2016 Pacific hurricane season

Last updated
2016 Pacific hurricane season
2016 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 7, 2016
(record earliest)
Last system dissipatedNovember 26, 2016
Strongest storm
NameSeymour
  Maximum winds150 mph (240 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure940 mbar (hPa; 27.76 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions23 official, 4 unofficial
Total storms22
Hurricanes13
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
6
Total fatalities11 total
Total damage$95.8 million (2016 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. [1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, [2] the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

2014 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

2015 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season was the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Contents

Hurricane Darby brushed the Hawaiian islands as a tropical storm causing only minor damage; while hurricanes Lester and Madeline also threatened to make landfall in Hawaii but weakened significantly before approaching the islands. Tropical Storm Javier and Hurricane Newton both made landfall in Mexico, with the latter being responsible for at least nine fatalities as it came ashore near Baja California Sur. Hurricane Ulika was a rare and erratic storm which zig-zagged across 140°W a total of three times. Hurricane Seymour became the strongest storm of the season, forming in late October. Finally, in late November, Hurricane Otto from the Atlantic made an unusual crossing over Central America, emerging into the East Pacific as a moderate tropical storm but dissipated shortly after.

Hurricane Darby (2016)

Hurricane Darby was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Hawaii as a tropical storm. The fifth named storm of the busy 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Darby originated from a low pressure area that developed in the Eastern Pacific well southwest of Mexico during July 2016. It gained sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression on July 11, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Darby the next day. Further intensification ensued, and Darby became a hurricane on July 13. Over the next three days, Darby slowly strengthened to Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale, becoming a major hurricane. Cool waters and dry air caused Darby to weaken over the next three days, although Darby managed to restrengthen slightly on July 21 before weakening once again as the storm neared Hawaii. Just after midnight on July 24, Darby made landfall on the Big Island, and weakened into a remnant low two days later.

Hawaii State of the United States of America

Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state located in Oceania, the only U.S. state located outside North America, and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.

Hurricane Madeline (2016)

Hurricane Madeline was the first of two tropical cyclones that threatened to make a landfall on Hawaii as a hurricane in 2016, the other being Hurricane Lester. The fourteenth named storm, eighth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Madeline developed out of an area of low pressure that formed well to the south-southwest of Baja California. By August 26, the disturbance developed to a tropical depression, before becoming a tropical storm shortly afterwards. Wind shear initially inhibited development, however as the cyclone turned northwest, Madeline underwent rapid intensification as an eye feature developed within the storm on August 29. Madeline ultimately peaked as a Category 4 major hurricane the next day. The hurricane then began to weaken as wind shear began to increase as it approached Hawaii. By September 1, Madeline weakened to a tropical storm and passed just south of the Big Island of Hawaii, dumping heavy rainfall, surf, and gusty winds to the island. The cyclone eventually degenerated into a remnant low on September 2 before dissipating later that day.

Seasonal forecasts

RecordNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010):15.47.63.2 [3]
Record high activity: 1992: 27 2015: 16 2015: 11 [4]
Record low activity: 2010: 8 2010: 3 2003: 0 [4]
DateSourceNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
May 6, 2016 SMN 1073 [5]
May 27, 2016 NOAA 132061136 [6]
AreaNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Actual activity:EPAC20116
Actual activity:CPAC220
Actual activity:22136

On May 6, 2016, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) issued its first outlook for the Pacific hurricane season, forecasting a below average season with 10 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 6 major hurricanes. On May 27, NOAA released their outlook, forecasting 13-20 named storms, 6-11 hurricanes, and 3-6 major hurricanes. NOAA admitted that this season would be difficult to predict because of changing conditions, but both organizations cited a dissipating El Niño and the formation of a La Niña event, which resulted in the prediction of a near-normal season in both basins. In the Central Pacific, about four to seven cyclones would form or enter within the basin, citing an equal 40% chance of an above-normal or near-normal season.

El Niño Warm phase of a cyclic climatic phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to occur close to four years, however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.

La Niña A coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño

La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the colder counterpart of El Niño, as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern. The name La Niña originates from Spanish, meaning "the little girl", analogous to El Niño meaning "the little boy". It has also in the past been called anti-El Niño, and El Viejo. During a period of La Niña, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3 to 5°C. An appearance of La Niña persists for at least five months. It has extensive effects on the weather across the globe, particularly in North America, even affecting the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane seasons.

Seasonal summary

Hurricane OttoHurricane Newton (2016)Hurricane Madeline (2016)Hurricane Darby (2016)Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale2016 Pacific hurricane season
Four simultaneous tropical cyclones existed on July 22. From left to right: Darby, Estelle, Eight-E (which would soon become Georgette), and Frank Darby, Estelle, Frank and Eight 2016-07-22 0000Z.jpg
Four simultaneous tropical cyclones existed on July 22. From left to right: Darby, Estelle, Eight-E (which would soon become Georgette), and Frank

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index for the 2016 Pacific hurricane season was 184.575 units (145.4575 units from the Eastern Pacific and 39.1175 units from the Central Pacific). [nb 1]

As the new year began, Pali formed on January 7, two days before Tropical Storm Winona's formation in 1989. Pali subsequently surpassed Hurricane Ekeka's record and became a hurricane on January 11. When Pali reached a peak intensity of 100 mph, it surpassed Winona to become the strongest January tropical cyclone east of the dateline. Although Pali formed in January, the season kicked off to a very inactive start; for the first time since 2011, no tropical depressions or storms formed during the month of May, and no named storms formed during June since 2007.[ citation needed ]

Hurricane Ekeka Category 3 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1992

Hurricane Ekeka was the most intense off-season tropical cyclone on record in the north-eastern pacific basin. The first storm of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Ekeka developed on January 28 well to the south of Hawaii. It gradually intensified to reach major hurricane status on February 2, although it subsequently began to weaken due to unfavorable wind shear. It crossed the International Date Line as a weakened tropical storm, and shortly thereafter degraded to tropical depression status. Ekeka continued westward, passing through the Marshall Islands and later over Chuuk State, before dissipating on February 9 about 310 miles (500 km) off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The storm did not cause any significant damage or deaths.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

2011 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season and was the first season since 2009 that featured no depressions or named storms in the month of May. It had six major hurricanes which was above average for a Pacific hurricane season. The season officially started on May 15, 2011, for the eastern Pacific, and started on June 1, 2011, for the central Pacific, both of which ended on November 30, 2011. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. A total of 11 named storms were observed, which is below average.

