1985 Pacific hurricane season

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1985 Pacific hurricane season
1985 Pacific hurricane season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 5, 1985
Last system dissipatedNovember 21, 1985
Strongest storm
Name Rick
  Maximum winds145 mph (230 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure951 mbar (hPa; 28.08 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions28
Total storms24
Hurricanes13
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
8
Total fatalities1 indirect
Total damage$1 million (1985 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987

The 1985 Pacific hurricane season is the third-most active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially started on May 15, 1985, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1985, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1985. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. [1] At the time, the 1985 season was the most active on record in the eastern north Pacific, with 28 tropical cyclones forming. Of those, 24 were named, 13 reached hurricane intensity, and 8 became major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. At that time, the 24 named storms was a record; however, this record was broken seven years later in 1992, and was therefore recognized as the second busiest season within the basin, until it was surpassed exactly thirty years later by the 2015 season.

1992 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind only the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

2015 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season was the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

Contents

Despite the activity, only one system made landfall in 1985. Hurricane Waldo caused moderate damage in Northwestern Mexico and one death in Kansas. Surf from Hurricanes Pauline and Rick caused minor damage in Hawaii. Hurricane Nele resulted in disruption in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, while Hurricane Ignacio threatened Hawaii, but only ended up producing light rainfall and minimal damage.

Hurricane Rick (1985) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 1985

Hurricane Rick was a very powerful hurricane that threatened Hawaii during September 1985. Rick originated from a tropical wave moved slowly westward over the warm waters south of Salina Cruz. Moving westward, the EPHC upgraded the low into a tropical depression on 0000 UTC September 1. The depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Rick midday on September 2. Initially, further intensification was slow to occur; the storm did not attain hurricane status until September 7, nearly a week after it first formed. After becoming a hurricane, Rick began to intensify more rapidly. Early the next day, the EPHC re-assessed the intensity of Rick to Category 4 status. Shortly thereafter, Rick reached its peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h). A weakening trend commenced on September 10; Hurricane Rick began to rapidly deteriorate while turning northwest. Within a few hours, the storm had weakened considerably. By September 11, Tropical Storm Rick merged with a trough. Early forecasts noted uncertainty in the storm's path; the hurricane approached the Hawaiian island group, coming close enough to require a high surf advisory. Even though Hurricane Rick turned north sooner than Pauline, the surf did rise slightly.

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands or the Leeward Islands are the small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain located northwest of the islands of Kauai and Niihau. Politically, they are all part of Honolulu County in the U.S. state of Hawaii, except Midway Atoll, which is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The United States Census Bureau defines this area, except Midway, as Census Tract 114.98 of Honolulu County. Its total land area is 3.1075 square miles (8.048 km2). All the islands except Nihoa are north of the Tropic of Cancer, making them the only islands in Hawaii that lie outside the tropics.

Hurricane Ignacio (1985) 1985 category 4 Pacific hurricane

Hurricane Ignacio threatened Hawaii during July 1985. A tropical depression formed on July 21 far from land. It became Tropical Storm Ignacio later that day. Ignacio then rapidly intensified and peaked with 130 mph (215 km/h) winds on July 24. Ignacio weakened quickly, though it briefly leveled off in intensity as a Category 2 hurricane. Ignacio was downgraded into a tropical storm on July 26 while passing south of Hawaii. Continuing to weaken, Ignacio dissipated on July 27. A hurricane watch was briefly issued for the Hawaiian Islands even though the watch was dropped when Ignacio weakened. However, Ignacio still brought high waves and light rainfall to the islands. A few roads were closed, but otherwise, damage was minimal.

Seasonal summary

Hurricane Waldo (1985)Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale1985 Pacific hurricane season
Most intense Pacific
hurricane seasons
Rank Season ACE
1 2018 318
2 1992 295
3 2015 287
4 1990 245
5 1978 207
6 1983 206
7 1993 201
8 2014 199
9 1984 193
10 1985 192

This year, 25 tropical cyclones formed in the eastern north Pacific (140°W to North America). Of those systems, three never strengthened beyond the depression stage, while 22 were named. This total was six storms above the 1966-1985 average [2] seven above the 1971-2006 average and nine above the 1949-2006 average of 13. [3] With a total 26 tropical cyclones and 24 named storms, [2] [4] this season was the most active on record, breaking the short-lived record held by the 1983 Pacific hurricane season, [5] though the 1992 Pacific hurricane season surpassed this record. This season is now the third-most active, being recently also surpassed by the 2015 Pacific hurricane season, which is now the second-most active overall. [6]

1983 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1983 Pacific hurricane season was the longest season ever recorded at that time, which was later surpassed by the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The 1983 Pacific hurricane season started on May 15, 1983 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1983 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. During the 1983 season, there were 21 named storms, which was slightly less than the previous season. Furthermore, eight storms reached major hurricane status, or Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). The decaying 1982–83 El Niño event likely contributed to this level of activity. That same El Niño influenced a very quiet Atlantic hurricane season.

