|2012 Pacific hurricane season|
Season summary map
|First system formed||May 14, 2012|
|Last system dissipated||November 3, 2012|
|• Maximum winds||140 mph (220 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||945 mbar (hPa; 27.91 inHg)|
|Total fatalities||8 total|
|Total damage||$27.9 million (2012 USD)|
The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).
Hurricane Bud intensified into the first major hurricane of the season, one of three to do so in the month of May. In mid-June, Hurricane Carlotta came ashore near Puerto Escondido, Mexico. Seven people were killed by Carlotta and damage amounted to US$12.4 million. Hurricane Paul brought significant damage to Baja California Sur. Tropical Storms Hector, John, Kristy, and Norman, as well as Hurricane Fabio all threatened land; however, damage from these storms were relatively minor.
Hurricane Bud was a rare May major hurricane that skirted areas of the western Mexican coast. The second tropical cyclone and named storm of the 2012 Pacific hurricane season, Bud developed slowly into a tropical depression from a low-pressure area, centered well south of Mexico on May 20. It moved generally west-northwestward and by the following day, strengthened into Tropical Storm Bud. Thereafter, further intensification was slow. By late on May 23, Bud reached winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). On the following day, however, rapid deepening commenced, with the storm becoming a hurricane on that day. Bud peaked as a 115 mph (185 km/h) Category 3 hurricane on May 25. Several hours after reaching that intensity, the storm began to quickly weaken as it moved near Western Mexico. Bud continued to weaken, eventually dissipating the next day.
Hurricane Carlotta was the easternmost tropical cyclone in the Eastern Pacific to make landfall at hurricane intensity since 1966. The third tropical cyclone and third named storm of the 2012 Pacific hurricane season, Carlotta developed slowly into a tropical depression from a tropical wave southwest of Central America on June 14. It moved generally west-northwestward and by the following day, strengthened into tropical storm strength. Thereafter, gradual intensification occurred and the storm reached hurricane strength on June 15. Rapid intensification ensued further, as Carlotta peaked as a 110 mph (175 km/h) Category 2 hurricane on the same day. At 0100 UTC the following day, Carlotta made landfall near Puerto Escondido, the easternmost landfalling Pacific hurricane in recorded history at the time. The next day the storm began to weaken as it moved onshore Southwestern Mexico. Carlotta continued to weaken rapidly, eventually dissipating on June 16.
Puerto Escondido is a small port and tourist center in the municipality of San Pedro Mixtepec Distrito 22 in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Prior to the 1930s, there was no town. The bay had been used as a port intermittently to ship coffee, but there was no permanent settlement due to the lack of potable water. The name "Puerto Escondido" had roots in the legend of a woman who escaped her captors and hid here. The Nahuatl word for this area was Zicatela, meaning “place of large thorns". Today, it refers to the area’s most famous beach.
|Record high activity||27||16 (tie)||11|
|Record low activity||8 (tie)||3||0 (tie)|
|CPC||May 24, 2012||12–18||5–9||2–5|
On May 24, the Climate Prediction Center released its pre-season outlook. The scientists stated a 30% chance of a below-normal season, a 50% chance of a near-normal season and a 20% chance of an above-normal season. The climatologists expected 12–18 named storms, with 5–9 becoming hurricanes, and 2–5 becoming major hurricanes. The below-normal activity forecast was because of increased wind shear and a high expectation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-neutral conditions throughout the peak in the later months of summer, together with lingering La Niña conditions at the beginning of the season, even though there had already been two named systems – one tropical storm and one major hurricane – in the month of May.
The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) is a United States federal agency that is one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, which are a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. CPC is headquartered in College Park, Maryland. Its roots trace back to the late 18th century, with the United States Army Signal Corp taking over responsibility of the climate program in the late 19th century. Once it became part of the United States Weather Bureau, it was known as the Weather Bureau Climate and Crop Services. From 1957 through 1966, the United States Weather Bureau's Office of Climatology, located in Washington, D.C. and then Suitland, Maryland, published the Mariners Weather Log publication. Late in the 20th century, it was known as the Climate Analysis Center for a time, before evolving into CPC in 1995. CPC issues climate forecasts valid for weeks and months in advance.