Agatha formed on July 2, the latest first named storm in the eastern Pacific proper since 1969. Despite this, the season set a record for the most number of storms during the first half of July. When Georgette formed on July 21, it became the seventh named storm to form in the month of July; equaling the previous record set in 1985 and 2015 for the most active July since reliable records began. And when Frank became a hurricane (after Georgette did so), it marked a record-high 5 hurricanes in July. Finally, Howard formed on July 31, however, was not named until August 1, one named storm shy of the record. Despite that, the season tied the record set in 1985 with the most named storms in July. Activity in August was slightly less active than July. Lester and Madeline threatened the Big Island at hurricane strength. Lester passed north of the islands, Madeline brought some rain as the storm dissipated south of Hawaii. Javier and Newton followed similar paths close to the Mexican coast, with both making landfall in the Baja California Peninsula in August and early September respectively. After Newton led off September; Hurricanes Orlene, Paine and Tropical Storm Roslyn followed forming far from land. Hurricane Ulika became the first tropical cyclone on record to cross 140°W three times; it also became the first named storm in the Central Pacific basin since Pali back in January. Ulika was the first storm since Ela in 2015 to form in the Eastern Pacific, but not be named until entering the Central Pacific. After an unusually quiet October, Hurricane Seymour became the sixth major hurricane of the season, as well as the strongest. Tropical Storm Tina formed close to the coast of Mexico in mid-November. In late November, Tropical Storm Otto entered the basin from the Atlantic, becoming only the eighteenth cyclone to do so; however, it dissipated quickly due to unfavorable conditions.[ citation needed ]

1969 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1969 Pacific hurricane season was an event in meteorology. It officially started on May 15, 1969, in the eastern Pacific and lasted until November 30, 1969. However, the first named storm, Ava, did not form until July 1, the latest date that the first named storm of a season formed. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

1985 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1985 Pacific hurricane season is the third-most active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially started on May 15, 1985, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1985, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1985. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At the time, the 1985 season was the most active on record in the eastern north Pacific, with 28 tropical cyclones forming. Of those, 24 were named, 13 reached hurricane intensity, and 8 became major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. At that time, the 24 named storms was a record; however, this record was broken seven years later in 1992, and was therefore recognized as the second busiest season within the basin, until it was surpassed exactly thirty years later by the 2015 season.

Baja California Peninsula peninsula of North America on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

Systems

Hurricane Pali

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Pali 2016-01-13 Suomi NPP.jpg   Pali 2016 track.png
DurationJanuary 7 – January 14
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  978  mbar  (hPa)

A powerful and long-lived westerly wind burst—a feature commonly associated with strong El Niño events—spurred cyclogenesis within a persistent low-latitude, west-to-east oriented surface trough that spanned between 1.0°N and 3.0°N latitude as far east as 155.0°W longitude, resulting in the formation of an area of low pressure on January 6. [7] Fueled by unusually high sea surface temperatures, estimated at 29.5 °C (85.1 °F), the system gradually coalesced into a tropical depression on January 7. This marked the earliest formation of a tropical cyclone on record in the Central Pacific, surpassing 1989's Tropical Storm Winona by six days. [8] A ridge aloft centered directly overhead the system enhanced its poleward outflow, enabling the depelopement of deep convection around its center, which soon strengthened into a tropical storm receiving the name Pali, becoming the earliest such system in the northeastern Pacific on record. [7] [9]

Pali continued intensifying through the first half of January 8 and nearly reached hurricane strength, but easterly vertical wind shear caused by the ridge aloft disrupted its center, causing it to start weakening and move northwestward. [7] Steady weakening continued through January 9 as Pali's deep convection was displaced to the west of its low-level center and intermittently pulsed, later leading to a dramatic decrease in intensity. [7] By the end of that day, Pali barely maintained tropical storm strength, and the lack of persistent deep convection permitted it to be less affected by the easterly wind shear, causing its forward motion to decrease significantly. [7] As the ridge aloft weakened and retreated southward on January 10, causing vertical wind shear to gradually diminish, Pali started re-intensifying, with persistent deep convection redeveloping near its center and within its western quadrant. [7] On January 11, the ridge aloft passed directly over Pali, leading to the reestablishment of poleward outflow and eventual development of southwesterly flow aloft, enabling its convection to slowly increase in coverage and organization within all quadrants and establishing a northeastward movement. [7] On January 12, light vertical wind shear and high sea surface temperatures enabled Pali to strengthen into a Category 1 hurricane, becoming the earliest hurricane on record in the northeast Pacific basin, beating the previous record set by Hurricane Ekeka in 1992. [7] Later that day, Pali strengthened further into a Category 2 hurricane while travelling southwards, reaching its peak intensity. [7] [10]

During the next few days, Pali rapidly weakened while turning back towards the south-southeast, due to steady increases in southerly vertical wind shear and loss of Coriolis force. Further decay in the organization of deep convection made Pali being downgraded into a remnant low late on January 14. [7] While weakening, Pali reached a minimum latitude of 2.3°N, making it the second-lowest latitude tropical cyclone on record in the Western Hemisphere, behind Tropical Depression Nine-C which attained a minimum latitude of 2.2°N just two weeks prior. [7] [11] Pali completed a broad and looping track, by dissipating approximately 50 nmi (58 mi; 93 km) from where it initially developed. [7]

Unrelated to Pali, Hurricane Alex developed over the Atlantic during the last few days of Pali's existence. This marked the first known occurrence of simultaneous January tropical cyclones between the two basins. [12]

Tropical Depression One-E

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
01E 2016-06-07 1708Z.jpg   One-E 2016 track.png
DurationJune 6 – June 8
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006  mbar  (hPa)

On June 4, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring an area for possible development. [13] Over the next few days, the chances of the storm forming were low. Unexpectedly, however, on June 6, advisories began to be issued on Tropical Depression One-E. [14] [15] This led the Government of Mexico to issue a Tropical Storm Watch for its coast. [16] On June 7, the watch was removed as the storm weakened slightly. [17] Early on June 8, the storm made landfall in Mexico near the Gulf of Tehuantepec and dissipated. [18]