Of the named systems, 10 peaked as tropical storms, 12 as hurricanes, and 8 reached the intensity of major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 strength or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The season lasted 170 days, three days longer than the 1984 Pacific hurricane season, but still then days longer than normal. The Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (EPHC) issued 620 bulletins during the season, 35 more than the previous season. [2] In the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility (140°W to the international dateline), three tropical cyclones formed. One of those stayed as a tropical depression through its life. One strengthened into a hurricane, and another crossed into the northwestern Pacific before eventually returning to the central Pacific. [4]

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

The Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was formerly the center responsible for forecasting Pacific hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific east of 140°W. It was part of the Weather Bureau Forecast Office San Francisco and was based in Redwood City.

Central Pacific Hurricane Center

The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central Pacific region: from the equator northward, 140°W–180°W, most significantly for Hawai‘i. It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu.

Although meteorologists expected a below-normal season, the season got on to a fast start [7] though no storms formed in May. The activity picked up significantly thereafter, with five storms forming in June, including one major hurricane and was the most active month of June on record at the time, although this mark was tied in 2018. [6] By the middle of July, a total of 10 storms had formed [7] with another tropical storm forming off the coast of Central America roughly every 10 days. [8] Throughout July, a record seven named storms formed, although this mark was matched in 2015 and 2016. [6]

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

2016 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.

Within two more weeks, 13 tropical storms or hurricanes had formed, including 4 major hurricanes. By August 23, 2 more storms had been named. By early September, a total of 17 named storms had developed, 6 of which became hurricanes. Roughly two weeks later, two additional named storms were classified. After a lull in late September and early October, a total of 22 storms had formed by mid-October [6] 21 of which developed in the EPHC's area of responsibility and the list of names was exhausted, forcing the agency to request emergency names. [9]

Area of Responsibility (AOR) is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan (UCP), that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander bears a certain responsibility. The term may also be used in other countries worldwide but it originated within the United States Armed Forces. This system is designed to allow a single commander to exercise command and control of all military forces in the AOR, regardless of their branch of service.

The cause of the high activity in 1985 is unknown; however, this year continued a trend of above average season that began in 1981. [9] The hurricane season took place during a La Niña event, [10] which tends to inhibit Pacific hurricane activity. [11] However, 1985 was during a warm phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation [12] and in the middle of an era where all but the 1988 Pacific hurricane season were near or above average. [11]

Several storms were investigated by hurricane hunter aircraft in 1985; [2] the first was on July 24 during Hurricane Ignacio. On September 10, a flight was made into Hurricane Rick, where the storms lowest pressure was recorded. [4] Hurricane Sandra was investigated on September 12 on the way from Hawaii, where the hunters were on standby. The final two flights of the season were made on September 21 and 22 into Hurricane Terry while the storm was located off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula. In addition to Hurricane Hunter aircraft, the National Weather Service satellite station provided the basin with adequate satellite converge. The earlier loss of a GOES-East satellite and the move of a GOES-west satellite further west had little effect on EPHC operations. Enhanced infrared imagery was especially useful in determining cold-core centers. [2]

Even though the early season storms were no threat to land, [13] there were several notable storms during the season, with one writer describing the season as the "worst year ever". [9] The first storm of series of storms to affect Hawaii, Hurricane Ignacio produced 10 ft (3.0 m) to 15 ft (4.6 m) waves along south-facing beaches. However, rainfall from Ignacio was light. The second storm to affect the state, Tropical Storm Linda dropped heavy rainfall along the windward slopes of the island chain. In early September, Hurricane Pauline came close enough to require a hurricane watch, but the watch was discontinued when Pauline veered north. However, the storm did produced high waves, with amplitudes of 10 ft (3.0 m) to 15 ft (4.6 m) on the eastern side of Puna and Kau. Days later, Hurricane Rick generated high waves; however, the waves were not nearly as high as they were during Pauline. The final storm to affect Hawaii was Hurricane Nele. [4] Due to fears of a repeat from Hurricane Iwa, which struck during the 1982 Pacific hurricane season, a hurricane watch was issued. [14] Although the watch was discontinued when Nele veered west, it later re-curved and struck the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, giving boats a rough night. [4]

The only storm to make landfall during the year was Hurricane Waldo. [2] Waldo destroyed hundreds of homes in Sinaloa and later produced significant rainfall across the Southwestern United States and Great Plains. One person was killed in Kansas. [9] [15] In addition, two storms affected California. The first, Tropical Storm Guillermo, helped firefighters put out fires during mid-July. [16] The second, Tropical Storm Nora, brought light rainfall to the northern portion of the state in late August. [2]

Systems

Tropical Storm Andres

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Andres 1985-06-06 2030Z.png   Andres 1985 track.png
DurationJune 5 – June 12
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 

On June 1, an area of thunderstorms south of Acapulco developed. It increased in size and, by June 5, was organized enough to be considered a tropical depression. The depression was upgraded to a tropical storm shortly after thereafter. While the Monthly Weather Review reported that Tropical Storm Andres operationally started out as a tropical depression. [17] the HURDAT database does not give Andres an initial depression stage. [6] Andres headed west, and two days after formation, it reached its maximum intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) while located south of the Baja California Peninsula. It then slowly weakened as it moved around a weak upper-level high. It weakened to a depression on June 8. The low stayed a depression as it continued west until it dissipated on June 12 as the cyclone gradually increased in speed. [17]

