2011 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated
2011 Pacific hurricane season
2011 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 7, 2011
Last system dissipatedNovember 25, 2011
Strongest storm
Name Dora
  Maximum winds155 mph (250 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure929 mbar (hPa; 27.43 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions13
Total storms11
Hurricanes10
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
6
Total fatalities49 total
Total damage> $204 million (2011 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below average season in terms of named storms, although it had an above average number of hurricanes and major hurricanes. During the season, 13 tropical depressions formed along with 11 tropical storms, 10 hurricanes and 6 major hurricanes. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Contents

Despite the decrease in storms, there were several intense and destructive hurricanes this season. Hurricane Beatriz killed four people in Southwestern Mexico. Hurricane Jova killed eight and caused $203.67 million (2011 USD) in damage to Western Mexico. Tropical Depression Twelve-E killed 30 people in Central America. Meanwhile, Kenneth became the strongest November storm at the time. Hurricane Hilary brought additional flooding to Southwestern Mexico.

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2011 season
SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010)15.68.64.1 [1]
Average (1995–2010)1473 [2]
Record high activity 27 16 (Tie) 11
Record low activity 8 (Tie) 3 0 (Tie)
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
CPC May 19, 20119–155–81–3 [2]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity11106

On May 19, the Climate Prediction Center released its pre-season outlook. The scientists stated a 70% chance of a below-normal season, a 25% chance of a near-normal season and a 5% chance of an above-normal season. The climatologists expected 9–15 named storms, with 5–8 becoming hurricanes, and 1–3 becoming major hurricanes. The accumulated cyclone energy was expected to be 45 to 105% of the median. The below-normal activity forecast was because of increased wind shear and a high expectation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-neutral conditions (no El Niño or La Niña) throughout the peak months of July, August and September, together with lingering La Niña conditions at the beginning of the season. [3]

Seasonal summary

Tropical Depression Twelve-E (2011)Hurricane Jova (2011)Hurricane Hilary (2011)Hurricane Dora (2011)Hurricane Beatriz (2011)Hurricane Adrian (2011)Saffir–Simpson scale2011 Pacific hurricane season
In the eastern Pacific, two simultaneous hurricanes on October 11: Irwin (left) and Jova (right). Jova and Irwin 2011-10-11 1445Z.jpg
In the eastern Pacific, two simultaneous hurricanes on October 11: Irwin (left) and Jova (right).

The season got off to an active start with first storm, Adrian, becoming one of only a handful of tropical cyclones to attain Category 4 status in June. Four other storms, Dora, Eugene, Hilary, and Kenneth attained Category 4 status. Dora was the strongest storm of the year, peaking at 155 mph, just short of Category 5 status. The month of August was about average in terms of the number of storms, with the strongest of the month being Eugene. However, the first half of September had very little activity, due to the return of a La Niña event. Tropical Depression Eight-E was the only storm in the first half of September, when it dissipated on September 1.

Hilary became the second storm to form in September, becoming the fourth major hurricane of the season, during the afternoon hours of September 22. After Hilary, Jova unexpectedly became the fifth major hurricane of the season during the early morning hours of October 10. Tropical Depression Twelve-E killed 30 people in Central America when it made landfall near El Salvador on October 12. On November 19, Kenneth formed as a tropical depression and quickly strengthened into a hurricane two days later. Kenneth became the first major hurricane in November and latest-forming major hurricane in the eastern north Pacific basin in the satellite era, until being surpassed by Hurricane Sandra in 2015; the last to do so was Winnie in 1983, which only peaked at Category 1 hurricane status. Hurricane Kenneth, however, intensified to attain Category 4 status on November 22, which broke the record at the time.

The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for the 2011 Pacific hurricane season as calculated by Colorado State University using data from the National Hurricane Center was 120.9 units. [nb 1] [4] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h).