As a precautionary measure, temporary shelters were opened across Chiapas. [19] The depression caused minor damage across Oaxaca, primarily within the Salina Cruz municipality. Heavy rains led to some street flooding and a sinkhole that damaged one home. [20]

Tropical Storm Agatha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Agatha 2016-07-02 2130Z.jpg   Agatha 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 2 – July 5
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002  mbar  (hPa)

On June 30, the National Hurricane Center began to monitor an area for possible formation. On July 1, organization unexpectedly increased. [21] Seven hours later, early on July 2, the tropical disturbance strengthened into Tropical Depression Two-E. The system quickly organized, and later that day, the NHC upgraded Two-E into Tropical Storm Agatha. [22] Agatha slightly strengthened to peak intensity on July 3. [23] Winds topped off at 50 mph. Soon after, Agatha weakened slightly, with winds lowering to 40 mph later that day. The storm continued westwards over the next two days. Early on July 5, Agatha became post-tropical. [24]

With Agatha's naming nearly two months into the season (on July 2), the storm is the second-latest first named storm in the eastern Pacific proper only Tropical Storm Ava, which reached tropical storm intensity on July 3, 1969, formed later in the season. [22]

Hurricane Blas

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Blas 2016-07-06 2155Z.jpg   Blas 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 2 – July 10
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min)  947  mbar  (hPa)

On June 27, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave moving over Central America for possible development. [25] A low pressure area formed south of Mexico on June 30, [26] and early on July 3, the storm gained enough organization to be designated Tropical Depression Three-E. [27] Six hours later, amid a favorable environment with high sea surface temperatures and decreasing vertical wind shear, it intensified into Tropical Storm Blas. [28] Steady strengthening ensued, and Blas intensified into a hurricane on July 4. [29] Intensification stalled for the remainder of that day as dry air wrapped into the circulation; [30] however, Blas began to rapidly deepen on July 5, and it became the first major hurricane of the season that evening. [31] Blas quickly reached peak intensity at Category 4 strength on July 6. [32] Blas weakened to a Category 3 hurricane soon after, before transitioning into an annular tropical cyclone and maintaining intensity. [33] However, Blas soon passed over decreasing sea surface temperatures, resulting in a slow weakening trend; Blas weakened below major hurricane status late on July 7, [34] and down to a Category 1 hurricane by the next day. [35] Blas further degraded to a tropical storm on July 9, [36] as weakening accelerated amid a stable air mass and increasing southwesterly shear. [37] Over sea surface temperatures of 24 °C (75 °F), Blas weakened to a tropical depression on July 10, [38] and degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone soon after. [39]

Moisture associated with the remnants of Blas brought showers to Hawaii. [40] Peak daily rainfall totals primarily ranged between 1 to 2 in (25 to 50 mm) and did not cause any serious flooding. [41]

Hurricane Celia

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Celia 2016-07-12 2140Z.jpg   Celia 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 6 – July 16
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  972  mbar  (hPa)

On June 27, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave over Central America. [42] The wave entered the East Pacific the following day, eventually gaining sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on July 6. [43] The newly formed cyclone initially struggled to intensify with upwelling resultant from Hurricane Blas, [44] but a formative central dense overcast and several spiral bands prompted an upgrade to Tropical Storm Celia by 15:00 UTC on July 8. [45] Celia began to intensify after moving into warmer waters, obtaining Category 1 hurricane intensity by 21:00 UTC on July 10 and peaking as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) the next afternoon. [46] [47] Thereafter, progressively cooler waters caused the system to weaken: it fell below hurricane intensity by 09:00 UTC on July 13, [48] weakened to a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on July 15 after entering the Central Pacific, [49] and degenerated into a remnant low well east-northeast of Hawaii six hours later. [50]

Although the remnants of Celia passed north of Hawaii, it disrupted the typical trade winds, resulting in higher humidity across the island group and brief, but heavy showers over central Oahu and the windward slopes of Maui and the Big Island on July 18. [41] Precipitation totals ranged form 1 to 2.5 in (25 to 65 mm), prompting flash flood advisories. In addition to the rain, large swells as high as 15 ft (4.6 m) generated by Celia and its remnants affected the east-facing shores of the Hawaiian Islands. resulting in high surf advisories. These swells produced rough surf that caused two drowning deaths on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu on July 16. [51]

Hurricane Darby

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Darby 2016-07-16 1850Z.jpg   Darby 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 11 – July 26
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  958  mbar  (hPa)

In the first two weeks of July, five low pressure systems formed in the Eastern Pacific. The fourth of these was first noted by the National Hurricane Center on July 9; it was located in a favorable environment, and was expected to develop into a tropical storm. [52] On July 11, the low was upgraded into Tropical Depression Five-E. [53] On July 12, Five-E intensified into a tropical storm, and was assigned the name Darby; the next day it attained hurricane status. It later strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on July 15. On July 16, despite traveling over cooler waters, Darby unexpectedly became a Category 3 hurricane.[ citation needed ] However, 6 hours later, Darby weakened back to a Category 2. [54] Over the next four days, Darby gradually degraded over cooler waters as the storm moved westwards, towards Hawaii.[ citation needed ] But, as it advanced closer towards the area, it strengthened again, prompting several Tropical Storm warnings and watches to be issued for the Hawaiian Islands. [55] At 00:00 UTC July 24, it made landfall near Pahala of the Big Island. [56] Crossing the island as a minimal tropical storm, it was the first to do so since Hurricane Iselle in 2014. Slight weakening occurred as Darby traversed the island, however the storm retained minimal tropical storm strength as the storm began to move northwestwards. On July 25, Darby was downgraded into a depression near Oahu and degraded into a remnant low 18 hours later.[ citation needed ]

Tropical Storm Estelle

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Estelle 2016-07-18 1835Z.jpg   Estelle 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 15 – July 22
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  990  mbar  (hPa)