Hurricane Blanca

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Blanca 1985-06-13 2000Z.png   Blanca 1985 track.png
DurationJune 6 – June 16
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min) 

Blanca originated from a tropical disturbance south of Nicaragua. A tropical depression formed on June 6 south of the Mexican coast. Shortly thereafter, it strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Blanca. By June 8, the EPHC reported that Blanca had intensified into a hurricane. [2] Blanca fluctuated in intensity for several days, but Blanca did not intensify into a major hurricane, Category 3 or higher, until June 13. After reaching its peak intensity that day with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) later that day, Hurricane Blanca began to weaken. It held on to hurricane strength until June 14, when the agency reported that Hurricane Blanca had fallen to tropical storm intensity. Steadily weakening, Blanca deteriorated into a tropical depression, before dissipating on June 16. [6]

As a precaution, maritime operations were closed in the western states of Colima, Guerrero and Michoacan. Travel on the high seas and along the coast was also restricted. [18]

Tropical Storm Carlos

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Carlos Jun 9 1985 2209Z.png   Carlos 1985 track.png
DurationJune 7 – June 10
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Carlos originated from a tropical disturbance moving that was moving westward along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The wave developed into the third tropical cyclone of the season at 1800 UTC on June 7. Due to weak steering currents, the depression moved north and then south, which subsequently resulted in a very small cyclonic loop. By 0000 UTC on June 10, the depression was upgraded to a Tropical Storm Carlos; at the time, the storm also attained its maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). However, six hours later, Carlos weakened back to a tropical depression. Thereafter, the storm accelerated somewhat, and quickly merging with the remnants of Tropical Storm Andres at 1800 UTC on June 10. [2]

Hurricane Dolores

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Dolores 1985-06-30 2230Z.png   Dolores 1985 track.png
DurationJune 26 – July 5
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 

A disturbance located south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec moved westward along 10°N between June 24 and June 25. After interacting with an upper trough, the disturbance strengthened, and by the following day, it developed into the fourth tropical depression of the season at 0600 UTC. The depression steadily intensified and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dolores late on June 27. Dolores strengthened further while tracking west-northwestward around the southern end of a deep layer ridge. By 1800 UTC on June 28, the storm had reached hurricane intensity. Thereafter, Dolores continued to steadily deepen, and by 0600 UTC on July 1, the storm peaked as a 115 mph (185 km/h) Category 3 hurricane. However, due to colder sea surface temperatures and increasing vertical wind shear, Dolores quickly weakened, and by early on July 2, it was downgraded to a tropical storm. Later that day, the storm further weakened to a tropical depression. At around 1800 UTC on July 5, Dolores dissipated. [2]

Tropical Storm Enrique

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Enrique 29 June 1985.jpg   Enrique 1985 track.png
DurationJune 27 – July 5
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Enrique began as a tropical disturbance in the ITCZ [2] west of the larger and very intense Hurricane Dolores. [4] Moving west over 81 °F (27 °C) water, the system was designated as a tropical depression on June 27. Shortly thereafter, it intensified Tropical Storm Enrique. Turning west-northwest, the storm moved over slightly warmer water. Despite this, Enrique never strengthened beyond 40 mph (65 km/h) winds, and entered the CPHC's warming responsibility on July 1. Turning west beneath a ridge, [2] Enrique rapidly weakened to tropical depression status. [6] On July 4, the shallow and weak system turned slightly south of west. Enrique had dissipated by July 5. Despite its weak intensity, moisture carried by the system caused a few localized heavy showers on the windward side of the Big Island of Hawaii on July 5 and over the Kona slopes throughout the night hours of July 5 and 6. [4]

Tropical Storm Fefa

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Fefa 1985-07-03 2200Z.png   Fefa 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 2 – July 6
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance moved westward across the warm sea surface temperatures of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on July 1. At 1200 UTC on the following day, the disturbance was classified as Tropical Depression Six, while centered about 215 miles (346 km) south of Acapulco. Early on July 3, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Fefa, while moving parallel to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Fefa approached hurricane status and peaked as a 70 mph (110 km/h) tropical storm at 0000 UTC on July 4. However, thereafter, the storm began weakening as a short-wave trough in the westerlies moved into northern Mexico, which caused increased wind shear on Tropical Storm Fefa. Additionally, colder sea surface temperatures over the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula further weakened Fefa. By 1800 UTC on July 6, Fefa dissipated. At the time of dissipation, the low while located about 170 miles (270 km) east of La Paz. [2]

Tropical Storm Guillermo

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Guillermo 10 July 1985.jpg   Guillermo 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 7 – July 12
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 

The origins of Guillermo were from a tropical disturbance that formed within 300 mi (485 km) south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Moving rapidly west-northwest over moderately warm water, the disturbance was classified as a tropical depression. At this time, the depression was centered 270 mi (435 km) south of Acapulco on July 7. Roughly 24 hours later, the storm intensified slightly, enough to warrant an upgraded into Tropical Storm Guillermo. Tropical Storm Guillermo moved northwest at almost 20 mph (32 km/h) around the southwest side of a high pressure area over Central Mexico. Passing 50 mi (80 km) north of Socorro Island, Guillermo attained its maximum intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h) during the evening of July 9. [2]