Systems

Hurricane Adrian

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Adrian 2011-06-10 0000Z.png   Adrian 2011 track.png
DurationJune 7 – June 12
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  944  mbar  (hPa)

In early June, a well-defined area of low pressure produced disorganized weather several hundred miles from the Pacific coast of Mexico. [5] By June 7, the low developed sufficiently organized deep convection to be classified as a tropical cyclone, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated it as Tropical Depression One-E at 1500 UTC, about 365 mi (585 km) south of Acapulco. Upon developing, the depression was located over warm sea surface temperatures, and upper-level wind shear in its vicinity was forecast to remain conducive for intensification. [6] Caught in weak steering currents, the system further organized while moving little; it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Adrian later that day, with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). [7]

Steady strengthening continued, and Adrian became a hurricane early on June 9 as it tracked toward the west-northwest along high pressure over Mexico. [8] The storm subsequently entered a phase of rapid intensification, developing a distinct eye with good outflow aloft. That same day, Adrian attained major hurricane status several hundred miles off the coast of Cabo Corrientes; [9] it peaked in intensity as a Category 4 storm shortly afterward, with sustained winds of 140 mph (225 km/h). [10] For several hours, the hurricane exhibited what appeared to be an annular structure, maintaining an unusually large eye and symmetric central dense overcast. As a result, eyewall replacement cycles were not expected to occur, and Adrian was forecast to remain well-organized and only slowly weaken in response to slightly cooler waters. [11] However, the hurricane defied predictions and began devolving rapidly the next day, likely due to "an unexpectedly early increase of vertical wind shear coupled with marginal thermodynamics" as noted by the NHC. On June 11, Adrian was downgraded to tropical storm status, recurving toward the west as a tight swirl of low-level clouds with little to no deep convection near its center. [12] [13] It further weakened to a tropical depression the next day, and by 1500 UTC Adrian remained without convection and was declassified as a tropical cyclone while decelerating to the northwest. [14] [15] The outer rainbands of Hurricane Adrian brought widespread rainfall in Mexico. [16]

Hurricane Beatriz

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Beatriz 2011-06-20 1740Z.jpg   Beatriz 2011 track.png
DurationJune 19 – June 22
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  977  mbar  (hPa)

On June 14, the NHC noted a large area of scattered showers and thunderstorms associated with a monsoon trough over the east Pacific, several hundred miles from the coast of Acapulco, Mexico. [17] A quasi-stationary surface low formed in association with the activity, and over the subsequent days convection consolidated in the vicinity of an anticyclone over the southwestern Caribbean. [18] Curved rainbands began developing around the center, and on June 19 the system acquired sufficient organization to be classified as a tropical depression. Turning toward the northwest along a weakness in the subtropical ridge to its north, the depression further strengthened within a favorable environment and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Beatriz at 1800 UTC that day, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). [19] [20]

Late on June 20, Beatriz was upgraded to a hurricane, with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a pressure of 985 mbar (29.1 inHg). Beatriz continued to strengthen and reached winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) and a pressure reading of 977 mbar (28.9 inHg) while it neared the coast of Mexico. After moving along the coast, it weakened to a tropical storm and dissipated the next day. But the NHC noted that Beatriz's remnants still had a near 0% chance of redeveloping, as they remained almost stationary. [21] But on June 23, convection dissipated, and Beatriz's remnants slowly began to accelerate to the west, as the remnant low dissipated rapidly. Late on June 24, the remnants of Hurricane Beatriz dissipated completely, to the southwest of the Baja California Peninsula. [22]

Several landslides blocked off roads and a 100 m (330 ft) section of a roundabout was destroyed. [23] In the community of Amatillo, three people were killed after being washed away by flood waters. [24] Heavy rains from Beatriz caused the Sabana River to overflow its banks, placing 150 homes across 14 colonias under water. [25]

Hurricane Calvin

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Calvin 250m Jul 9 2011 20.35(UTC).jpg   Calvin 2011 track.png
DurationJuly 7 – July 10
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  984  mbar  (hPa)

