List of Pacific hurricanes

Last updated

This is a list of notable Pacific hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. Notability means that it has met some criterion or achieved some statistic, or is part of a top ten for some superlative. It includes lists and rankings of Pacific hurricanes by different characteristics and impacts.

Notability is the property of being worthy of notice, having fame, or being considered to be of a high degree of interest, significance, or distinction. It also refers to the capacity to be such. Persons who are notable due to public responsibility, accomplishments, or, even, mere participation in the celebrity industry are said to have a public profile.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Contents

Characteristics include extremes of location, such as the northernmost or most equator-ward formation or position of a tropical cyclone. Other characteristics include its central pressure, windspeed, category on the Saffir–Simpson scale, cyclogenesis outside of a normal hurricane season's timeframe, or storms that remain unnamed despite forming after tropical cyclone naming began in 1960. Another characteristic is how long a system lasted from formation to dissipation. These include the cost of damage, the number of casualties, as well as meteorological statistics such as rainfall point maximum, wind speed, and minimum pressure.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Tropical cyclogenesis

Tropical cyclogenesis is the development and strengthening of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere. The mechanisms through which tropical cyclogenesis occurs are distinctly different from those through which temperate cyclogenesis occurs. Tropical cyclogenesis involves the development of a warm-core cyclone, due to significant convection in a favorable atmospheric environment.

Rain liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

Hurricane Patricia approaching Mexico on October 23, 2015 Patricia 2015-10-23 1730Z.jpg
Hurricane Patricia approaching Mexico on October 23, 2015

Impact

Retired names

Adolph and Israel were removed from the list of names during and after the 2001 season due to political sensitivities. Knut was removed from the list in 1988 for unknown reasons. Adele, Iva, and Fefa were also removed in 1970, 1988, and 1991 respectively for unknown reasons. Hazel was replaced in 1965. [1] The name Isis was also pre-emptively removed from the lists of names for 2016 after being deemed inappropriate because of the eponymous militant group in 2015. [2]

Tropical Storm Hazel (1965) Pacific tropical storm in 1965

Tropical Storm Hazel was a weak East Pacific tropical cyclone that caused heavy damage in Mexico. The costliest storm of the 1965 Pacific hurricane season, it formed from a northward-moving disturbance that originated southeast of Socorro Island. After reaching tropical storm strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, the cyclone turned to the east-northeast. The storm made landfall near Mazatlán on September 26 and quickly transitioned an extratropical cyclone. Although fairly weak, the system was responsible for causing heavy damage to the Mexican economy. Flooding in Mazatlán washed out many houses and submerged others in muddy water. At least six people died with damages totaling $10 million and possibly higher. The name Hazel was retired following this storm, likely due to the Atlantic storm of the same name.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Salafi jihadist terrorist and militant group

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, officially as the Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.

Unnamed but historically significant

NameYearNotes
San Diego hurricane 1858Strongest tropical cyclone to affect California [3]
unnamed storm 1871First and one of only three known hurricanes to make landfall in the Hawaiian Islands. [4]
California tropical storm 1939Only known modern landfall in California [5]
Cabo San Lucas hurricane 1941Deadliest hurricane to hit Cabo San Lucas in the 20th century [6]
1943 Mazatlán hurricane 1943One of the strongest hurricanes to hit Mazatlán [7]
Texas hurricane 1949Most intense Pacific-Atlantic crossover [8]
1957 Mazatlán hurricane 1957Third-strongest Mexico landfall [7]
Mexico hurricane 1959Deadliest Pacific hurricane [9]

Deadliest tropical cyclones

Hurricane Paul was the second-deadliest Pacific hurricane Paul 1982-09-28 1845Z.png
Hurricane Paul was the second-deadliest Pacific hurricane

The following tropical cyclones have caused at least 100 deaths.

RankHurricaneSeasonFatalitiesRef.
1"Mexico" 1959 1,800 [10]
2 Paul 1982 1,696 [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]
3 Liza 1976 1,108 [16] [17]
4 Tara 1961 436 [18]
5 Aletta 1982 308 [19] [20]
6 Pauline 1997 230400 [21]
7 Agatha 2010 190 [22] [23]
8 Manuel 2013 169 [24]
9 Tico 1983 141 [25] [26]
10 Ismael 1995 116 [27]
11"Lower California" 1931 110 [28] [29]
12"Mazatlán" 1943 100 [30]
Lidia 1981 100 [23]

Costliest tropical cyclones

Damage from Hurricane Iniki Iniki Damaged Sidewalk.jpg
Damage from Hurricane Iniki

The following tropical cyclones have caused at least $450 million in damage.