In the line of continuous tropical cyclones with the same path, the low that would become Estelle began to be monitored on July 14. [57] Less than a day after being designated as a low pressure system on July 15, it was upgraded to Tropical Depression Six-E. [58] Early on July 16, the fifth tropical storm of the Eastern Pacific season formed, being assigned the name Estelle. [59] By July 18, Estelle had strengthened into a 70 mph (110 km/h) storm, just below hurricane status, however, it slightly weakened afterwards. [60] Estelle continued to maintain its strength, however, by July 20, the storm was not forecast to strengthen into a hurricane and began degrading over cooler water northeast of Hawaii. [61] On July 22, Estelle weakened into a 40 mph (65 km/h) storm and degraded into a remnant low later that day. [62]

Hurricane Frank

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Frank 2016-07-26 2040Z.jpg   Frank 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 28
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  979  mbar  (hPa)

On July 16, the NHC noted that an area of low pressure was forecast to form south of Mexico in a few days. [63] A broad area of low pressure formed well south-southeast of Acapulco, Mexico three days later, [64] eventually organizing into Tropical Storm Frank by 21:00 UTC on July 21. [65] Steered northwest and then west-northwest, the cyclone steadily intensified within a favorable environment; by July 25, however, Frank passed over cooler waters resultant from previous cyclones, which caused weakening. [66] The system re-intensified after entering warm waters, becoming the record-setting fifth hurricane during the month by 15:00 UTC on July 26 and peaking with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) twelve hours later. [67] [68] The negative effects of cooler waters began to impede on the system shortly thereafter, causing Frank to weaken to a tropical storm by 15:00 UTC on July 27, [69] fall to a tropical depression by 15:00 UTC on July 28, [70] and degenerate into a remnant low six hours later. [71]

The outer rainbands of Frank brought heavy rains to Nayarit. In Tepic, several neighborhoods were flooded and 135 homes were damaged. [72] A total of 200 families were rendered homeless, and forced to seek shelter. [73] The remains of Frank passed near the island chain on August 3 and 4. Enhanced showers over the windward slopes resulted in daily rainfall totals over 1 in (25 mm) in isolated locations but no reported flooding problems. [74]

Hurricane Georgette

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Georgette 2016-07-25 0640Z.jpg   Georgette 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 27
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  952  mbar  (hPa)

On July 15, the NHC noted that an area of low pressure was forecast to form well south of Mexico early the subsequent week. [75] An area of disturbed weather became established south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec the following day, [76] organizing sufficiently to be deemed a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on July 21. [77] Despite moderate northeasterly wind shear, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Georgette by 15:00 UTC on July 22 and was further upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane by 03:00 UTC on July 24. [78] [79] Over a 24-hour period ending at 03:00 UTC July 25, the cyclone's maximum winds increased from 75 mph (120 km/h) to a peak of 130 mph (215 km/h) as convection became more symmetric and an eye cleared. [80] Progressively cooler waters and a more stable environment, however, caused Georgette to begin weakening soon thereafter: it fell below hurricane intensity by 15:00 UTC on July 26 and further degenerated into a remnant low well west-southwest of Baja California a day later. [81] [82]

Remnant moisture from Georgette brought heavy rain to Oahu on July 31 but caused only minor flooding. [41]

Tropical Storm Howard

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Howard 2016-08-02 1930Z.jpg   Howard 2016 track.png
DurationJuly 31 – August 3
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  998  mbar  (hPa)

On July 29, the NHC noted that an area of low pressure was forecast to form well south of Mexico. [83] A large mass of convection developed south of Acapulco, Mexico two days later, [84] eventually coalescing into the record-tying eighth tropical cyclone to form in the East Pacific during the month of July. [85] The depression intensified into Tropical Storm Howard by 09:00 UTC on August 1, [86] and although the cyclone struggled with westerly wind shear and upwelling, it ultimately attained peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) a day later. [87] Continuing on its west-northwest path, Howard entered cooler waters and a more stable environment, and the combination of the two factors caused the cyclone to degenerate into a remnant low well west of Baja California by 21:00 UTC on August 3. [88] The remnants of the system moved across the main Hawaiian Island group on August 7, dropping up to 2 in (51 mm) of rain over portions of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, with minor flooding occurring on northwestern Oahu and northern sections of Maui. [74]

Tropical Storm Ivette

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ivette 2016-08-04 1920Z.jpg   Ivette 2016 track.png
DurationAugust 2 – August 8
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1000  mbar  (hPa)

On July 25, the NHC highlighted an area well southwest of Baja California for tropical cyclone formation potential over the following week. [89] A broad area of low pressure formed south of Manzanillo, Mexico two days later, [90] eventually gaining ample organization to be declared a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on August 2. [91] The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ivette twelve hours later as banding increased. [92] Despite initial forecasts calling for a strong Category 1 hurricane, [92] moderate wind shear only allowed the cyclone to attain peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). [93] Continued wind shear and a more stable environment caused Ivette to weaken to a tropical depression by 03:00 UTC on August 8 as it entered the Central Pacific; [94] 18 hours later, the system degenerated into a remnant low well east of Hawaii. [95]

Tropical Storm Javier

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Javier 2016-08-08 2000Z.jpg   Javier 2016 track.png
DurationAugust 7 – August 9
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997  mbar  (hPa)

On August 2, the NHC noted that an area of low pressure in association with the remnants of Hurricane Earl could further develop into a tropical cyclone off the southwestern coastline of Mexico over subsequent days. [96] An area of disturbed weather formed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec two days later, [97] eventually acquiring sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression by 06:00 UTC on August 7. [98] [99] Surface observations from Manzanillo, Mexico by 16:00 UTC indicated that the depression had intensified into Tropical Storm Javier. [100] Steered northwest by a mid-level ridge over Texas, Javier initially struggled to intensify as a result of easterly wind shear; [101] by August 8, however, a reconnaissance aircraft found that the cyclone had strengthened to reach peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). [102] Drier air, increased wind shear, and land interaction caused Javier to quickly weaken thereafter; wind speeds had dropped to 50 mph (85 km/h) when Javier made landfall near San José del Cabo the next day at 03:30 UTC. [98] Javier weakened to a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC that day and degenerated to a remnant low six hours later. [98] [103] [104] The circulation of Javier dissipated late on August 10. [98]