On July 5, an area of showers and thunderstorms formed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec associated with a broad area of low pressure. [26] The system slowly organized, and the National Hurricane Center designated the system Tropical Depression Three-E on July 7. By the next day, the tropical depression gained enough organization to be named Calvin. Calvin strengthened into a hurricane and attained peak strength early on July 9 before rapidly weakening later that day. Calvin degenerated into a remnant low early on July 10. [27] During the next 3 days, Calvin's remnants quickly moved to the west, while dissipating rapidly. On July 13, Calvin's remnants dissipated completely, just to the east of the Central Pacific Ocean. [28]

Hurricane Dora

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Dora July 21 1445Z.jpg   Dora 2011 track.png
DurationJuly 18 – July 24
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  929  mbar  (hPa)

In the early morning hours of July 14, a tropical wave had moved off the Colombian coast. [29] The wave gained convection as it moved into the southwestern Caribbean, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to monitor the disturbance, giving it a 10% chance of development into a tropical cyclone. [30] Over the rest of the day, the storm continued to move westward until it moved ashore on the Nicaragua/Costa Rica border the next day. [31] On July 16, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring the area of low pressure off the coast of Guatemala. Slowly organizing, the low-pressure area had gained enough strength to be declared Tropical Depression Four-E during the morning hours of July 18. [32] Just three hours later, the system was upgraded to Dora, the fourth tropical storm of the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. [33] Continuing to organize, Dora reached hurricane strength late on July 20, [34] before rapidly intensifying into a major hurricane later the next day. Strengthening further, Dora reached a peak of 155 mph (250 km/h) early on July 21, making it a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. However, after entering cooler waters, Dora began to weaken the next day. On July 23, Dora was downgraded to a tropical storm, and the next day, Dora was no longer a tropical cyclone. [35] As a remnant low, the circulation began to curve around the high-pressure area that had steered Dora for much of its existence on July 25. [36] Early on July 26, the remnants of Hurricane Dora dissipated completely, over Central Baja California. [37]

Hurricane Eugene

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Eugene Aug 3 2011 2110Z.jpg   Eugene 2011 track.png
DurationJuly 31 – August 6
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  942  mbar  (hPa)

On early July 31, a tropical wave developed into a tropical depression in the eastern Pacific a few hundred miles south of Mexico. Meteorologists numbered it "Five-E". It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Eugene only 6 hours after becoming a tropical depression. On the afternoon of August 1, Eugene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. The next day Eugene further strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane. Early on August 3 Eugene further strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane, making it the third major hurricane of the season. Eugene was expected to weaken after becoming a Category 3. However, on the afternoon of August 3, Eugene strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale with winds up to 140 mph (225 km/h). Eugene only maintained Category 4 status briefly, and only six hours later, the hurricane weakened to a Category 3 with winds up to 125 mph (200 km/h). Eugene quickly weakened on August 5 because of unfavorable conditions, dropping from Category 2 status to tropical storm status in only 18 hours. On August 6, Eugene became a post-tropical low as the center of the storm was void of strong convection. [38] During the next few days, Eugene's remnants continued to move westward slowly, while weakening gradually. On August 10, the remnants of Hurricane Eugene dissipated roughly 980 mi (1,555 km) east of Hawaii. [39]

Tropical Storm Fernanda

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Fernanda Aug 16 2011 2215Z.jpg   Fernanda 2011 track.png
DurationAugust 15 – August 20
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  992  mbar  (hPa)

The tropical wave that spawned Tropical Storm Emily in the Atlantic Ocean crossed Central America into the East Pacific on August 6. Producing disorganized deep convection, a surface circulation became discernible on August 13, and the formation of showers and thunderstorms in curved bands around the circulation signified the formation of Tropical Depression Six-E by 18:00 UTC on August 15, about 1,400 nautical miles east-southeast of Hawai'i. An increase deep convection resulted in the depression strengthening into Tropical Storm Fernanda at 6:00 UTC the next morning. A relaxation in shear allowed Fernanda to become more organized and reach an intensity of 45 knots (50 mph) later that day. Fernanda initially moved west under the influence of a subtropical ridge, but it turned northwest through a weakness in the ridge on August 17 into more favorable conditions and strengthened to a peak intensity of 70 mph winds and a minimum pressure of 992 millibars at 6:00 UTC on August 18. Fernanda was the only named storm this season not to clear hurricane strength.