Costliest Pacific hurricanes
StormSeason US$ damageRef.
Manuel 2013 $4.2 billion [31]
Iniki 1992 $3.1 billion [32]
Beatriz 1993 $1.7 billion [33]
Odile 2014 $1.22 billion [34]
Agatha 2010 $1.1 billion [35]
Willa 2018 $537 million [36] [37] [38] [39]
Paul 1982 $520 million [40] [41] [42]
Octave 1983 $513 million [43]
Norman 1978 $500 million [44] [45]
Patricia 2015 $460 million [46] [47] [48] [49]

Seasonal activity and records

In the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's (CPHC) area of responsibility (AOR), the season with the most tropical cyclones is the 2015 season with 16 cyclones forming in or entering the region. A season without cyclones has happened a few times since 1966, most recently in 1979. [50]

Central Pacific Hurricane Center

The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central Pacific region: from the equator northward, 140°W–180°W, most significantly for Hawai‘i. It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu.

Area of Responsibility (AOR) is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan (UCP), that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander bears a certain responsibility. The term may also be used in other countries worldwide but it originated within the United States Armed Forces. This system is designed to allow a single commander to exercise command and control of all military forces in the AOR, regardless of their branch of service.

2015 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2015 Pacific hurricane season was the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season. The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. The season officially started on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Northeast Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

Highest

Track map of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, the busiest ever recorded 1992 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Track map of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, the busiest ever recorded
YearNHC's AORCPHC's AORTotal
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
1992 season 24148322271610
2015 season 181310831261611
1985 season 2212822024148
2018 season 22129111231310
1982 season 1911541023125
2014 season 2015721222169
2016 season 2012522122136
1984 season 1812631121137
1983 season 2112800021128
1990 season 2016610021166

Lowest

Track map of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season, the lowest ever recorded 2010 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Track map of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season, the lowest ever recorded

Before 1971 and especially 1966, data in this basin is extremely unreliable. The geostationary satellite era began in 1966, [51] and that year is often considered the first year of reliable tropical records. [52] Intensity estimates are most reliable starting in the 1971 season. A few years later, the Dvorak technique came into use. Those two factors make intensity estimates more reliable starting in that year. [52] For these reasons, seasons prior to 1971 are not included.

Dvorak technique

The Dvorak technique is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. Within the Dvorak satellite strength estimate for tropical cyclones, there are several visual patterns that a cyclone may take on which define the upper and lower bounds on its intensity. The primary patterns used are curved band pattern (T1.0-T4.5), shear pattern (T1.5–T3.5), central dense overcast (CDO) pattern (T2.5–T5.0), central cold cover (CCC) pattern, banding eye pattern (T4.0–T4.5), and eye pattern (T4.5–T8.0).

YearNHC's AORCPHC's AORTotal
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Tropical
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
2010 season 732100832
1977 season 840000840
1996 season 952000952
1999 season 962000962
1995 season 10730001073
1979 season 10640001064

Naming history

Hurricane Oho, the eighth system to receive a central Pacific name in 2015 Oho 2015-10-06 2310Z.jpg
Hurricane Oho, the eighth system to receive a central Pacific name in 2015

Naming of tropical cyclones in the eastern north Pacific began in the 1960 season. That year, four lists of names were created. The plan was to proceed in a manner similar to that of the western Pacific; that is, the name of the first storm in one season would be the next unused one from the same list, and when the bottom of one list was reached the next list was started. This scheme was abandoned in 1965 and next year, the lists started being recycled on a four-year rotation, starting with the A name each year. [53] That same general scheme remains in use today, although the names and lists are different. On average, the eastern north Pacific sees about sixteen named storms per year. [54]

1960 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1960 Pacific hurricane season was an event in meteorology. It officially started on May 15, 1960, in the eastern Pacific and lasted until November 30, 1960. The 1960 season was the first season that Eastern Pacific hurricanes were named.