Shortly after its peak, Guillermo began to weaken rapidly due to a combination of strong wind shear and 77 °F (25 °C) waters. By 1800 UTC, most of the thunderstorm activity had dissipated and only a weak low-pressure area remained. Based on this, Guillermo was downgraded into a tropical depression. Finally, Guillermo turned west and ceased to exist as a tropical cyclone on July 12. [2] The remnants of the storm brought light rainfall to the mountains and valleys of California, helping re-fill dry reservoirs and put out large fires. [16]

Tropical Storm Hilda

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Hilda 19 July 1985.jpg   Hilda 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 18 – July 20
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Depression Nine developed at 0000 UTC on July 18. Initially, the depression tracked northward due to weak southerly flow associated with an upper-level high centered near the southern tip of Baja California Sur. By 0000 UTC on July 19, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Hilda; the storm reached its maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) at this time. Thereafter, Hilda turned westward. Due to sea surface temperatures of only 75 °F (24 °C), Hilda began to weaken and it dissipated on 1200 UTC July 20. [2]

Hurricane Jimena

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jimena 1985-07-24 1630Z.png   Jimena 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 20 – July 29
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 

Jimena originated from a tropical wave that moved across Central America and southern Mexico on July 18 and 19. Located along the northern edge of the ITCZ, a tropical depression formed by July 20. Initially moving west, the depression turned west-northwest and was upgraded into Tropical Storm Jimena early on July 21. Jimena attained hurricane intensity two days later. Hurricane Jimena remained a Category 1 hurricane for roughly another day, only to undergo a burst of intensification [6] despite being above marginally warm ocean temperatures. The storm attained peak wind speed of 130 mph (215 km/h) while located roughly 600 mi (965 km) southwest of Cabo San Lucas. [2]

After maintaining peak intensity for 12 hours, Jimena turned northwest, and respectively began a slow decline. Jimena fell below hurricane status on 1800 UTC July 26. Tropical Storm Jimena was downgraded into a tropical depression late on July 27. Jimena was no longer considered a tropical cyclone by July 29, as its center had dissipated over fairly cold water. [2]

Hurricane Ignacio

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ignacio 1985-07-23 2200Z.png   Ignacio 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 27
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  960  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical depression was spotted early on July 21 while located 1,623 mi (2,612 km) southwest of San Diego. Situated over warm waters, the depression attained tropical storm intensity a couple hours later. [2] Ignacio reached winds of 70 mph (140 km/h) on July 22, roughly 24 hours after formation, and subsequently entered the CPHC's warning zone. A Hurricane Hunter aircraft investigated Ignacio at daybreak on July 22, and thus upgraded Ignacio into hurricane status. Continuing to rapidly intensify, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft discovered that Hurricane Ignacio had reached its peak wind speed of 130 mph (210 km/h) and an estimated central pressure of 960 mbar (28 inHg). [4] Operationally, Ignacio was believed to have peaked as a Category 5 hurricane. [19] Shortly after its peak, the environment was rapidly becoming less conductive. By the evening on July 24, Ignacio was no longer a major hurricane. [4] The hurricane resumed its westerly course, and Ignacio was re-assessed as a tropical storm on July 26. Passing south of the island chain, Ignacio dissipated on July 27. [4]

On July 24, a high surf advisory was issued for east-facing shores of Hawaii; [20] subsequently, a hurricane watch was issued the next day for the Big Island. [4] Roughly 24 hours after the watch was issued, it was cancelled [4] though a small craft advisory remained in effect for the Hawaiian Islands. [21] Ignacio resulted in 10 ft (3.0 m) to 15 ft (4.6 m) surf, peaking midday on July 25. Rainfall from the storm was generally light [4] though many secondary roads that lead to the beaches were closed. [21] [22]

Tropical Storm Kevin

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kevin 1985-08-02 2030Z.png   Kevin 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 29 – August 6
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical wave crossed the Gulf of Tehuantepec on July 27 and developed into a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on July 29. While tracking west-northwestward between 7 and 11 mph (11 and 18 km/h), the depression slowly intensified, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Kevin at 1800 UTC on July 31. Crossing marginally warm sea surface temperatures, Kevin maintained tropical storm intensity while tracking westward. However, by August 5, vertical wind shear began increasing, which was generated by an upper-level trough. As a result, Kevin weakened to a tropical depression at 0600 UTC on August 6 and dissipated 12 hours later. [2]

Tropical Storm Linda

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Linda 1 August 1985.jpg   Linda 1985 track.png
DurationJuly 29 – August 9
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical wave formed on July 28 over fairly warm water. Moving west-northwest, the system was declared a tropical depression far from land the next day. It became Tropical Storm Linda later on July 29. A relatively weak cyclone, Linda peaked as a moderate tropical storm at 1200 UTC on July 31. Shortly after its peak, Tropical Storm Linda began to weaken over cooler waters and increased wind shear. Linda began to weaken and was downgraded into a tropical depression on August 2. Two days later, it passed into the CPHC's area of responsibility. [2]