The season was relatively active. Hurricane Bud became a major hurricane in May, marking the third occurrence of such.Hurricane Carlotta threatened Mexico in mid-June. In July three hurricanes developed, two of which reached major hurricane strength. With the formation of Hurricane Fabio on July 12, the season was a month ahead of normal.
The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Aletta, developed on May 14, which was about a day before the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Tropical Storm Rosa, dissipated on November 3. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility was below average, with no tropical cyclones forming in the region. However one tropical cyclone, Hurricane Daniel, entered the Central Pacific, as a tropical storm.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central Pacific region: from the equator northward, 140°W–180°W, most significantly for Hawai‘i. It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu.
Area of Responsibility (AOR) is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan (UCP), that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander bears a certain responsibility. The term may also be used in other countries worldwide but it originated within the United States Armed Forces. This system is designed to allow a single commander to exercise command and control of all military forces in the AOR, regardless of their branch of service.
The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for the season was 98.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||May 14 – May 19|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
The passage of an eastward-moving kelvin wave generated a broad area of low pressure within the Intertropical Convergence Zone well south of Mexico on May 11. Convection organized about this low, leading to the season's first tropical depression around 12:00 UTC on May 14. A ridge extending from Mexico into the eastern Pacific forced the depression west, while low wind shear and warm ocean temperatures allowed it to become Tropical Storm Aletta by 00:00 UTC on May 15. After attaining peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) eighteen hours later, stronger upper-level winds and dry air caused a steady decay of the system. Aletta weakened to a tropical depression as it curved northeast early on May 17, and despite producing intermittent bursts of convection for a few days, ultimately degenerated to a remnant low around 06:00 UTC on May 19. The low turned southeast and dissipated the next day.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||May 20 – May 26|
|Peak intensity||115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 961 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave that left Africa on May 5 organized into a tropical depression over the East Pacific around 18:00 UTC on May 20. Easterly wind shear prevented much organization, and the depression did not intensify into Tropical Storm Bud until 06:00 UTC on May 22. As the system moved west-northwest, upper-level winds gradually diminished, allowing Bud to attain hurricane strength by 00:00 UTC on May 24. A period of rapid intensification brought the system to its peak as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) within 24 hours, when it resembled an annular hurricane with a distinct eye and little outer banding. A trough over the southwestern United States directed the storm northeast, while increasing southwesterly wind shear prompted weakening. Bud fell to tropical storm intensity by 00:00 UTC on May 26 and degenerated to a remnant low six hours later. The remnants moved very close to the coastline of southwestern Mexico before dissipating on May 26.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 14 – June 16|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 973 mbar (hPa)|
An area of disturbed weather that may have originated as a tropical wave from Africa emerged into the East Pacific on June 11. Light wind shear and an eastward-moving kelvin wave aided in the development of a tropical depression by 00:00 UTC on June 14, and Tropical Storm Carlotta six hours later. As the storm moved northwest on the periphery of a mid-level ridge, it attained hurricane strength around 12:00 UTC on June 15 and rapidly intensified to its peak as a Category 2 with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) by 21:00 UTC that day. Carlotta subsequently made landfall near Puerto Escondido, Mexico, at a slightly reduced strength, becoming the easternmost landfalling hurricane on record in the East Pacific. After the storm moved ashore, it rapidly weakened over the mountains terrain of southern Mexico, degenerating to a remnant low around 00:00 UTC on June 17 and dissipating over Guerrero twelve hours later.