Named storms per month

Four of the July cyclones during the 2016 season Darby, Estelle, Frank and Eight 2016-07-22 0000Z.jpg
Four of the July cyclones during the 2016 season

Before 1971 and especially 1966, data in this basin is extremely unreliable. The geostationary satellite era began in 1966, [51] and that year is often considered the first year of reliable tropical records. [52] Intensity estimates are more reliable starting in the 1971 season. A few years later, the Dvorak technique came into use. Those two make intensity estimates more reliable starting in that year. [52] For these reasons, seasons before 1966 are not included in the lowest column.

MonthMost namedLeast named
NumberSeasonNumberSeason
Pre-season2 1992 0Many†
Late May2 1984
2007
2012
2013
0Many†
June5 1985
2018
0 1969
2004
2006
2007
2016
July7 1985
2015
2016
0 1966
2010
August9 1968 0 1996
September6 1966
1992
2005
1 1979
2010
October5 1992 0 1989
1995
1996
2005
2010
November2 2006
2015
2016
0Many†
Post-season/
December
1Many†0Many†

† Shared by more than five seasons. Source: [55]

Off-season storms

A meteorological enigma, Hurricane Ekeka formed in January and became a major hurricane. Ekeka feb 2 1992 0221Z.jpg
A meteorological enigma, Hurricane Ekeka formed in January and became a major hurricane.

The Pacific hurricane season runs from May 15 to November 30. [56] Only systems that develop or enter during the off-season are included. The earliest off-season storm is Pali in 2016 whilst the latest off-season storm was Nine-C during 2015.

NameFormation dateRef.
Unnamed December 1832 [57]
Unnamed December 23, 1902 [58]
Unnamed December 23, 1904 [58]
Unnamed May 3, 1906 [58]
Unnamed February 6, 1922 [59]
Unnamed December 22, 1925 [60]
Unnamed December 4, 1936 [61]
Carmen April 4, 1980† [62]
Winnie December 4, 1983 [55]
Winona January 9, 1989 [63]
Alma May 12, 1990 [55]
Ekeka January 26, 1992 [64]
Hali March 28, 1992 [55]
One-E May 13, 1996 [55]
Omeka December 20, 2010 [55]
Aletta May 14, 2012 [55]
Nine-C December 31, 2015 [65]
Pali January 7, 2016 [66]
Adrian May 9, 2017 [67]
One-E May 10, 2018 [68]

†Entered the basin on this date

Unnamed storms

The unnamed hurricane of 1975 near the Pacific Northwest Unnamed Hurricane (1975).PNG
The unnamed hurricane of 1975 near the Pacific Northwest

Tropical cyclones have received official names in the east-central Pacific region since 1960. Since this time, 5 systems that have formed in this area have not received a name, plus another possible unnamed subtropical or tropical system in 2006.

Strength

Category 5

Since 1959, only 18 Pacific hurricanes are known to have reached Category 5 and none made landfall while at this intensity. [55]

Category 4

Since 1900, 126 Pacific hurricanes have attained Category 4 intensity, of which four made landfall at that strength. [55]

Category 3

Since 1970, 81 Pacific hurricanes have attained Category 3 intensity, of which three made landfall at that strength. [55]

Duration records

Hurricane Tina, the longest lasting Pacific hurricane east of the international dateline Tina 1992-09-30 1801Z.png
Hurricane Tina, the longest lasting Pacific hurricane east of the international dateline

This lists all Pacific hurricanes that existed as tropical cyclones while in the Pacific Ocean east of the dateline for more than two weeks continuously. Hurricanes John and Dora spent some time in the west Pacific before dissipating. John spent eleven days west of the dateline; if that time was included John would have existed for a total of 30 days and 18 hours, a world record, while including Dora's time in the west Pacific would mean that it existed for 18 days. [55] One Atlantic hurricane, Hurricane Joan, crossed into this basin and was renamed Miriam, [69] giving it a total lifespan of 22 days, [70] but not all of that was in the Pacific. 1993's Greg formed from the remnants of 1993's Tropical Storm Bret. [69] Its time as an Atlantic system is excluded.