Shortly after reaching peak intensity, the storm crossed into the Central Pacific basin. Continuing west-northwestward, Fernanda began weakening late on August 18 as dry, stable air was entrained into its circulation and it encountered increasing south-southeasterly shear. Most of Fernanda's deep convection had dissipated by August 20, and it degenerated to a remnant low. The post-tropical low continued westward before dissipating the next day a couple hundred nautical miles south of the Hawaiian Islands. [40]

Hurricane Greg

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Greg Aug 18 2011 2025Z.jpg   Greg 2011 track.png
DurationAugust 16 – August 21
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  979  mbar  (hPa)

On the afternoon of August 16, a vigorous area of low pressure developed into Tropical Depression Seven-E. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Greg 12 hours after formation. [41] The storm steadily intensified over 85 °F (29 °C) sea surface temperatures and it reached hurricane status late on August 17 with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph. Greg continued strengthening to attain peak winds of 85 mph and a pressure of 980 mbar. [42] Soon afterward, the storm began to gradually weaken due to cooler waters and higher wind shear and on August 19, Greg weakened to tropical storm strength, with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph. [43] The storm continued to weaken as it encountered unfavorable wind shear and as it began to traverse cooler waters, and on August 20 Greg had weakened to a tropical depression. Greg maintained tropical depression status until August 21, when it degenerated into a remnant low. [44] [ failed verification ] During that day, Greg's remnants moved northeastward due to a High Pressure System. From late on August 22, until the early afternoon of August 23, Greg's remnants impacted Southern California, bringing overcast skies, even though the center of circulation itself moved southeastward slowly and was positioned far southwest of Southern California. [45] Greg's remnants continued to drift westwards, as they weakened rapidly. Late on August 24, the remnants of Hurricane Greg dissipated completely, far west of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. [46]

Tropical Depression Eight-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
8-E Aug 31 2011 1955Z.jpg   08-E 2011 track.png
DurationAugust 31 – September 1
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to monitor an area of disturbed weather southwest of the Mexican Riviera in late August. Initially, poorly organized, environmental conditions were conductive for some development. [47] Shortly thereafter, the cloud patterns improved and overall thunderstorm activity increased. [48] Thunderstorm activity become more concentrated two days later while located 60 mi (97 km) south of Zinhuatnejo, and the NHC noted that the disturbance could become a tropical depression within hours. [49] This held true, and at 1500 UTC August 31, the low was upgraded into a tropical depression, but no further intensification was anticipated. [50] Eight-E soon made landfall on Southwestern Mexico, and moved north-northwestwards, as it rapidly weakened. Eight-E dissipated to a remnant low several hours later, early on September 1. [51] However, the remnants of Tropical Depression Eight-E survived, and they as they began moving westward, the remnants impacted Western Mexico. During the early afternoon of September 1, the remnants of Eight-E moved off the western coast of Western Mexico. During the next day, the remnants strengthened slightly in intensity, as it moved northwestward, towards the Baja California Peninsula. But late on September 2, the remnants of Tropical Depression Eight-E dissipated completely, just southeast of the peninsula.

Hurricane Hilary

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Hilary Sept 23 2011 2000Z.jpg   Hilary 2011 track.png
DurationSeptember 21 – September 30
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  942  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical disturbance gained enough organization early on September 21 to be declared as a tropical depression, the ninth of the season. Continuing to organize, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm several hours later. On September 22, the meteorologists declared Hilary as a Category 1 hurricane, becoming the seventh of the season. On September 22, it rapidly strengthened into a small, Category 4 hurricane, featuring a well-defined eye and very deep convection. It later reached a peak intensity of 145 mph (235 km/h) at 0600 UTC September 23 (11 p.m. AST September 22). However, the storm began to enter an area of higher wind shear and cooler ocean temperatures on September 24, and Hilary began to weaken. The hurricane weakened back down to a Category 3 hurricane early on September 25, but was later upgraded briefly to a Category 4 again the following afternoon. [52] [53] Several hours later, the storm was once again downgraded into a Category 3 hurricane, and during the afternoon hours of September 27, Hilary was further downgraded into a Category 2 hurricane. Early the following morning, Hilary weakened into a Category 1 hurricane, and weakened into a tropical storm on September 28. [54] Losing a lot of its convection on September 30, the National Hurricane Center noted that Hilary had weakened into a tropical depression. Several hours later, after sustaining no deep convection atop its centre, Hilary was declared a remnant low, located several hundred miles away from any landmasses. Over the next 3 days Hilary's remnant low subsequently moved towards the southwest, before dissipating after 1200 UTC on October 3, about 1,050 mi (1,690 km) to the west of the southern tip of Baja California. [55]