Upon formation, hurricane watches were issued for the southern coastline of Mexico. billion (US$107.7 million).This was later upgraded to a warning when Carlotta became a hurricane. The storm made landfall in southern Mexico, bringing with it heavy rains and gusty winds which caused flash floods and numerous landslides along the area, primarily the state of Oaxaca. Due to the severity of the situation in Oaxaca the governor requested for a state of emergency to be declared to his state. Throughout Mexico, seven people were killed by Carlotta and damage amounted to MX$1.4
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 4 – July 12|
|Peak intensity||115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 961 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave emerged off Africa on June 20 and moved inconspicuously across the Atlantic, crossing Central America nine days later. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression around 06:00 UTC on July 4 and further strengthened into Tropical Storm Daniel after 24 hours. Moderate easterly wind shear affected the storm initially, but these winds relaxed and allowed Daniel to become a hurricane by 00:00 UTC on July 7 when an eye became apparent on satellite. Steady intensification brought the storm to its peak as a Category 3 with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) around 06:00 UTC on July 8. A westward track into cooler waters and drier air caused Daniel to begin slowly; it fell to tropical storm strength by 06:00 UTC on July 10, weakened to a tropical depression around 18:00 UTC on July 11 shortly after crossing into the Central Pacific, and subsequently degenerated to a remnant low by 12:00 UTC on July 12. The low opened up into a trough early on July 14.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 7 – July 15|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 945 mbar (hPa)|
A quick-moving tropical wave left Africa on June 23 and emerged into the East Pacific late on July 4, where it interacted with a disturbance within the ITCZ. The two systems coalesced, leading to the formation of a tropical depression by 18:00 UTC on July 7, and to Tropical Storm Emilia six hours later. A mid-level ridge extending west from Mexico directed the cyclone west-northwest, while a favorable environment allowed Emilia to intensify. It attained hurricane strength around 06:00 UTC on July 9 with the formation of a banded eye, and further strengthened to a Category 4 with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) a day later when its eye was embedded within very deep convection. The onset of an eyewall replacement cycle caused Emilia to weaken to a Category 2 hurricane early on July 11, but it regained Category 3 intensity later that day before entering cooler waters and a drier environment. Emilia weakened to a tropical storm around 12:00 UTC on July 13 and degenerated to a remnant low by 18:00 UTC on July 15. The post-tropical cyclone continued west and opened into a trough south of Hawaii early on July 18.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 12 – July 18|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 966 mbar (hPa)|
On June 27, a tropical wave left Africa; it tracked west, emerging into the East Pacific on July 7. Interaction with a series of eastward-moving kelvin waves led to the formation of a tropical depression around 00:00 UTC on July 12; six hours later, it became Tropical Storm Fabio. The storm moved west amid modest wind shear, becoming a hurricane by 18:00 UTC on May 13 and gradually strengthening to a Category 2 with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) around 06:00 UTC on July 15. At its best, the hurricane was characterized by a distinct eye within deep convection, and it is possible Fabio briefly attained major hurricane strength. The system turned northwest and then north into cooler waters after peak, weakening to a tropical storm late on July 16, to a tropical depression early on July 18, and finally to a remnant low around 12:00 UTC that morning. The low curved east-southeast before dissipating on July 20.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 7 – August 11|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 984 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave departed Africa on July 27. Hampered by strong upper-level winds across the central Atlantic, it entered the East Pacific on August 2, where interaction with a kelvin wave led to an uptick in convection. Further organization ensued and a tropical depression formed around 06:00 UTC on August 7; the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Gilma twelve hours later. On a west-northwest heading, the newly-formed system intensified within a favorable environment, attaining hurricane strength by 18:00 UTC on August 8 and reaching peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) several hours later. Increasing wind shear and decreasing ocean temperatures weakened Gilma beginning on August 9; it fell to tropical storm status around 18:00 UTC that day and gradually degenerated to a remnant area of low pressure by 12:00 UTC on August 11. The low turned southwest before dissipating well away from land on August 14.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 11 – August 16|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)|
A trough of low pressure, formed from the remnants of Hurricane Ernesto in the Atlantic, began to organize, and by the evening hours of August 11, the NHC declared the formation of Tropical Depression Eight-E. The next day, the depression intensified to Tropical Storm Hector, the eighth named storm of the 2012 season. Hector moved slowly towards the west, with slight changes in strength during its entirety. Because of the strong vertical wind shear and marginally warm water around Hector, not much strengthening was anticipated, but instead weakened over the next several days. It never intensified above tropical storm strength, where it remained until further weakening to a tropical depression on August 15. The next day on August 16, as Hector lacked numerous thunderstorms surrounding its center, it was declared post-tropical. During the next several days, Hector slowly curved towards the east, before dissipating on August 20.