Upon entering the warning zone, the tropical depression was moving slowly toward the northwest and within six hours, Tropical Depression Linda began to re-intensify. On August 4, the storm had regained tropical storm status. Subsequently, Linda reaches its secondary peak with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). Linda remained a tropical storm for about 24 hours before it started to weaken again on August 5. It was downgraded to a tropical depression early the next day. Meanwhile, Linda turned west under the influence of northerly trade winds. The depression came within 150 mi (240 km) of South Point, Hawaii, before dissipating early on August 9. Some heavy showers associated with the outer rainband's of the low fell on the windward slopes of the Big Island of Hawaii and Maui, where rainfall totals of 5–10 in (130–250 mm) were recorded. [4]

Hurricane Marty

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Marty 1985-08-08 2100Z.png   Marty 1985 track.png
DurationAugust 6 – August 13
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance crossed the coast of El Salvador and entered the Pacific Ocean on August 3. After moving westward over sea surface temperatures of 84 °F (29 °C), the disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen at 1800 UTC on August 6, while centered about 460 mi (740 km) southwest of Acapulco. While tracking west-northwestward at about 13 mph (21 km/h), the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Marty at 1200 UTC August 7. Further strengthening occurred and Marty became a hurricane on 0000 UTC August 9. However, after 18 hours as a hurricane, Marty weakened back to a tropical storm as it began tracking across colder sea surface temperatures. Early on August 13, Marty weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated later that day at 1800 UTC. [2]

Tropical Storm Nora

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Nora 22 August 1985.jpg   Nora 1985 track.png
DurationAugust 19 – August 23
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance detached from the ITCZ on August 18. While tracking across an area of sea surface temperatures of 81 °F (27 °C), the disturbance slowly intensified and the EPHC reported that the system had developed tropical depression at 1800 UTC on August 19. Initially, the depression remained weak, though by 1200 UTC on August 21, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Nora. Thereafter, Nora turned northwestward toward a deep-layer low pressure area offshore of California. During this time, the storm began to weaken due to a decrease in sea surface temperatures. Nora weakened back to a tropical depression on August 22. Nora began to dissipate at 1200 UTC August 23 over 73 °F (23 °C) waters. Meanwhile, low-level clouds began to enter the storm's circulation. The high-level outflow associated with the storm moved northward and then eastward, resulting in light rainfall in Northern California on August 22 and 23. [2]

Hurricane Olaf

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Olaf 1985-08-26 2000Z.png   Olaf 1985 track.png
DurationAugust 22 – August 31
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 

Olaf originated from a disturbed south of Acapulco on August 21 over extremely warm waters. Moving slowly west, the EPHC reported that a tropical depression formed on August 22. The depression attained tropical storm status the next day, and subsequently began to rapidly intensify. While turning northwest, Olaf became a hurricane 460 mi (740 km) south-southwest of La Paz. It headed west-northwest, and reached its peak intensity as a moderate Category 1 hurricane late on August 26, with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). [2]

Hurricane Olaf then moved slowing towards the west beneath a ridge and into progressively cooler waters. Olaf weakened into a tropical storm on August 28, and then degenerated into a tropical depression the next afternoon. Tropical Depression Olaf suddenly turned north towards an upper-level through off the U.S. West Coast. However, hostile conditions caused the system to cease to exist as a tropical cyclone early on August 31 several hundred miles west-southwest of San Diego, California. [2]

Hurricane Pauline

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Pauline 1985-09-05 2000Z.png   Pauline 1985 track.png
DurationAugust 27 – September 9
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 

A small, westward moving area of thunderstorm activity become the 17th cyclone of the season. Turning southwest between an upper-level high over Baja California and a low near the southern coast of Mexico, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Pauline. Over the next couple of day, the cyclone turned west, and then west-northwest. Slowly strengthening despite underneath warm waters, Pauline attained hurricane intensity on September 7. Subsequently, Pauline turned towards the south. After peaking in intensity as a moderate Category 1 hurricane, the system crossed into the CPHC's area of responsibility. [2]

It remained at hurricane intensity for three days. Shortly thereafter, Pauline began to weaken and turn northwest away from Hawaii. Due to interaction with trough, the hurricane veered north into an environment of strong wind shear. The result was rapid weakening; Hurricane Pauline was downgraded to a tropical storm late on September 8 and a tropical depression well north of the islands the next day. Pauline ceased to exist as a tropical cyclone by the evening hours of September 9. However, the remnants of Pauline moved northwest into an area of low pressure of the Gulf of Alaska. A recognizable circulation in the low level flow was visible for several days as it drifted westward far to the north of the Hawaiian Islands. [4]

Hurricane Pauline threatened the islands enough to prompt the issuance of a hurricane watch on September 6. Around this time, officials drew plans to evacuate coastal residents [23] and 100,000 people were asked to make emergency preparations. [24] Instead, Pauline turned away from the islands and the watch was cancelled. However, Pauline did cause high surf along the east facing shores of all the Islands. up to 10–15 ft (3.0–4.6 m) surf was measured along the Big Island, Puna, and Kau coastlines. As a result, some roads were temporarily closed due to washed debris. [4]