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches were also issued for portion of the coast. Large swells were also expected. [56] A red (emergency) alert was issued for parts of the coast. Officials urged residents to be prepared to evacuate. The port of Acapulco was closed for small craft. A moderate to high alert of rain and wind was noted. [57] The storm's outer bands produced heavy rainfall over Chiapas and Tabasco, with accumulations in Tabasco reaching 8.58 in (218 mm) in 24 hours. [58] Several rivers across the region overflowed their banks and flooded nearby areas. In Villahermosa, heavy rain collapsed drains and many streets were flooded. In addition, cars were stranded in floodwaters. Across Colima, waves reached 9 to 15 ft (2.7 to 4.6 m). [59]

Hurricane Jova

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jova.250m Oct 10 2011 1740(UTC).jpg   Jova 2011 track.png
DurationOctober 6 – October 13
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  955  mbar  (hPa)

During the late hours of October 4, an area of showers and thunderstorms associated with a broad low-pressure area developed several hundred miles to the south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. Moving slowly towards the west, the area of disturbed weather quickly organized. Late on October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that the area had a high chance of developing into a tropical cyclone over the next 48 hours. Just several hours later, the NHC began issuing advisories on Tropical Depression Ten-E, several hundred miles to the south of Manzanillo, Mexico. A more gradual type of development took place after then, and the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Jova on the afternoon of October 6. Taking advantage of the favorable environment Jova was embedded within, the storm became a hurricane on October 8, and by October 10, the storm was upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. However, shortly thereafter, the storm began an eyewall replacement cycle and weakened to a lower-end Category 2 hurricane. Several hours after landfall in Mexico, Jova dissipated, very early on October 13. [60]

Hurricane Irwin

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Irwin Oct 7 2011 1850Z.jpg   Irwin 2011 track.png
DurationOctober 6 – October 16
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  976  mbar  (hPa)

The origins of Hurricane Irwin can be tracked back to an area of showers and thunderstorms associated with a low-pressure area that developed several hundred miles to the south of Mexico. Moving towards the west and west-northwest, the low pressure quickly gained organization, and during the pre-dawn hours of October 6, the National Hurricane Center began issuing advisories on newly formed Tropical Depression Eleven-E. Later on October 6, Tropical Depression Eleven-E strengthened to Tropical Storm Irwin, and it became a hurricane the next day. The next day it weakened to a tropical storm. Unlike most tropical cyclones that form in the eastern Pacific Ocean, Irwin's track was very unusual. The system which originally started moving westward, turned north, then east and again back south, and east until dissipation, on October 17, as a remnant low. Also, between October 11 and 14, Irwin weakened into a tropical depression twice and again re-strengthened back to a tropical storm before finally weakening into a tropical depression on October 15. The depression turned west again and dissipated into a remnant low in the late hours of October 16. But the remnants of Tropical Storm Irwin continued to move westward generally, until it dissipated completely, on October 17. [61]

Tropical Depression Twelve-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
12-E Oct 12 2011 1715Z.jpg   12-E 2011 track.png
DurationOctober 12 – October 12
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave, the same that spawned Hurricane Phillipe in the Atlantic, crossed Central America into the East Pacific on October 5, during a significant pulse of the MJO. In this favorable environment, the wave generated a low-pressure area in the ITCZ by 18:00 UTC on October 6. Despite initially being hindered by the development of easterly wind shear, the low produced sustain deep convection late on October 11, and organized sufficiently to become Tropical Depression Twelve-E by 00:00 UTC on October 12. The depression moved northward without strengthening and made landfall at 16:00 UTC that day near Paredón, Mexico. The depression rapidly weakened to a remnant low eight hours later and dissipated completely early the next day.