Hector brought waves up to 12 ft (3.7 m) in the port of Mazatlan, subsequently; authorities restricted boating access. The storm also brought intervals of heavy showers, gusty winds exceeding 40 mph and hot temperatures in most municipalities in Sinaloa. 400 people were evacuated in Los Cabos due to flooding. 100 people were left homeless.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 27 – September 2|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 978 mbar (hPa)|
The low pressure system that was to become Hurricane Ileana began from a tropical wave that is first monitored by the National Hurricane Center on August 23. Development of the said wave is expected if it reaches more favorable conditions. Moving towards the north-west, the low began to organize, and by August 27, the low organized to become the ninth tropical depression of the season. The depression continued to show signs of organization, and later that day it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ileana, the ninth named storm of the season. Ileana took advantage of the warm sea surface temperature and low vertical wind shear and became better organized; such substantial strengthening would make Ileana a hurricane, peaking as an 85 mph (145 km/h) Category 1 hurricane on August 29. Ileana would not maintain hurricane strength for long, and, as predicted, weakened back to tropical storm status on August 31 as it began to turn west. Weakening continued as Ileana traversed cooler sea surface temperatures and encountered increasing wind shear and more stable air environment. The storm weakened to a tropical depression on September 2, further weakened into a post-tropical cyclone after failing to sustain deep convection for over twelve hours. However, the remnants continued moving southwestward into the Central Pacific over the next 4 days, before finally dissipating on September 6.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 2 – September 4|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
A large area of low pressure well west of Central America formed on August 29. Over the next couple of days, the system began to slowly organize as it was in an area of favorable conditions for further development. By September 1, another area of low pressure had formed just offshore Mexico, just east of the organizing low, and that same day it eventually absorbed the weaker low; this gives an extra hint for the formation of Tropical Depression Ten-E, which was south of Baja California. The next day, the depression became the tenth storm of the 2012 season; however, no significant strengthening was anticipated because of moderate to high vertical wind shear in addition to the marginally warm sea surface temperature along John's path. John remained a very weak tropical storm; it never exceeded 40 mph winds throughout its lifetime, and the main low level circulation was always separated from the main canopy of thunderstorms due to the increasing easterly wind shear. It only maintained tropical storm intensity for 18 hours; after that it weakened to a tropical depression. It held onto tropical depression status for another 18 hours, before becoming post-tropical on the following day. However, the remnant low of John continued moving northwestward for the next 3 days, before dissipating on September 7.