The outer fringes of the storm brought flooding to Colima. Landslides occurred along Lazaro Cardenas and Mexican Federal Highway 200. [105] In Manzanillo, a bridge collapsed and numerous federal highways were damaged while the city's port closed due to high waves. [106] Shortly after attaining tropical storm status, a "green" alert was issued for the multiplicity of Los Cabos. [107] Officials opened 18 shelters across the southern Baja California Peninsula, while also closing ports. [108] When Javier was forecast to become a hurricane, an "orange" alert was issued for the entire state of Baja California Sur. [109] In the municipalities of La Paz and Los Cabos, authorities delayed the start of the school year. [110] Six flights were canceled to and from San Jose del Cabo. [111] In Sonora, a "blue" alert was declared. [112]

Tropical Storm Kay

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kay 2016-08-21 1825Z.jpg   Kay 2016 track.png
DurationAugust 18 – August 23
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1000  mbar  (hPa)

Late on August 15, the NHC began highlighting an area south of Baja California for the potential for tropical cyclone development over the subsequent week. [113] A broad area of low pressure developed well south of Manzanillo, Mexico the following day, [114] steadily organizing to be deemed a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on August 18. [115] Despite modest northeasterly shear, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Kay twelve hours later on its northwesterly trek. [116] While easterly shear osculated in strength, Kay peaked with winds of 50 mph, after a microwave data indicated the development of a mid level-eye. Soon after, however the separation between the mid and lower level centers caused Kay to become disorganized. The next day, Kay re-intensified, again reaching peak intensity. That intensity did not last for long, Kay entered water cooler than 26 °C later that day. Drier air and a stable environment weakened Kay into a depression by 1200 UTC on the 23rd, before Kay ultimately degenerated into a remnant low soon after. The low continued westwards, before dissipating about 585 miles west of Cabo San Lucas. [117]

Hurricane Lester

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lester 2016-08-29 2325Z.jpg   Lester 2016 track.png
DurationAugust 24 – September 7
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  944  mbar  (hPa)

On August 24, a well organized low-pressure system was upgraded into Tropical Depression Thirteen-E. Entering a favorable environment, the depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Lester. Moving steadily west-northwestwards, intensification continued, and Lester rapidly intensified on August 26 into a hurricane. Intensification continued throughout the day, with Lester reaching Category 2 strength the following day. By August 29, Lester had strengthened into the fourth major hurricane of the season. On August 30, Lester started to go through a weakening stage, at which point the storm began accelerating towards Hawaii. Late on August 30 Lester re-intensified to a Category 4 hurricane. The storm did not maintain this intensity, however, and on the next day dropped below major hurricane status as its eye filled with clouds. On September 1, Lester's eye cleared, and it once again became a Category 3 hurricane. Lester also moved very close to the Hawaiian islands, but passed safely to the east and quickly lost strength over cooler waters. [118]

The outer rainbands from Lester produced heavy showers and minor flooding over the leeward slopes of the Big Island and portions of east Maui on September 3. Winds were light, however. [119]

Hurricane Madeline

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Madeline 2016-08-29 2325Z.jpg   Madeline 2016 track.png
DurationAugust 26 – September 2
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  950  mbar  (hPa)

On August 21, the NHC noted that an area of low pressure could form well south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California over subsequent days. [120] An area of disturbed weather developed a few hours later, [121] slowly organizing into a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on August 26. [122] With an impressive spiral band and improved inner core, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Madeline six hours later. [123] Steered northwestward into the central Pacific, the cyclone initially struggled with moderate wind shear; however, an eye feature developed within the storm's central dense overcast by 09:00 UTC on August 29, prompting an upgrade to hurricane intensity. [124] Madeline began a period of rapid intensification thereafter, and with a cloud-filled eye surrounded by a ring of deep convection, was upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane by 21:00 UTC before ultimately peaking as a 130 mph (215 km/h) Category 4 hurricane early the next day. [125] [126]

An upper-level trough responsible for the cyclone's northwest trajectory moved north of the Hawaiian Islands on August 30, causing a subtropical ridge to the north of the cyclone to build southward. As a result, Madeline turned west and then southwest. [126] Under increasing wind shear, Madeline's cloud pattern became less rounded and the storm's eye became obscured, signaling its fall below major hurricane intensity. [127] The continued effect of strong westerly shear weakened Madeline to a tropical storm by 00:00 UTC on September 1, [128] to a tropical depression six hours later, [129] and further to a remnant low by 21:00 UTC on September 2 west-southwest of Hawaii. The remnant low ultimately dissipated southwest of Kauai the next day.

Madeline brought minor damage and flooding to the Big island of Hawaii. [130] Across the island, the storm was accountable for 5 to 11 in (125 to 280 mm) of rain spread out over a long period which mitigated serious flooding impacts. A few low-lying, flood-prone roads in Hilo were briefly inundated but no significant damage was reported. [74]

Hurricane Newton

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Newton 2016-09-06 1820Z.jpeg   Newton 2016 track.png
DurationSeptember 4 – September 7
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  977  mbar  (hPa)

On August 27, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first mentioned the potential for low pressure area to develop south of Mexico as an area for tropical cyclogenesis. [131] An area of disturbed weather formed on August 31 offshore western Guatemala, [132] which developed into a low-level trough the next day. [133] Favorable environmental conditions allowed the system to organize and develop a distinct low pressure area on September 2, which produced a widespread area of disorganized thunderstorms. [134] A circulation began organizing within the system, [135] leading to the NHC classifying it as Tropical Depression Fifteen-E late on September 4 about 220 mi (355 km) southwest of Manzanillo, Colima. [136]

With warm waters, moderate wind shear, and adequate moisture, the system continued to organize after formation, [136] strengthening to Tropical Storm Newton by early on September 5. The storm moved northwestward, steered by a ridge that over Texas. [137] Late on September 5, an eye was visible on satellite imagery, and the Hurricane Hunters observed flight-level winds of 85 mph (137 km/h); based on these observations, the NHC upgraded Newton to hurricane status. [138] With continued low wind shear and warm waters, Newton intensified further to a peak intensity of 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 6. [139] That day, the large wind field and 52 mi (83 km) eye failed to organize more, and the hurricane made landfall near Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, near peak intensity like Hurricane Odile did in 2014. [140]