The depression brought torrential rains that caused severe flooding in southeast Mexico and neighboring Guatemala. Up to 12 inches (305 mm) of rain fell in Guatemala, though not all of it may be because of Twelve-E. 36 deaths were directly attributed to the depression by the government of Guatemala. Numerous additional fatalities resulted in Central America from the pulse of the MJO that helped spawn the depression. [62]

Hurricane Kenneth

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Kenneth Nov 22 2011 1800Z.jpg   Kenneth 2011 track.png
DurationNovember 19 – November 25
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  940  mbar  (hPa)

Kenneth originated from an area full of unsettled weather that developed off the coast of Guatemala on November 16. [63] A low-pressure area formed shortly thereafter, [64] and organization of the system began to improve on November 17 as it moved westward. [65] The low remained over an area with favorable conditions for formation on November 18, [66] although convective activity tapered slightly later during the day as it began to curve west-northwestward. [67] The system continued to coalesce overnight, [68] and the circulation of the low was more prominent by the following morning. [69] By November 19, the disturbance had gained enough organization to be declared as a tropical depression, the thirteenth of the season. The following day, the depression continued to intensify, and was upgraded to a tropical storm, receiving the name Kenneth. [70] Rapid strengthening began on November 21, and Kenneth was upgraded to a hurricane. [71] As rapid intensification continued, Kenneth strengthened into a Category 3 major hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph on November 22. [72] Rapid intensification continued and the storm was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 145 mph, just a few hours later, as Kenneth reached its peak intensity. [73] The cause for this rapid intensification just days before the end of the season was unclimatologically low wind shear as well as unusually warm waters directly in the storm's path. However, Kenneth's intensification was short-lived; immediately it moved into an environment of colder waters and stronger wind shear, and started to rapidly deteriorate. Just 24 hours after the cyclone reached its peak, it dropped below hurricane strength and lost most of its central convection. Afterwards, Kenneth weakened at a slower rate, but by November 25, had weakened to a tropical depression, losing almost all of its convection. Early on November 25, Kenneth weakened to a remnant low, with its circulation void of any strong convection. But for the next 3 days, the remnant of the storm continued moving northwestward rapidly as a convectionless vortex, before dissipating completely early on November 28. [74]

In the first discussion bulletin, Forecaster Robbie Berg commented that it was the latest-forming tropical cyclone in the North Pacific east of 140°W since Tropical Depression Twenty-Two-E on November 24, 1987, [75] and Kenneth was the latest forming named storm since Winnie in 1983. [76] Kenneth strengthened to a major hurricane on November 22, becoming the latest-forming major hurricane in the eastern north Pacific basin in the satellite era. [77] Kenneth was upgraded to Category 4 a few hours later, becoming the most powerful late-season storm ever recorded in the eastern north Pacific. [78] However, 2015's Hurricane Sandra surpassed both records when it attained major hurricane status much later than Kenneth, being upgraded to a Category 4 on November 26, 2015.

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the North East Pacific in 2011. [79] Names that were not used are marked in gray. This is the same list used in the 2005 season. No names were retired this year, so this list was used again in the 2017 season.

  • Irwin
  • Jova
  • Kenneth
  • Lidia (unused)
  • Max (unused)
  • Norma (unused)
  • Otis (unused)
  • Pilar (unused)
  • Ramon (unused)
  • Selma (unused)
  • Todd (unused)
  • Veronica (unused)
  • Wiley (unused)
  • Xina (unused)
  • York (unused)
  • Zelda (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 2011 are shown below; however, none of them were used.