John brought rain and wind to the Baja California Peninsula; the Los Cabos port was closed for small craft.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 12 – September 17|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
On September 9, an area of low pressure formed west of Central America. The disturbance was expected to strengthen within the next couple of days, with conditions conducive for development. During the next several days, the low edged a little close towards the coast of Western Mexico, but interaction with land did not inhibit further development of this area of low pressure into the eleventh tropical depression of the season. The depression then became Tropical Storm Kristy that same day. The system was insistent on maintaining its intensity even though structure and organization began to collapse because of the unfavorable environment it encountered. September 16, Kristy was downgraded to a tropical depression, and was declared post-tropical the following day, as from a lack of deep convection. The following day, wind warnings were placed in effect for the Baja California Peninisula from the remnants associated with Kristy. Kristy also threatened Southern Mexico. During the next several days, Kristy's remnants turned towards the east before looping back towards the south, until the system dissipated very early on September 20.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 15 – September 19|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 985 mbar (hPa)|
Lane formed from an area of low pressure that formed just west of Tropical Storm Kristy on September 13. At first, development was not expected as it was forecast to interact with Tropical Storm Kristy. Nevertheless, the system moved away from Kristy and organized into the twelfth depression of the season, on September 15. Twelve-E became better organized that day, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Lane, the twelfth named storm of the season. At first, Lane was expected to remain a tropical storm before weakening because of it approaching less favorable conditions. However, due to the improving satellite appearance, and some additional intensification overnight, Lane was forecast to become a hurricane within 24 hours. Lane was upgraded to hurricane status at 0900 UTC on Monday, September 17, maintaining that status for approximately 30 hours before being downgraded back to a tropical storm at 1500 UTC, on Tuesday, September 18. Lane quickly degenerated into a tropical depression, and then a remnant low during the next day. The remnant low of Lane continued moving westward for another day, before dissipating on September 20.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 22 – September 27|
|Peak intensity||120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min) 959 mbar (hPa)|
On September 22, an area of low pressure that had been organizing for a couple of days became defined enough to be declared as Tropical Depression Thirteen-E. mph tropical storm at 2 pm PDT to a 90 mph Category 1 hurricane at 8 pm. Miriam continued to intensify on the 24th, developing a 10 nautical mile wide eye and by 8 am PDT that day, it became a Category 3 major hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 120 mph. Miriam maintained this intensity for 12 hours before weakening back into a Category 2 at 8 pm PDT the same day. Miriam began to gradually weaken and weakened to a tropical storm with 70 mph winds at 2 am PDT on the 26th. Miriam continued to steadily weaken over colder sea surface temperatures and became a tropical depression on the 27th as the last of the deep convection dissipated, as the moisture separated from the storm, and began streaming over Baja California. Miriam became a remnant low just 6 hours later. As Miriam lost its convection, the moisture drifted over the Baja California Peninsula, and into Texas. The remnant low of Hurricane Miriam continued to drift southward, until it dissipated early on October 3.It soon strengthened to Tropical Storm Miriam, and began to further intensify over a very favorable environment. On September 23, rapid intensification was noted as a distinct possibility as vertical wind shear was forecast to remain under 5 knots for the next 36 hours. Later that evening, Miriam intensified from a 70
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 28 – September 29|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)|
Early on September 25, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring an area of disturbed weather a few hundred miles south of Acapulco, Mexico. This system originally lacked a well-defined center and was broad in size, but gradually organized as it moved towards the north-northwest. Satellite, ship, and buoy observations early on September 28 revealed that the low had become much better defined, and at 1500 UTC, the first advisory was issued on Tropical Storm Norman, located at the time about 85 mi (135 km) east of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. Norman weakened as it approached the coast of western Mexico and it became a tropical depression on September 29. The depression made landfall about just west of Topolobampo, but quickly emerged into the Gulf of California. The last of the deep convection associated with Norman dissipated early on September 29, and Norman became a post-tropical remnant low later that day. Early on September 30, the remnant low of Norman dissipated.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 6 – October 8|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)|