Rounding the western periphery of the ridge, Newton turned northward and weakened over the Baja California Peninsula. The eyewall deteriorated and fell apart while the convection waned. [141] On September 7, Newton made a second landfall on mainland Mexico near Bahía Kino, Sonora, and weakened to tropical storm status. The storm curved to the northeast ahead of a broad trough, [142] with increasing wind shear exposing the center from the waning convection. [143] At 21:00 UTC on September 7, the NHC discontinued advisories on Newton, assessing that the storm degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone before crossing into southern Arizona. [144] The residual circulation continued northeastward, [145] dissipating by early on September 8. [146]

Hurricane Orlene

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Orlene 2016-09-12 2040Z.jpg   Orlene 2016 track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 17
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  967  mbar  (hPa)

On September 5, a tropical wave that had traversed the Atlantic basin moved into the Eastern Pacific. [147] Passing south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, the disturbance gradually organized, and by September 10, satellite images showed that a surface circulation has formed, however, thunderstorm activity was too disorganized to be classified as a tropical cyclone. It is estimated that Tropical Depression Sixteen-E formed at 00:00 UTC on September 11 about 700 miles (1,100 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, after s curved banding feature developed near the center. [147] The center became embedded in a central dense overcast, and six hours later, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Orlene.

Moving north-northwest around a ridge of high pressure, Orlene entered an area of warm sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, prompting a period of rapid intensification as a well-defined eye became visible at the center, and Orlene became a hurricane at 06:00 UTC September 12. [147] The hurricane eventually reached its peak intensity as a high-end Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 mph (180 km/h) at 18:00 UTC that day. The storm then moved into an area of cooler waters, which caused Orlene to weaken back to a tropical storm as it slowed down due to a trough approaching it and eventually replaced with a ridge. It began to turn west, and re-strengthened to a hurricane again before eventually succumbing to increasing wind shear and weakening again commenced. Orlene deteriorated into a remnant low by September 17, which persisted for another 12 hours before dissipating. [147] Trailing deep tropical moisture from the remnants of Orlene passing north of the island chain produced moderate to heavy rainfall and minor flooding along the windward slopes of Haleakala on September 23. [119]

Hurricane Paine

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Paine 2016-09-19 2100Z.jpg   Paine 2016 track.png
DurationSeptember 18 – September 20
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  979  mbar  (hPa)

The origins of Paine were complex, having originated from several tropical waves. On September 10, the first one moved into the Eastern Pacific. [148] It moved westwards over the next few days, spawning a small area of low pressure as a result. Convection remained disorganized due to easterly shear, which inhibited development. By September 16, another wave which had formed overtook the small low and absorbed it into its circulation. [148] The system became better organized with a large area of convection, but the circulation was elongated. Over the next day, wind shear decreased and convection became better organized, and it is estimated that a tropical depression formed at 00:00 UTC on September 18, about 325 miles (523 km) west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico, becoming a tropical storm about six hours later and assigned the name Paine. [148]

Almost immediately, the cyclone underwent a period of rapid intensification as it moved northwestwards around the periphery of a subtropical ridge that was over Mexico. [148] Banding features developed in association with a central dense overcast (CDO) that produced very deep convection. Early on September 19, Paine became a hurricane and shortly afterwards achieved its peak intensity around 18:00 UTC. [148] As fast as it became a hurricane, it weakened at a similar pace due to decreasing sea surface temperatures, and Paine degraded into a remnant low only a day after reaching its peak intensity. The remnants of Paine continued to move northward, before dissipating just offshore of the Baja California Peninsula, late on September 21. [148]

Tropical Storm Roslyn

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Roslyn 2016-09-26 2105Z.jpg   Roslyn 2016 track.png
DurationSeptember 25 – September 29
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  999  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave moved into the Eastern Pacific on September 17, spawning a broad area low pressure as it moved to the west. The disturbance lacked any significant organization until September 24, when shower and thunderstorm activity became a little more organized, although the system lacked a well-defined circulation. After gradually becoming better organized, it is estimated from satellite data that a tropical depression formed at 1200 UTC about 700 miles (1,100 km) southwest of the tip of Baja California. It moved northward and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Roslyn the next day at 00:00 UTC. Moderate wind shear and dry air prevented any significant strengthening, and by 18:00 UTC it attained a peak intensity of 50 mph (80 km/h). On September 27, southwesterly wind shear started to weaken Roslyn slowly over the next two days, weakening to a tropical depression on September 29 and degraded to a remnant low shortly afterwards, dissipating the next day a few hundred miles west of Cabo San Lazaro. [149]

Hurricane Ulika

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ulika 2016-09-27 2240Z.jpg   Ulika 2016 track.png
DurationSeptember 26 – September 30
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  992  mbar  (hPa)

On September 26, the NHC upgraded a long-tracked tropical wave into Tropical Depression Nineteen-E. Within hours of formation, the depression moved into the Central Pacific and was upgraded into Tropical Storm Ulika. [150] With an upper-level low to the northwest, Ulika slowly turned north, then northeast, back into the Eastern Pacific by 18:00 UTC the following day, Situated in a favorable environment, Ulika steadily intensified, reaching Category 1 strength at 2:00 a.m. PDT (09:00 UTC) on September 28, and simultaneously reaching a peak intensity of 75 mph (120 km/h). [151] Later that day, Ulika began weakening due to an increase in southwesterly wind shear. The low began to steer Ulika northwards, then northwestwards into September 29. While crossing back into the Central Pacific (for a record-tying third time), Ulika weakened into a remnant low the following day. The remains of the storm continued a westwards movement, then southwestwards until dissipating on October 3. [152]

Hurricane Ulika is noted to be only one of two tropical cyclones to form in the Eastern Pacific basin, then move into the Central Pacific basin, and then back into the Eastern Pacific basin. The other known tropical cyclone to do this is Hurricane Olaf of the previous year. Ulika is also the first tropical cyclone on record to cross from the eastern to the central Pacific twice, as it crossed 140°W a total of three times. Also, Ulika is only the sixth storm to form in the Eastern Pacific, but not be named until entering the central Pacific. The others were 1984's Lala, 1992's Iniki, 1994's Li, 2009's Lana and 2015's Ela.[ citation needed ]

Hurricane Seymour

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Seymour 2016-10-26 0605Z.jpg   Seymour 2016 track.png
DurationOctober 23 – October 28
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  940  mbar  (hPa)