  • Pewa (unused)
  • Unala (unused)
  • Wali (unused)
  • Ana (unused)

Season effects

This is a table of all of the storms in the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their durations, peak intensities, names, landfall(s), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or a low. All of the damage figures are in 2011 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2011 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRef(s)
Adrian June 7–12Category 4 hurricane140 (220)944Southwestern MexicoMinimal0
Beatriz June 19–22Category 1 hurricane90 (150)977Southwestern Mexico, Western MexicoMinimal4
CalvinJuly 7–10Category 1 hurricane80 (130)984NoneNone0
Dora July 18–24Category 4 hurricane155 (250)929Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United StatesMinimal0
EugeneJuly 31 – August 6Category 4 hurricane140 (220)942NoneNone0
FernandaAugust 15–19Tropical storm70 (110)992NoneNone0
GregAugust 16–21Category 1 hurricane85 (140)979NoneNone0
Eight-EAugust 31 – September 1Tropical depression35 (55)1002Southwestern Mexico, Western MexicoNone0
Hilary September 21–30Category 4 hurricane145 (230)942Southwestern MexicoMinimal0
Jova October 6–13Category 3 hurricane125 (205)955Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico$204 million9
IrwinOctober 6–16Category 2 hurricane100 (155)976Western MexicoNone0
Twelve-E October 12Tropical depression35 (55)1004Southwestern Mexico, Central AmericaUnknown36
KennethNovember 19–25Category 4 hurricane145 (230)940NoneNone0
Season aggregates
13 systemsJune 7 – November 25  155 (250)929$204 million49 

See also

Notes

  1. The total represents the sum of the squares of the maximum sustained wind speed (knots) for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000 while they are above that threshold; therefore, tropical depressions are not included.

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The 2003 Pacific hurricane season was the first season to feature no major hurricanes – storms of Category 3 intensity or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) – since 1977. The dates conventionally delimiting the period when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific Ocean are May 15 in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and June 1 in the Central Pacific, with both seasons ending on November 30. The 2003 season featured 16 tropical storms between May 19 and October 26; 7 of these became hurricanes, which was then considered an average season. Damage across the basin reached US$129 million, and 23 people were killed by the storms.

2001 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2001 Pacific hurricane season was a relatively near-average Pacific hurricane season which produced sixteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived including one unnamed tropical storm which was operationally recognized as a tropical depression, the first such occurrence since 1996. Only eight hurricanes formed and two major hurricanes. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2000 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2000 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average Pacific hurricane season, although most of the storms were weak and short-lived. There were few notable storms this year. Tropical storms Miriam, Norman, and Rosa all made landfall in Mexico with minimal impact. Hurricane Daniel briefly threatened the U.S. state of Hawaii while weakening. Hurricane Carlotta was the strongest storm of the year and the second-strongest June hurricane in recorded history. Carlotta killed 18 people when it sank a freighter. Overall, the season was significantly more active than the previous season, with 19 tropical storms. In addition, six hurricanes developed. Furthermore, there were total of two major hurricanes.

1992 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season is the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, only surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

1989 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season was the first near normal season since 1981. The season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 18 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir–Simpson scale.

Hurricane Erin (2001) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Erin was the longest-lived hurricane in the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical depression, fifth tropical storm, and first hurricane of the season, Erin developed from a tropical wave on September 1. After strengthening to a 60 mph (95 km/h) tropical storm as it moved to the west-northwest, wind shear weakened Erin and caused it to degenerate into a remnant low on September 5. The remnants re-organized into a tropical depression the next day, and Erin strengthened into a hurricane on September 9 while moving northwestward. This was the latest date for the first hurricane of the season since Hurricane Diana on September 10, 1984. Erin quickly intensified and reached peak winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) later on September 9. At its closest approach, Erin passed 105 miles (170 km) east-northeast of Bermuda near peak intensity, and subsequently weakened as it turned to the east. A trough turned Erin to the northeast, and after passing just east of Cape Race, Newfoundland it became extratropical on September 15. The extratropical remnant continued northeastward and was absorbed into another extratropical storm near Greenland on September 17.