An area of low pressure that formed in the eastern Pacific quickly began to organize and eventually gained enough convection and organization to be declared Tropical Depression Fifteen-E on October 6. mph tropical storm before weakening. Over the next several hours, a convective cloud band gained curvature over the northwest quadrant of the circulation and a central dense overcast persisted, and on this basis and Dvorak classifications, Fifteen-E was upgraded to Tropical Storm Olivia with an estimated wind speed of 45 mph. Despite the convective banding breaking off and becoming disconnected from the inner circulation of Olivia overnight, Dvorak T-numbers suggested that Olivia packed 60 mph winds. Olivia moved over very warm water (29 degrees C), but stopped strengthening on the morning of the 7th as it lost its banding features. However, the central dense overcast expanded and forecasters noted that additional strengthening was a possibility. Olivia continued moving northward, but with no change in strength until the afternoon of October 8, when the low-level circulation became exposed to the southwest of the main area of deep convection around 6:00 AM PDT. At 2:00 PM PDT the same day, it was reported that the deep convection was located about 100 nautical miles away from the low-level center. As southwesterly shear remained strong, the low- and mid-level centers of Olivia completely decoupled late on October 8, with last-light visible satellite imagery showing it as a swirl of low clouds with the strongest convection a few hundred miles away from the center. At 2:00 AM PDT on October 9, Olivia was declared post-tropical, as it had not been producing significant deep convection for the past 6 to 12 hours and the low-level center was moving even further away from the few convective cells that remained. The cyclone was expected to weaken and open up into a trough within 48 hours at the time of the last discussion. Late on October 10, the remnant of Olivia dissipated.However, the environment was only marginal for development, and NHC forecaster Lixion Avila only forecasted Fifteen-E to become a 40
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 13 – October 17|
|Peak intensity||120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min) 959 mbar (hPa)|
Early on October 10, the National Hurricane Center first began monitoring a trough of low pressure off the southern coast of Mexico. With a disorganized area of convection, the system moved slowly westward, and conditions allowed for gradual development. Initially, upper-level winds were only marginally favorable, and although the thunderstorms remained disorganized, the NHC estimated a 50% chance for development by early on October 12. The next day, the system became better defined, and the NHC classified it as Tropical Storm Paul at 2100 UTC that day, about 660 mi (1065 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. Upon forming, Paul skipped the tropical depression stage, and it had a well-defined circulation with organized convection. It moved westward due to a mid-level ridge that extended westward from Mexico.
Warm waters, very little wind shear, and a moist environment allowed Paul to quickly intensify and developed organized rainbands. 14, Paul began moving northward while rounding a ridge, also influenced by an upper-level low west of Baja California. An eye began developing early on October 15, and later that day Paul intensified into a hurricane. The cloud pattern became increasingly symmetrical, and the storm underwent rapid deepening on October 15. It developed a well-defined eye, prompting the NHC to estimate peak winds of 120 mph (190 km/h); this made it the fifth major hurricane season of the season. However, increasing southwesterly wind shear quickly imparted weakening, causing the eye to deteriorate by early on October 16. Shortly thereafter, the NHC reported that Paul was no longer a major hurricane. During the afternoon hours of October 17, Paul was downgraded to a tropical depression, and hours later, the storm was declared a remnant low. The remnant low of Hurricane Paul persisted for another day, before dissipating on October 18. During the next two days, remnant moisture from Paul caused drizzle and light rain across Southern California.Easterly wind shear was the primary inhibitor factor of rapid intensification. On October
Across the city of La Paz, damage to roads was estimated at MX$200 million (US$15.5 million).
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 30 – November 3|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1001 mbar (hPa)|
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(April 2013)
On October 30 the NHC issued a special advisory to the effect that a low pressure system located well to the southwest of Cabo San Lucas had organized rather quickly and was being classified as a tropical depression.In light shear conditions it soon strengthened to become Tropical Storm Rosa, and continued to strengthen as it drifted slowly west then southwest. On November 2, increasing westerly shear caused Rosa to weaken steadily, Rosa degenerated into a remnant low late on November 3. The remnants of Rosa persisted for another couple of days, before dissipating on November 5.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the Eastern Pacific in 2012. No names were retired during the 35th session of the RA IV hurricane committee on April 11, 2013. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 2018 season. This was the same list used in the 2006 season.
For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 2012 are shown below; however, none of them were used.