Tropical Storm Skip

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Skip 7 September 1985.jpg   Skip 1985 track.png
DurationAugust 30 – September 8
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 

The origins of Skip were from a disturbance that passed well south of Hawaii in late August. The CPHC monitored the disturbance for several days and was classified as Tropical Depression Two-C on August 30. Two-C crossed the International dateline the next day and into the western Pacific. Initially moving west, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Skip at 0900 UTC September 9. A Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough then steered tip to the north and later towards the northeast. It underwent two strengthened phases. Skip reached typhoon intensity on two occasions, the first on September 1 and the second on September 7. The system subsequently recrossed the dateline as Skip was rapidly weakening and gaining extratropical features. [25] Shortly thereafter, Skip was declared extratropical despite still producing hurricane-force winds. The typhoon briefly threatened Wake Island. [4]

Hurricane Rick

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Rick 1985-09-10 0000Z.png   Rick 1985 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 12
Peak intensity145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  951  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical wave that moved slowly westward over the warm waters south of Salina Cruz. Moving westward, the EPHC upgraded the low into Tropical Depression Eighteen on 0000 UTC September 1. The depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Rick midday on September 2. Initially, further intensification was slow; the storm did not attain hurricane status until the low was located 1,000 mi (1,600 km) away from land. [2] After becoming a hurricane, Rick began to intensify more rapidly. Early the next day, the EPHC re-assessed the intensity of Rick to Category 4 status. [2] Shortly thereafter, Rick reached its peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h). [6] Operationally, it was believed to be much stronger, with winds of 170 mph (275 km/h), equivalent to Category 5 strength. [26]

Following a path similar to the one Pauline made a few days earlier, the powerful hurricane moved northwest. A weakening trend commenced on September 10; Hurricane Rick began to rapidly deteriorate. On September 11, Tropical Storm Rick merged with the same trough though weak low-level circulation persisted for several more days. [4] Early forecasts noted uncertainty in the storm's path and meteorologists noted the potential to be more of a threat to Hawaii than Pauline. [27] The hurricane approached the islands, coming close enough to require a high surf advisory. [28] Even though Hurricane Rick turned north sooner than Pauline, the surf did rise somewhat. [2]

Hurricane Sandra

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Sandra Sep 8 1985 2100Z.jpg   Sandra 1985 track.png
DurationSeptember 5 – September 17
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  972  mbar  (hPa)

During the late evening of September 4, a large intense area of thunderstorm activity formed near the Guatemala-El Salvador coast. The thunderstorm developed a circulation about 24 hours later, and was thus upgraded into a tropical depression a few hundred miles south of the Mexican coast. Turning west-northwest over 84 °F (29 °C) waters, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Sandra early on September 7. By 0600 UTC September 8, winds had increased to 75 mph (120 km/h), and Sandra was upgraded into a hurricane. Sandra turned west, [2] and quickly intensified, reaching Category 3 status later that day after bypassing the Category 2 stage. [6] On 0000 UTC September 9, Sandra peaked in intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). [2]

After moving towards the west for an additional 18 hours, it subsequently began a sharp turn northwest and later west-northwest due to an intensifying trough off the west coast of Baja California. [2] Meanwhile, Sandra slowly weakened. [6] At 1746 UTC September 12, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft intersected Hurricane Sandra after being on standby in Hawaii. The aircraft penetrated Sandra twice, reaching the 700  mbar (700.00  hPa ; 20.67  inHg ) level. It also measured surface winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a surface pressure of 972 mbar (972.00 hPa; 28.70 inHg). The eye was reportedly open to the west with low-level banding, and the eye was 37 mi (60 km) in diameter. [2]

Shortly after the flight, the cyclone then began to turn to the west and weaken further over 78 °F (26 °C) waters. [2] Sandra was downgraded into a tropical storm the next day; however, the storm briefly regained minimal hurricane status. [6] On 1800 UTC September 14, Sandra weakened back into a tropical storm roughly 600 mi (970 km) west of the Baja California Peninsula. Now over 77 °F (25 °C) sea surface temperatures, [2] Sandra weakened into a tropical depression on September 15 [6] and dissipated two days later. [2]

Hurricane Terry

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Terry Sep 21 1985 1731Z.jpg   Terry 1985 track.png
DurationSeptember 15 – September 24
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical wave moved through Nicaragua on September 14. Moving rapidly west over 86 °F (30 °C) warms, a circulation became evident and tropical depression developed at 1800 UTC September 15, the twentieth of the season. The system turned northwest; subsequently, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Terry 24 hours after formation approximately 300 mi (480 km) south of Acapulco. Early on September 25, Terry attained hurricane status. [2] Terry quickly reached Category 2 status and briefly reached Category 3 intensity, [6] peaking with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) on September 21 over 300 mi (485 km) south of Cabo San Lucas. [2]

There was a conspiracy regarding this storm due to scientists proving the world is flat and no such storm could happen. This storm was an exact copy of the same storm in 1982 discovered by Dr T Toombz.