Hurricane Sergio (2006) Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 2006

Hurricane Sergio was the third strongest Pacific hurricane in the month of November on record. The twenty-fifth and final tropical cyclone, nineteenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Sergio developed from a tropical wave on November 13 about 460 miles (740 km) south of Manzanillo, Mexico, and steadily intensified as it tracked southeastward. It reached peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) on November 15, and subsequently began to weaken due to increased wind shear as it turned to the north. Sergio later turned to the west, remaining well off the coast of Mexico, and dissipated on November 20 about 320 miles (515 km) west-northwest of it originally formed.

2010 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2010 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since modern records, tied with 1977. The season saw only eight named storms, alongside a record-breaking low of three hurricanes. However, of those three, two of them became major hurricanes, and one hurricane, Celia, reached Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Also had the second-fewest ACE units on record, as many of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2012 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.

2006 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.

2009 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2009 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season since 1994. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Hurricane Fred (2009) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2009

Hurricane Fred was one of the easternmost forming major hurricanes in the North Atlantic basin since satellite observations became available. Forming out of a strong tropical wave on September 7, 2009 near the Cape Verde Islands, Fred gradually organized within an area of moderate wind shear. The following day, decreasing shear allowed the storm to intensify and develop well-organized convective banding features. Later on September 8, Fred attained hurricane intensity and underwent rapid intensification overnight, attaining its peak intensity as a strong Category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 958 mbar. Shortly after reaching this intensity, the hurricane began to weaken as wind shear increased and dry air hampered convective development.

2014 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

2016 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

2017 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was significantly less active than the previous three Pacific hurricane seasons, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the respective regions. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as illustrated in 2017 by the formation of the season's first named storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, on May 10,. At the time, this was the earliest formation of a tropical storm on record in the eastern Pacific. The season saw near-average activity in terms of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month. Damage across the basin reached $375.28 million (2017 USD), while 45 people were killed by the various storms.

Hurricane Gert (2017) Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2017

Hurricane Gert was a strong tropical cyclone that brought heavy surf and rip currents to the East Coast of the United States in August 2017. Gert originated from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on August 3 yet failed to organize significantly until August 12, when the system coalesced into a tropical depression east of the Bahamas. A few hours later, the depression became the seventh tropical storm of the annual hurricane season and was named Gert. For the next day, though, further intensification was hindered by the proximity of dry air. Once Gert was able to overcome that on August 14, however, Gert resumed strengthening while moving northwards, paralleling the United States coastline. Gert reached its peak intensity on August 16 at Category 2 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale as it accelerated northeastwards. Thereafter, increasing vertical wind shear and decreasing sea surface temperatures caused Gert to rapidly weaken and transition into an extratropical cyclone on August 17, well east of Atlantic Canada. The remnants of Gert dissipated late on August 18, after they merged with another extratropical cyclone over the open Atlantic.

2019 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season which produced nineteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed, the fewest since 2010. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2020 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2020 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 2011. The season was near average in terms of tropical storms, featuring a total of 17, but had a well below average number of hurricanes and major hurricanes, with only 4 hurricanes and 3 major hurricanes forming including one unnamed tropical storm which was operationally classified as a tropical depression, the first such occurrence since 2001. Despite this, it featured the earliest start to a season east of 140°W on record, with Tropical Depression One-E forming on April 25. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific and they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as shown by the record-early formation of Tropical Depression One-E.

2021 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2021 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, with above-average tropical activity in terms of named storms and hurricanes, below-average activity in terms of major hurricanes and a near-normal accumulated cyclone energy (ACE). Five Pacific named storms made landfall in Mexico, the most since 2018, when six hit. The season officially began on May 15, 2021 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 2021 in the Central Pacific; both ending on November 30, 2021. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin and are adopted by convention. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as illustrated by the formation of Tropical Storm Andres on May 9, which became the earliest forming tropical storm in the northeastern Pacific proper on record.

2022 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2022 Pacific hurricane season is the current cycle of the annual tropical cyclone season in the Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; both will end on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclogenesis occurs in these regions of the Pacific and are adopted by convention.

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