This is a table of all of the storms in the 2012 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their durations, peak intensities, names, landfall(s), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low. All of the damage figures are in 2012 USD.
|Dates active||Storm category |
at peak intensity
|Aletta||May 14 – 19||Tropical storm||50 (85)||1000||None||None||None|
|Bud||May 20 – 26||Category 3 hurricane||115 (185)||961||Western Mexico||Minimal||None|
|Carlotta||June 14 – 16||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||973||Southwestern Mexico||12.4||7|
|Daniel||July 4 – 12||Category 3 hurricane||115 (185)||961||None||None||None|
|Emilia||July 7 – 15||Category 4 hurricane||140 (220)||945||None||None||None|
|Fabio||July 12 – 18||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||966||Baja California Peninsula, California, Western United States||None||None|
|Gilma||August 7 – 11||Category 1 hurricane||80 (130)||984||None||None||None|
|Hector||August 11 – 16||Tropical storm||50 (85)||995||Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula||Minimal||None|
|Ileana||August 27 – September 2||Category 1 hurricane||85 (140)||978||None||None||None|
|John||September 2 – 4||Tropical storm||45 (75)||1000||Baja California Peninsula||Minimal||None|
|Kristy||September 12 – 17||Tropical storm||60 (95)||998||Baja California Peninsula||Minimal||None|
|Lane||September 15 – 19||Category 1 hurricane||85 (130)||985||None||None||None|
|Miriam||September 22 – 27||Category 3 hurricane||120 (195)||959||Baja California Peninsula, Texas||None||None|
|Norman||September 28 – 29||Tropical storm||50 (85)||997||Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Texas||Minimal||1|
|Olivia||October 6 – 8||Tropical storm||60 (95)||997||None||None||None|
|Paul||October 13 – 17||Category 3 hurricane||120 (195)||959||Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico||15.5||None|
|Rosa||October 30 – November 3||Tropical storm||50 (85)||1001||None||None||None|
|17 systems||May 14 – November 3||140 (220)||945||27.9||8|
The 2001 Pacific hurricane season was a near average season. The most notable storm that year was Hurricane Juliette, which caused devastating floods in Baja, California, leading to 12 fatalities and $400 million worth of damage. Two other storms were notable in their own rights, Hurricane Adolph became the strongest May Hurricane until 2014 when both records set by Adolph and Juliette were broken by Hurricanes Amanda and Odile. Tropical Storm Barbara passed just north of Hawaii, bringing minimal impact. The season officially began on May 15, 2001 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 2001 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2001. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in this part of the Pacific Ocean. The first storm developed on May 25, while the last storm dissipated on November 3.
The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.
The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.
The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season and was the first season since 2009 that featured no depressions or named storms in the month of May. It had six major hurricanes which was above average for a Pacific hurricane season. The season officially started on May 15, 2011, for the eastern Pacific, and started on June 1, 2011, for the central Pacific, both of which ended on November 30, 2011. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. A total of 11 named storms were observed, which is below average.
The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.2 billion in damages. The season produced above normal activity; however, the majority of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.
The 2015 Pacific hurricane season was the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.
The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.
The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes, though the season was significantly less active than the previous three seasons. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month.
Hurricane Adrian was an intense, albeit short-lived early-season category 4 hurricane that took part during the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. Adrian originated from an area of disturbed weather which had developed during the course of early June, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. On June 7, it acquired a sufficiently organized structure with deep convection to be classified as a tropical cyclone, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated it as Tropical Depression One-E, the first one of 2011. It further strengthened to be upgraded into a tropical storm later that day. Adrian moved rather slowly; briefly recurving northward after being caught in the steering winds. After steady intensification, it was upgraded into a hurricane on June 9. The storm subsequently entered a phase of rapid intensification, developing a distinct eye with good outflow in all quadrants. Followed by this period of rapid intensification, it obtained sustained winds fast enough to be considered a major hurricane and reached its peak intensity as a category 4 hurricane that evening.
The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average year in which seventeen named storms formed. The hurricane season officially began on May 15 with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta in the East Pacific—defined as the region east of 140°W—and on June 1 in the central Pacific—defined as the region west of 140°W to the International Date Line—and ended on November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form. The final cyclone of the year, Tropical Storm Rosa, dissipated on November 3.
