating shortly thereafter. [45]

Though the center of Estelle remained offshore, its outer bands brought moderate to heavy rains and increased surf to coastal areas of Guerrero, Michoacán, Colima, and Jalisco on August 7. [47] The following day, a detachment of clouds associated with the storm brought locally heavy rains to Mazatlán, resulting in localized street flooding. [48]

Tropical Depression Eight-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Eight-E Aug 20 2010.jpg   08E 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 20 – August 21
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

On August 3, a tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa and tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean. By August 15, the wave crossed Central America and entered the Eastern Pacific. Over the following five days, development was relatively slow at first, resulting in forecasters at the NHC not predicting the system to become a tropical cyclone. However, on August 20, a low-pressure area formed and quickly became a tropical depression. At this time, the system was situated roughly 185 mi (300 km) west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Tracking northwestward in response to a mid-level ridge over northwestern Mexico, the depression moved through a region of moderate wind shear, preventing further development. Once over cooler waters on August 21, convection began to wane and the system degenerated into a remnant low later that day. Continuing along the same path, the remnants of the depression dissipated early on August 23, over open waters. [49]

Hurricane Frank

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Frank 2010 off the coast of Mexico.jpg   Frank 2010 track.png
DurationAugust 21 – August 28
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  978  mbar  (hPa)

The tropical wave that became Frank was first noticed on August 15 south of the Windward Islands. Tropical Depression Nine-E formed on August 21 south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It developed into a tropical storm the following morning. On August 23, Frank continued to intensify, but later faced shear and entered a period of weakening. However, on August 24, as shear decreased, it began to reorganize and strengthen again, becoming a hurricane on August 25. Frank also formed an eye feature that persisted for about a day. Two days later, Frank weakened back into a tropical storm. Frank encountered unfavorable conditions of high shear and cool waters, causing it to rapidly weakening overnight. Frank became a remnant low on August 28.

In Mexico, six deaths were reported. A total 30 homes were destroyed with 26 others damaged. Two major roads were damaged with another road blocked due to a landslides. Several rivers overflowed their banks as well. [50] In the wake of the storm, 110 communities requested assistance from the government. By September 14, an estimated 200,000 food packages were distributed to the region. Losses from Hurricane Frank exceeded 100 million pesos (US$8.3 million). [51]

Tropical Depression Ten-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Depression Ten-E 2010-09-03 1750Z.jpg   Ten-E 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 4
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1003  mbar  (hPa)

Tropical Depression Ten-E originated from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on August 14. Tracking westward, the wave eventually crossed Central America and entered the Pacific Ocean on August 26. Gradual organization took place by early September as deepening convection. During September 3, a low-level circulation developed within the system and the NHC classified it as a tropical depression. At this time, the depression was situated roughly 255 mi (410 km) south-southeast of the southern tip of Baja California Sur. Located between a strong ridge over Mexico and trough over the north Pacific Ocean, the system tracked northwestward throughout the remainder of its existence. Maximum sustained winds never exceeded 35 mph (55 km/h) before moving into a region cooler waters and moderate wind shear. The combination of these two factors caused convection to diminish; the depression degenerated into a non-convective remnant low on September 4 before dissipating the following day. [52]

Tropical Depression Eleven-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
11E 2010-09-04 1700Z.jpg   Hermine 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 4
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

During mid-August, a westward moving tropical wave in the Atlantic Ocean spawned Hurricane Danielle. [53] The southern portion of this system continued its track and later entered the Eastern Pacific on August 29. By September 2, convection consolidated over the Gulf of Tehuantepec and a low-level circulation developed as it moved in a general northward direction. Classified a tropical depression the following day, [54] the National Hurricane Center initially expected it to attain tropical storm status before moving over land. [55] A ship in the region measured gale-force winds, supporting this forecast but later analysis revealed that these winds were associated with a broad monsoon trough which the depression was embedded within. Failing to intensify, the system made landfall near Salina Cruz, Mexico and rapidly weakened. Maintaining its circulation, the depression survived its crossing of Mexico and regenerated into Atlantic Tropical Storm Hermine. The crossover of this storm is regarded as an uncommon occurrence, [54] taking place only a handful of times since reliable records in the Atlantic began in 1851. [56]

Due to the depression's proximity to land, tropical storm warnings were issued for southern Mexico. [54] The depression produced a swath of heavy rain along its immediate track, with localized peaks over 10 in (250 mm) and a storm maximum of 13.6 in (350 mm) in Alvarado, Veracruz. [57] Flooding affected more than 25,000 people in Oaxaca and 6,000 people in Guerrero. [58] [59] The monsoon trough in which the depression was embedded was responsible for tremendous damage across Central America, [54] including at least 54 fatalities and $500 million in damage across Guatemala. [60] [61] At least three others perished in Costa Rica. [62]

Tropical Storm Georgette

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Georgette sept 21 2010.jpg   Georgette 2010 track.png
DurationSeptember 20 – September 23
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  999  mbar  (hPa)