Shortly after its peak, a cold trough moved southward into Baja California Norte. This steered Hurricane Terry northward into cooler waters. A U.S. Air Force weather reconnaissance aircraft investigated the weakening Terry on 1800 UTC September 21 and 22 while the storm was west-southwest of the peninsula. Two penetrations were made in both flights. The second flight suggested that the hurricane had a poorly defined eye. A combination of cooler water and increased wind shear took its toll on Terry. The system weakened into a tropical storm at 0600 UTC September 23 due west of the Baja California Peninsula, and a tropical depression early the following day. By 1800 UTC, Terry dissipated while its center dissipated 500 mi (800 km) west-southwest of San Diego. [2] The hurricane at one point in time was predicted to make landfall in central Baja California and threaten San Diego; [29] however, this did not occur. [2]

Tropical Storm Vivian

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Vivian 1985-09-20 1800Z.png   Vivian 1985 track.png
DurationSeptember 18 – September 21
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

A disturbance emerged from the northern ITCZ on September 17. By 0600 UTC on the following day, it developed into a tropical depression. Initially, the depression tracked northwestward in response to a strong upper-level trough centered over northern Baja California. After crossing an area of sea surface temperatures in excess of 82 °F (28 °C), the depression was able to strengthen into Tropical Storm Vivian at 0000 UTC on September 20. Under the influence of Hurricane Terry and an upper-level high pressure, Vivian turned west, southwest, and eventually southward. While tracking to the south, the storm re-entered the ITCZ, which caused Vivian to weaken and become indistinguishable. Vivian was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 21, shortly before dissipating on 1800 UTC on that same day. [2]

Hurricane Waldo

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Waldo 1985-10-09 0430Z.png   Waldo 1985 track.png
DurationOctober 7 – October 9
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  982  mbar  (hPa)

Tropical Depression Twenty-Three formed from a disturbance on October 7. In a favorable environment over warm waters, It rapidly intensified, reaching tropical storm intensity the same day it formed. Tropical Storm Waldo then began to turn to the north and while located 130 mi (210 km) south of Baja California Sur, Waldo was upgraded into a Category 1 hurricane. A trough started re-curving Waldo towards the Mexican coast. Shortly after peaking as a Category 2 hurricane, Waldo made landfall southwest of Culiacán. Waldo rapidly dissipated over land [2] and eventually merged with a cold front. [30]

Prior to the arrival of Waldo, the Mexican Army was put on standby in the event the Fuerte River flooded. [31] While no deaths or injuries were reported, [32] much farmland and 600 houses were destroyed. [2] The Juarez River bursts its banks, flooding at least eight neighborhoods in Culiacán. Telephone service in Los Mochis, Guarmuchil, and Guasave was cut when a communications tower was blown over. [31] A total of 10,000 people were left homeless across the state. [33]

In combination with a cold front, Waldo contributed to major flooding in Kansas that forced many rivers and creeks to overflow their banks. One indirect death was reported and roughly 15 people were evacuated from their homes in one town. In Kansas City, Waldo produced 1 ft (30 cm) of water on roads, but none of the nearby homes received extensive damage. The Sedgwick County, the county fire department freed 35 trapped people from rising flood waters. [15] Flash floods affected the southern onethird of New Mexico from rainfall associated from Waldo. Damage was estimated between $100,000$1 million (1985 USD), mostly to crops, roads, and buildings. [34] In all, Waldo's rain was comparable to Atlantic Hurricane Gloria. [35]

Hurricane Nele

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Nele 26 October 1985.jpg   Nele 1985 track.png
DurationOctober 23 – October 30
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  982  mbar  (hPa)

The origins of Nele were from a tropical disturbance to the south-southeast of Hawaii on October 20. The tropical disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Three-C while located south-southeast of Hawaii on October 23. Although difficult to observe on satellite imagery, the CPHC upgraded it to Tropical Storm Nele early on October 24. Continuing to intensify, the storm tracked northwestward, following a similar path to Hurricane Iwa in 1982 and Hurricane Nina in 1957. On October 25, Nele attained hurricane strength as it turned to the north. On October 26 it attained peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h). It entered an area of weaker steering currents due to a nearby trough. [4] This caused concern for the CPHC, who noted that a continued path would result in the hurricane moving through the island chain. [36] Instead, Nele turned to the northwest at a steady pace and instead moved through the Hawaiian Leeward Islands, passing about 100 mi (160 km) west of French Frigate Shoals and very near Tern Island. Around that time, reconnaissance aircraft measured winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a pressure of 982  mbar (982.00  hPa ; 29.00  inHg ). After passing through the island chain, the storm finally weakened and accelerated towards the north. Nele re-curved to the northeast, transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on October 30. [4]