On October 11, a fast-moving tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and traversed the Atlantic without development. By October 20, the disturbance emerged into the Pacific Ocean. [153] The next day, a weak surface circulation developed in response to a Gulf of Tehuantepec wind gap event. Organization continued further over the next two days, and after deep convection became more concentrated and the low became better defined, it is estimated that Tropical Depression Twenty-E formed around 06:00 UTC on October 23 about 360 miles (580 km) south of Manzanillo, Mexico, later strengthening into a tropical storm six hours later and assigned the name Seymour, accordingly. [153]

Moving westward, Seymour began developing banding features and an eye was becoming evident on satellite. The hurricane later entered a period of rapid intensification due to very favorable conditions, which included low wind shear, a moist atmosphere, and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of around 29–30 °C (84–86 °F). [153] The eye of Seymour later contracted to around 10 miles (16 km). By late on October 25, Seymour reached its peak intensity as a high-end category 4 major hurricane with sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a pressure of 940 millibars (28 inHg). Shortly after peaking in intensity, the cyclone rapidly weakened in response to increasing wind shear, drier air and decreasing sea surface temperatures due to upwelling as it turned northwestwards around the edge of a subtropical ridge. [153] By 18:00 UTC on October 27, Seymour had weakened to a tropical storm, shortly before degenerating into a remnant low early the next day. The low continued to drift northwards before dissipating on October 30 about 500 miles (800 km) west of Puerto Cortes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. [153]

Tropical Storm Tina

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tina 2016-11-13 1800Z.jpg   Tina 2016 track.png
DurationNovember 13 – November 14
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical disturbance broke off from a low- to mid-level trough over the northern Caribbean Sea on November 2, moving southwestwards into the Eastern Pacific by November 8. That same day, a low pressure area formed within the disturbance. Persistent deep convection significantly increased over the next few days, attributed to the passage of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave. Turning northwards due to a mid-level high, convection continued to increase despite increasing southwesterly wind shear. By November 12, a low-level circulation center formed within the much broader, though disorganized, system. Eventually, the circulation became sufficiently well-defined to be declared Tropical Storm Tina at 06:00 UTC on November 13. Due to the strong wind shear, however, Tina remained weak throughout the day, with winds never rising above 40 mph (65 km/h). As the low- and mid-level circulations began to decouple, Tina turned westwards the next day as it weakened to a tropical depression. Amid strong shear and a dry atmospheric environment, convection could not be sustained and Tina degenerated to a remnant low just 30 hours after its formation. The remnant low continued drifting westwards for the next four days, before dissipating completely on November 18. [154]

Tropical Storm Otto

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Otto 2016-11-25 1645Z.jpg   Otto 2016 track.png
DurationNovember 25 (Entered basin) – November 26
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  993  mbar  (hPa)

Early on November 25, the center of Tropical Storm Otto from the Atlantic basin emerged into the Eastern Pacific, becoming the first to do so since Hurricane Cesar–Douglas in 1996. [155] Due to crossing over the mountainous terrain of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Otto weakened somewhat as it moved westwards, with possible indications of its circulation being tilted. Continuing to move westwards due to the influence of a subtropical ridge to its north, Otto eventually encountered more hostile environmental conditions, as wind shear began to increase dramatically. The circulation of Otto became disrupted, and Otto opened up into a trough of low pressure on November 26. [156]

Other systems

On August 11, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that a tropical depression had developed near the International Dateline about 2,000 km (1,245 mi) to the northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii. [157] Over the next day, the system moved northwestwards and was last noted before it moved into the Western Pacific basin. [158] On September 12, the JMA had reported that another tropical depression had developed east of the International Dateline, [159] while the CPHC assessed it as having a low chance of formation in the next 48 hours. However, the system dissipated soon after amid unfavorable conditions.[ citation needed ] On October 3, according to its best track, the JMA started tracking a tropical depression to the east of the International Dateline. The system moved into the West Pacific, where it eventually became Typhoon Songda. [160] On October 15, the JMA started to track a tropical depression just east of the International Dateline, however, the tropical depression moved into the Western Pacific basin six hours later.[ citation needed ]

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2016. No names were retired during the 39th session of the RA IV hurricane committee on March 26, 2017; as such, they will all be reused in the 2022 season. [161] This was the same list used in the 2010 season, except for the name Ivette, which replaced Isis, after it became synonymous with the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. [162] Therefore, the name Ivette was used for the first time this year.

  • Agatha
  • Blas
  • Celia
  • Darby
  • Estelle
  • Frank
  • Georgette
  • Howard
  • Roslyn
  • Seymour
  • Tina
  • Virgil (unused)
  • Winifred (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)

Otto entered the northeastern Pacific basin from the Atlantic basin, retaining its name by having survived its passage over Central America as a tropical cyclone. However, the name "Otto" was later retired due to its significant impacts in Central America. [163]

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. [164] The next four names slated for use are shown below, though only two were used during the season.

  • Pali
  • Ulika
  • Walaka (unused)
  • Akoni (unused)

Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2016 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), denoted in parentheses, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2016 USD. Impacts in the Atlantic and western Pacific basins are excluded.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
2016 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates activeStorm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
PaliJanuary 7 – 14Category 2 hurricane100 (155)978NoneNoneNone
One-EJune 6 – 8Tropical depression35 (55)1006Southwestern MexicoMinorNone
AgathaJuly 2 – 5Tropical storm50 (85)1002NoneNoneNone
BlasJuly 2 – 10Category 4 hurricane140 (220)947 Hawaii NoneNone
CeliaJuly 6 – 16Category 2 hurricane100 (155)972HawaiiNone2
Darby July 11 – 26Category 3 hurricane120 (195)958HawaiiMinimalNone
EstelleJuly 15 – 22Tropical storm70 (110)990NoneNoneNone
FrankJuly 21 – 28Category 1 hurricane85 (140)979 Baja California Peninsula, Nayarit NoneNone
GeorgetteJuly 21 – 27Category 4 hurricane130 (215)952HawaiiNoneNone
HowardJuly 31 – August 3Tropical storm60 (95)998HawaiiNoneNone
IvetteAugust 2 – 8Tropical storm60 (95)1000NoneNoneNone
JavierAugust 7 – 9Tropical storm65 (100)997Western Mexico, Northwestern Mexico, Baja California PeninsulaMinimalNone
KayAugust 18 – 23Tropical storm50 (85)1000NoneNoneNone
LesterAugust 24 – September 7Category 4 hurricane145 (230)944HawaiiNoneNone
Madeline August 26 – September 2Category 4 hurricane130 (215)950HawaiiMinimalNone
Newton September 4 – 7Category 1 hurricane90 (150)977Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States $9.58 million9
OrleneSeptember 11 – 17Category 2 hurricane110 (175)967NoneNoneNone
PaineSeptember 18 – 21Category 1 hurricane90 (150)979Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United StatesMinimalNone
RoslynSeptember 25 – 29Tropical storm50 (85)999NoneNoneNone
UlikaSeptember 26 – 30Category 1 hurricane75 (120)992NoneNoneNone
SeymourOctober 23 – 28Category 4 hurricane150 (240)940Baja CaliforniaNoneNone
TinaNovember 13 – 14Tropical storm40 (65)1004Western MexicoNoneNone
Otto November 25 – 26Tropical storm70 (110)993None (after crossover)NoneNone
Season Aggregates
23 systemsJanuary 7 – November 26 150 (240)940$95.8 million11 