Georgette originated from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 1. Tracking westward across the Atlantic, the wave eventually spawned an area of low pressure, which developed into Hurricane Karl on September 14. The wave itself continued through the Caribbean Sea, and entered the Eastern Pacific on September 17, but signification development was not anticipated. Tracking northwestward, the low gradually organized into a tropical depression by September 20, at which time it was situated south of Baja California Sur. Shortly thereafter, it intensified into a tropical storm and was named Georgette. On September 21, Georgette attained its peak intensity with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 999 mbar (hPa; 29.50 inHg). The storm struck Baja California Sur later that day before weakening to a tropical depression. It continued north as a depression and made landfall on mainland Mexico on September 22. The system dissipated over northern Mexico early on September 23. [63]

Georgette caused the heaviest rains on Baja California Sur in the last 15 years, leaving many people homeless. [64] Georgette also produced high waves. The tropical cyclone worsened Mexico's flooding problem which started when Hurricane Karl made landfall several days earlier. [65] A peak rainfall total of 5.9 in (150 mm) fell in Todos Santos. [66] Throughout Sonora, rainfall up to 4.7 in (120 mm) triggered flooding that damaged 220 homes. [67] Georgette caused 2.61 in (66 mm) of rainfall in Guaymas [68] Flooding was reported in several places (Empalme, Etchojoa, Navojoa, Guaymas, Los Mochis), causing 500,000 people to be evacuated. [63] Heavy runoff caused inflows of 18,000 cu ft/s (510 m3/s) into El Novillo Dam, forcing the Comisión Nacional del Agua, the local water authorities, to release water from the dam. [69] After impacting Mexico, moisture from the system combined with an approaching trough to produce heavy rainfall and thunderstorms across New Mexico. A total of 6.42 in (163 mm) was reported in Gladstone. [70] The rains caused flooding that killed a person along the Rio Grande near Carnuel. [71]

Tropical Storm Omeka

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Omeka 2010-12-20 0140Z.jpg   Omeka 2010 track.png
DurationDecember 20 (Entered basin)  – December 21
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

On December 16, an extratropical cyclone over the Northern Pacific Ocean began showing signs of tropical cyclogenesis. Drifting southeastward around the International Date Line, the system developed into a subtropical depression within the Central Pacific basin on December 18. Turning southwest, the system intensified into a subtropical storm later that day before crossing into the Western Pacific. While west of the dateline, the system attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Gaining more tropical characteristics, the storm transitioned into a fully tropical system a few hours after crossing the dateline for a third time. Upon doing so, it was recognized by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center and given the name Omeka, becoming the latest-forming system east of 180° and north of the equator in the Pacific Ocean on record. Turning to the northeast, gradual weakening took place over the following days, before Omeka dissipated north of the Hawaiian Islands, on December 21. [72] That day, the center of Omeka brushed Lisianski Island, with winds of 40 miles per hour (65 km/h). [73] However, no tropical storm watches or warnings were issued since the CPHC anticipated weakening prior to the storm passing the island. [73]

At the time, Omeka was judged to have existed in the northeast Pacific later than any other storm since the 1960s, when reliable records begin in the basin. [72] [74] [75] [2] However, according to the CPHC's database, there are two possible tropical cyclones in 1903 and 1904 which developed on December 23. [76] In addition, even though it did not strengthen into a tropical storm, Tropical Depression Nine-C of the 2015 Pacific hurricane season formed later in the calendar year than Omeka, forming on December 31, 2015 and dissipating the next day. [77]

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in East Pacific in 2010. [78] This is the same list used in the 2004 season. No Pacific hurricane names were retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hurricane Committee following the 2010 season. However, in April 2015, the WMO announced that the name Isis (which was not used in 2010) was being removed from the list of hurricane names, having been deemed inappropriate because it had become associated with the Islamic extremist militant group, also known as ISIS. The name Ivette was chosen to replace it. [79] [80] Otherwise, this list was used again in the 2016 season.

  • Isis (unused)
  • Javier (unused)
  • Kay (unused)
  • Lester (unused)
  • Madeline (unused)
  • Newton (unused)
  • Orlene (unused)
  • Paine (unused)
  • Roslyn (unused)
  • Seymour (unused)
  • Tina (unused)
  • Virgil (unused)
  • Winifred (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 2010 are shown below; however, only the name Omeka was used.

Season effects

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed during the 2010 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their names, duration, peak strength, areas affected, damage, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2010 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2010 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRef(s)
Agatha May 29–30Tropical storm45 (75)1001Southwestern Mexico, Central America$1.11 billion204
Two-EJune 16–17Tropical depression35 (55)1007Southwestern MexicoMinorNone
BlasJune 17–21Tropical storm65 (100)994NoneNoneNone
Celia June 18–28Category 5 hurricane160 (260)921Southwestern Mexico, Clipperton Island NoneNone
DarbyJune 23–28Category 3 hurricane120 (195)959Southwestern MexicoNoneNone
Six-EJuly 14–16Tropical depression35 (55)1006Western MexicoNoneNone
EstelleAugust 6–10Tropical storm65 (100)994Southwestern Mexico, Northwestern MexicoNoneNone
Eight-EAugust 20–21Tropical depression35 (55)1003NoneNoneNone
Frank August 21–28Category 1 hurricane90 (150)978Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico$8.3 million6
Ten-ESeptember 3–4Tropical depression35 (55)1003NoneNoneNone
Eleven-E September 3–4Tropical depression35 (55)1004Southwestern Mexico, Central America$500 million0 (57)
Georgette September 20–23Tropical storm40 (65)999Northwestern MexicoMinor0 (1)
Omeka December 20–21Tropical storm50 (85)997 Hawaii NoneNone
Season aggregates
13 systemsMay 29 – December 21 160 (260)921$1.62 billion210 (58) 