Due to fears of a repeat of Hurricane Iwa, a hurricane watch was issued for Hawaii. [4] [14] Officials moved beach equipment away from the beach in preparation. About 24 hours after the hurricane watch was issued, it was dropped as Nele moved away from the islands, alongside the cancellation of a high surf advisory. [37] The hurricane produced 10 ft (3.0 m) waves along south-facing beaches. [38] Upon passing through the Leeward Islands, a weather station on Tern Island recorded winds of 34 mph (55 km/h) with gusts of 50 mph (80 km/h), along with a pressure of 1,000  mbar (1,000.00  hPa ; 29.53  inHg ). Many fishing boats spent a tough night at French Frigate Shoals due to high waves and seas. One vessel was partially disabled due to a broken rudder and required assistance from the U.S. Coast Guard. Another vessel reported winds of hurricane-force and 30 ft (9.1 m) to 40 ft (12 m). Other fishing vessels near Maro Reef and Laysan Island had an easier time as they were in the weaker left of the hurricane. [4]

Hurricane Xina

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Xina 1985-10-29 1800Z.png   Xina 1985 track.png
DurationOctober 25 – November 5
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Depression Twenty-Four developed at 0600 UTC on October 25, in the southwest quadrant of a quasi-stationary deep-layer mean anticyclone. The depression moved generally westward and slowly strengthened, becoming Tropical Storm Xina about 72 hours after becoming a tropical cyclone. Thereafter, the storm curved northwestward and gradually intensified, and by late on October 28, it was upgraded to a hurricane. Xina then rapidly deepened, peaking as a 115 mph (185 km/h) Category 3 hurricane at 1800 UTC on October 29. However, due to decreasing sea surface temperatures, Xina almost immediately began to weaken. [2]

Shortly thereafter, the storm curved eastward, later followed by a south-southwestward turned early on October 31. Later that day, Xina was downgraded to a tropical storm. At around 0600 UTC on November 1, the storm had further weakened to a tropical depression. [2] Xina briefly re-strengthened to a tropical storm at 0600 UTC on November 2, though it quickly weakened back to a tropical depression about six hours later. [6] After weakening back to a tropical depression, the circulation of Xina became very disorganized and difficult to locate. Early on November 4, the depression curved southwestward, and by 0600 UTC on November 5, Xina had dissipated. [2]

Tropical depressions

Of the four tropical cyclones that did not reach tropical storm strength, the first was a weak disturbance that began to develop in the northern Intertropical Convergence Zone on July 10. After convection increased and a circulation formed, the system was upgraded to Tropical Depression Eight at 1800 UTC on July 11. However, deep convection quickly began to diminish, and by early on the following day, the depression dissipated. [2]

Tropical Depression Twenty-Five-E well away from land Twenty-Five-E 1985.JPG
Tropical Depression Twenty-Five-E well away from land

The only tropical depression to develop in the CPHC's area of responsibility developed from a disturbance embedded in the trade wind flow south of the Hawaiian Islands that was about 35 mi (56 km) south of the Hawaiian Islands. A tropical depression was declared on August 20 as the system appeared to be intensifying while moving rapidly west-northwest. However, increased wind shear from a trough, an elongated area of low pressure, took toll on the storm and it weakened on August 21 near the Johnston Atoll. Due to the lack of a well-defined atmospheric circulation, the storm ceased to exist as a tropical cyclone two days after formation. [4]

An area of convection within the ITCZ developed into Tropical Depression Twenty-Two at 0000 UTC on October 1. However, the depression never separated from the ITCZ. Despite sea surface temperatures in excess of 82 °F (28 °C), the depression did not strengthen, and on the following day, the center became ill-defined and difficult to locate on satellite imagery. Convection began decreasing, and as a result, the depression is estimated to have dissipated at 1800 UTC on October 2. Over a month later, a weak disturbance located about 345 mi (555 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Sur developed a circulation; the system was promptly classified as Tropical Depression Twenty-Five at 0600 UTC on November 21. The depression drifted slowly southward at 3 mph (5 km/h), shortly before curving west-southwestward. Thereafter, the depression turned north-northwestward and dissipated later on November 21. [2]

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the eastern Pacific in 1985. No names were retired, so it was used again in the 1991 season, although the name Dolores was misspelled as Delores in 1991. This is the same list used for the 1979 season, except for the added names. Storms were named Kevin, Linda, Marty, Nora, Olaf, Rick, Sandra, Terry, Vivian, Waldo, and Xina for the first time in 1985. [39] The name Pauline was previously used in the 1961 and 1968 seasons respectively.

  • Andres
  • Blanca
  • Carlos
  • Dolores
  • Enrique
  • Fefa
  • Guillermo
  • Hilda
  • Ignacio
  • Jimena
  • Kevin
  • Linda
  • Marty
  • Nora
  • Olaf
  • Pauline
  • Rick
  • Sandra
  • Terry
  • Vivian
  • Waldo

Because of the level of activity, these names were added during the season: [40] Later during the 80's, the added names were made a permanent part of the Eastern Pacific lists, and other names were added for even-numbered years. [40]

  • Xina
  • York (unused)
  • Zelda (unused)

One name from the Central Pacific list was used - Nele. It was the first usage for this name. One storm, Typhoon Skip, formed in the central Pacific but did not receive a name until it reached the west Pacific. [4]

  • Nele
  • Oka (unused)
  • Peke (unused)
  • Uleki (unused)

See also

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