See also

Notes

  1. The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2016 Pacific hurricane season/ACE calcs.

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Hurricane Dora was one of few tropical cyclones to track across all three north Pacific basins and the first since Hurricane John in 1994. The fourth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1999 Pacific hurricane season, Dora developed on August 6 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. Forming as a tropical depression, the system gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora later that day. Thereafter, Dora began heading in a steadily westward, before becoming a hurricane on August 8. Under warm sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, the storm continued to intensify, eventually peaking as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on August 12.

2008 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.

2012 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.

Timeline of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season

Below is the Timeline of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, documenting all the storm formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, as well as dissipation. The 2009 Pacific hurricane season officially began on May 15, 2009, and will last until November 30. For convenience and clarity, in the timeline below, all landfalls are bolded. The timeline will also include information, when it becomes available, which was not operationally released, meaning that information from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center, such as information on a storm that was not operationally warned on, have been included.

2017 Pacific hurricane season event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes, though the season was significantly less active than the previous three seasons. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month.

2016 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the first above-average hurricane season since 2012, producing 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the first storm, Hurricane Alex which formed in the Northeastern Atlantic, developed on January 12, being the first hurricane to develop in January since 1938. The final storm, Otto, crossed into the Eastern Pacific on November 25, a few days before the official end. Following Alex, Tropical Storm Bonnie brought flooding to South Carolina and portions of North Carolina. Tropical Storm Colin in early June brought minor flooding and wind damage to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially Florida. Hurricane Earl left 94 fatalities in the Dominican Republic and Mexico, 81 of which occurred in the latter. In early September, Hurricane Hermine, the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, brought extensive coastal flooding damage especially to the Forgotten and Nature coasts of Florida. Hermine was responsible for five fatalities and about $550 million (2016 USD) in damage.

2018 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic ocean

The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.

Hurricane Genevieve (2014)

Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.

Meteorological history of Hurricane Harvey

Hurricane Harvey was the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting roughly $125 billion in damages in the affected areas. It lasted from mid-August until early September 2017, with many records for rainfall and landfall intensity set during that time. The eighth named storm, third hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Harvey originated from a broad area of low pressure southwest of Cape Verde that was first detected on August 13. Tracking steadily westward, the disturbance developed strong convection, a well-defined circulation, and sustained tropical storm-force winds, leading to the classification of Tropical Storm Harvey late on August 17. Moderate, easterly vertical wind shear kept Harvey weak, as it continued westwards into the Caribbean Sea; despite repeated predictions for gradual intensification by the National Hurricane Center, Harvey eventually opened up into a tropical wave on August 19. The remnants of Harvey continued to move westwards and reached the Yucatán Peninsula on August 22, and was forecast to regenerate into a tropical cyclone after exiting land.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Tropical Storm Carlotta (2018) Tropical Storm in the Pacific of 2018

Tropical Storm Carlotta was a tropical cyclone that caused flooding within several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the south of Mexico. On June 12, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) reported that a broad area of low pressure had formed several hundred miles south of southeastern Mexico. The NHC continued to track the disturbance over the next couple of days as it drifted northward. Following an increase in organization, the system was designated as a tropical depression on June 14 and was upgraded to tropical storm status the following evening. On June 16, Carlotta unexpectedly stalled within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar. Soon after, Carlotta began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the system weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. Carlotta weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.

Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 hurricane

Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that was the first to traverse all three North Pacific basins since Genevieve in 2014. The eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Hector originated from an area of low pressure that formed a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico on July 28. Amid favorable weather conditions, a tropical depression formed a few days later on July 31. The depression continued strengthening and became Tropical Storm Hector on the next day. Hector became a hurricane on August 2, and rapidly intensified into a strong Category 2 hurricane later in the day. After weakening while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, Hector quickly strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane late on August 5. Over the next week, Hector fluctuated in intensity multiple times due to eyewall replacement cycles and shifting wind shear. Hector achieved its peak intensity on August 6, as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). On the following day, the hurricane bypassed Hawaii approximately 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Increasing wind shear resulted in steady weakening of the storm, beginning on August 11. At that time, Hector accumulated the longest continuous stretch of time as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific since reliable records began. Eroding convection and dissipation of its eye marked its degradation to a tropical storm on August 13. The storm subsequently traversed the International Dateline that day. Hector later weakened into a tropical depression on August 15, before dissipating late on August 16.

Hurricane Olivia (2018)

Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.

Tropical Storm Vicente (2018)

Tropical Storm Vicente was a weak and small tropical cyclone affected the southwestern Mexico in late October 2018, causing deadly flooding and mudslides. The twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Vicente originated from a trough of low pressure that formed within a large area of disturbed weather near Central America early on October 19. Around midday, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, which prompted the National Hurricane Center to begin issuing advisories. Later in day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. Despite having only been a weak tropical storm, Vicente developed an intermittent eye-like feature. Unfavorable conditions prevented strengthening until late on October 20. At that time, Vicente peaked with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar. A day later, Vicente began to weaken due increasing wind shear before slightly restrengthening early on October 22. On October 23, Vicente weakened into a tropical depression. Later in the day, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low after making landfall in southwestern Mexico, before dissipating soon afterward.

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