See also

Notes

  1. Values are only for the Eastern Pacific (east of 140°W).
  2. Storm averages are those in parenthesis.
  3. Percentage of average ACE through the end of the month
  4. The total represents the sum of the squares of the maximum sustained wind speed (knots) for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000 while they are above that threshold; therefore, tropical depressions are not included.

Related Research Articles

2000 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active hurricane season, but featured the latest first named storm in a hurricane season since 1992. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. It was also the only Season to Include 2 storms in Ireland. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.

2004 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2004 Pacific hurricane season was notable in that no tropical cyclone of at least tropical storm intensity made landfall, an unusual occurrence. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it officially ended in both basins on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form. Activity throughout the year fell slightly below the long-term average, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. The season was reflected by an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of 71 units.

2005 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2005 Pacific hurricane season was a near-average season which produced fifteen named storms, only seven hurricanes formed and two major hurricanes. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2003 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2003 Pacific hurricane season was the first season to feature no major hurricanes – storms of Category 3 intensity or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) – since 1977. The dates conventionally delimiting the period when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific Ocean are May 15 in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and June 1 in the Central Pacific, with both seasons ending on November 30. The 2003 season featured 16 tropical storms between May 19 and October 26; 7 of these became hurricanes, which was then considered an average season. Damage across the basin reached US$129 million, and 23 people were killed by the storms.

1998 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1998 Pacific hurricane season was a below average Pacific hurricane season. Despite this, it had nine hurricanes and six major hurricanes, which was well above average. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in that region. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, about ten days later than the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Hurricane Madeline, dissipated on October 20. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone was low, with just one tropical depression observed in the region. Two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific also entered the central Pacific; the former did so as a hurricane.

1992 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season is the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, only surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

1989 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season was the first near normal season since 1981. The season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 18 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir–Simpson scale.

1988 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1988 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 1981. It officially began May 15, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, in the central Pacific and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first named storm, Tropical Storm Aletta, formed on June 16, and the last-named storm, Tropical Storm Miriam, was previously named Hurricane Joan in the Atlantic Ocean before crossing Central America and re-emerging in the eastern Pacific; Miriam continued westward and dissipated on November 2.

1980 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1980 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1980, in the eastern Pacific and June 1, 1980, in the central Pacific, lasting until November 30, 1980. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean. This season was relatively uneventful; since no tropical cyclones made landfall, there were no reports of casualties or damage.

2007 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.

2006 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.

2009 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2009 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season since 1994. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2013 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the first to see twenty named storms since 2009 but also had the ninth fewest ACE units on record, as many of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.

2014 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

2016 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

Timeline of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season

The 2010 Pacific hurricane season was one of the least active seasons on record, featuring the fewest named storms since 1977. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific—east of 140°W—and on June 1 in the central Pacific—between the International Date Line and 140°W—and lasted until November 30. These dates typically cover the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. The season's first storm, Tropical Storm Agatha, developed on May 29; the season's final storm, Tropical Storm Omeka, degenerated on December 21.

Tropical Storm Omeka Pacific tropical storm in 2010

Tropical Storm Omeka was the latest forming Eastern Pacific named storm since reliable records began in the 1960s. The storm was part of the 2010 Pacific typhoon and hurricane season. On December 18, 2010, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) began monitoring a subtropical cyclone near the International Dateline for possible tropical cyclogenesis. Over the following two days, the system tracked southwestward, entering the Western Pacific basin. It then began to transition into a tropical cyclone. Shortly before crossing the dateline on December 20, the CPHC assessed the system to have become a tropical storm. The storm was assigned the name Omeka several hours later as it moved into the CPHC's area of responsibility – which is from 140°W to the International Dateline. Upon doing so, Omeka attained its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (100 km/h). Later on December 20, wind shear in the region increased, causing the system to weaken. By December 21, the center of Omeka was devoid of convection and dissipated on the next day. Omeka brushed Lisianski Island but caused no damage.

2019 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season which produced nineteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed, the fewest since 2010. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2020 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2020 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 2011. The season was near average in terms of tropical storms, featuring a total of 17, but had a well below average number of hurricanes and major hurricanes, with only 4 hurricanes and 3 major hurricanes forming including one unnamed tropical storm which was operationally classified as a tropical depression, the first such occurrence since 2001. Despite this, it featured the earliest start to a season east of 140°W on record, with Tropical Depression One-E forming on April 25. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific and they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as shown by the record-early formation of Tropical Depression One-E.

2022 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2022 Pacific hurricane season is the current cycle of the annual tropical cyclone season in the Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; both will end on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclogenesis occurs in these regions of the Pacific and are adopted by convention.

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