The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $49.975 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the third-most intense hurricane to make landfall on the United States in terms of pressure, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille of 1969. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.
Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.
Hurricane Madeline was the first of two tropical cyclones that threatened to make a landfall on Hawaii as a hurricane in 2016, the other being Hurricane Lester. The fourteenth named storm, eighth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Madeline developed out of an area of low pressure that formed well to the south-southwest of Baja California. By August 26, the disturbance developed to a tropical depression, before becoming a tropical storm shortly afterwards. Wind shear initially inhibited development, however as the cyclone turned northwest, Madeline underwent rapid intensification as an eye feature developed within the storm on August 29. Madeline ultimately peaked as a Category 4 major hurricane the next day. The hurricane then began to weaken as wind shear began to increase as it approached Hawaii. By September 1, Madeline weakened to a tropical storm and passed just south of the Big Island of Hawaii, dumping heavy rainfall, surf, and gusty winds to the island. The cyclone eventually degenerated into a remnant low on September 2 before dissipating later that day.
Tropical Storm Lidia was a large tropical cyclone that produced flooding in Baja California Peninsula and parts of western Mexico. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and twelfth named storm of the 2017 Pacific hurricane season, Lidia developed from a large area of disturbed weather west of the Pacific Coast of Mexico on August 31. The storm intensified while moving generally northward or northwestward, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) later that day. On September 1, Lidia made landfall in Mexico near Puerto Chale, Baja California Sur, at peak intensity. The storm weakened while traversing the peninsula, ultimately emerging over the Pacific Ocean on September 3, where the storm degenerated into a remnant low. The system brought thunderstorms and wind gusts to Southern California, before dissipating on September 4.
The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.
Tropical Storm Carlotta was a tropical cyclone that caused flooding in southwestern Mexico. Carlotta formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the south of Mexico. On June 12, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) reported that a broad area of low pressure had formed several hundred miles south of southeastern Mexico. The NHC continued to track the disturbance over the next couple of days as it drifted northward. After having increased in organization, the system was designated as a tropical depression on June 14. Late on the next day, the system strengthened into a tropical storm, after which it was named Carlotta. On June 16, Carlotta slowed down and unexpectedly stalled within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar. Soon after, Carlotta began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the system weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. Carlotta weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.
Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.
Hurricane Rosa was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from a broad area of low pressure that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on September 22. The disturbance moved westward and then west-northwestward for a few days, before developing into a tropical depression on September 25. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rosa. One day later, Rosa became a hurricane. On September 27, Rosa began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph and a minimum central pressure of 936 mbar on the next day. Over the next couple of days, Rosa turned towards the northeast. By September 29, Rosa had weakened into a Category 2 hurricane due to ongoing structural changes and less favorable conditions. Later on the same day, Rosa re-intensified slightly. On September 30, Rosa resumed weakening as its core structure eroded. Early on October 1, Rosa weakened into a tropical storm. On October 2, Rosa weakened to a tropical depression and made landfall in Baja California. Later in the day, Rosa's remnants crossed into the Gulf of California, with its surface and mid-level remnants later separating entirely. The mid-level remnants of Rosa continued to travel north, reaching northeast Arizona late in the day. On October 3, Rosa's remnants were absorbed into an upper-level low situated off the coast of California.
Hurricane Leslie was the strongest cyclone of tropical origin to strike the Iberian Peninsula since 1842. A large, long-lived, and erratic tropical cyclone, Leslie was the twelfth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm was of non-tropical origin, developing from a large low-pressure system that developed over the northern Atlantic Ocean on 22 September. The low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics and was classified as Subtropical Storm Leslie on the following day. The cyclone meandered over the northern Atlantic and gradually weakened, before merging with a frontal system on 25 September, which later intensified into a powerful hurricane-force low over the North Atlantic.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2012 Pacific hurricane season .|