All of these systems except Trudy, Olaf, and Connie existed in both the east and central Pacific, and all except Olaf were hurricanes. Hurricane Trudy of 1990 is thus the longest lived eastern Pacific hurricane to stay in the eastern Pacific. Tropical Storm Olaf of 1997 is hence the longest-lived eastern Pacific tropical cyclone not to reach hurricane intensity. [55]

No known tropical cyclone forming in the central north Pacific lasted for longer than 14 days without crossing into another basin. [55] The tropical cyclone forming in the central Pacific that spent the most time there was 2014's Hurricane Ana at 12.75 days from formation to extratropical transition. [71] [72]

RankDuration (days)NameSeason
124.50 Tina 1992
220.00 Fico 1978
319.00 John 1994
417.50 Kevin 1991
516.75 Trudy 1990
616.50 Guillermo 1997
16.50 Olaf 1997
816.25 Celeste 1972
16.25 Doreen 1973
16.25 Kenneth 2005
1116.00 Daniel 1982
1215.25 Connie 1974
1314.50 Jimena 2015
14.50 Darby 2016
1514.00 Marie 1990
14.00 Greg 1993
14.00 Dora 1999
14.00 Lane 2018
14.00 Olivia 2018

Before the weather satellite era began, the lifespans of many Pacific hurricanes may be underestimated. [52]

Crossover storms

From Atlantic to Eastern Pacific

Tracks of Atlantic-Pacific crossovers on both directions Tracks of Atlantic-Pacific crossover storms.png
Tracks of Atlantic-Pacific crossovers on both directions

This includes only systems which stayed a tropical cyclone during the passage or that maintained a circulation during the crossover.

SeasonStorm (Atlantic)Storm (Pacific)Ref.
1876 Unnamed Unnamed [70]
1911 Unnamed Unnumbered tropical depression [70]
1971 Irene Olivia [73]
1974 Fifi Orlene [70]
1977 Anita Eleven-E [74]
1978 Greta Olivia [75]
1988 Debby Seventeen-E [76] [77]
1988 Joan Miriam [78]
1990 Diana Unnumbered tropical depression [79]
1993 Gert Fourteen-E [80]
1996 Cesar Douglas [81]
2016 [82]

It used to be that when a Pacific named storm crossed North America and made it to the Atlantic (or vice versa), it would receive the next name on the respective basin's list. However, in 2000 this policy was changed so that a tropical cyclone will keep its name if it remains a tropical cyclone during the entire passage. Only if it dissipates and then re-forms does it get renamed. [83]

From Eastern Pacific to Atlantic

This includes only systems which stayed a tropical cyclone during the passage or that maintained a circulation during the crossover.

SeasonStorm (Pacific)Storm (Atlantic)Ref.
1842 UnnamedUnnamed [84]
1902 Unnumbered tropical depression Unnamed [85]
1923 Unnamed Unnamed [86]
1949 Unnumbered tropical storm Unnamed [69]
1965 Unnumbered tropical depression Unnamed [87]
2010 Eleven-E Hermine [88]

In addition to those, there are apparently two additional ones. One existed before 1856 and made it to the Gulf of Mexico. [89] Another Pacific tropical cyclone crossed over central Mexico and also made it to the Gulf sometime after September 9, 1924. [89]

From Eastern Pacific to Western Pacific

Tracks of tropical cyclones that crossed from the eastern Pacific to the western Pacific Tracks of East-West Pacific crossover storms.png
Tracks of tropical cyclones that crossed from the eastern Pacific to the western Pacific

Neither eastern Pacific tropical cyclones passing 140°W, nor central Pacific tropical cyclones crossing the dateline, are notable events. However, very few eastern Pacific proper cyclones that enter the central Pacific make it to the dateline.

NameSeasonRef.
Georgette 1986 [90]
Enrique 1991 [91]
Li 1994 [92]
John 1994 [93]
Dora 1999 [94]
Genevieve 2014 [95]
Hector 2018 [96]

† System ceased to be a tropical cyclone and regenerated at least once during its life span.

‡ Hurricane Li formed in the eastern Pacific, but was not named until it crossed into the central Pacific.

In addition, Hurricane Jimena of 2003 is recognized per NHC, CPHC and JTWC as a storm that existed in all three areas of responsibility, but isn't recognized by the JMA as an official western Pacific tropical cyclone. [97] [98] [99]

From Western Pacific to Central Pacific

1994's Hurricane John crossed the dateline twice, from the central to the western Pacific and back Hurricane John 23 aug 1994 1739Z.jpg
1994's Hurricane John crossed the dateline twice, from the central to the western Pacific and back

Tropical cyclones crossing from the western Pacific to the central Pacific are fairly rare, and this has happened only seven times before. Of those seven times, five of them were storms which crossed the dateline twice; from the western to the central pacific and back (or vice versa). No tropical cyclone from the western Pacific has ever traveled east of 140°W.

NameSeasonRef.
Patsy 1959 [100]
Virginia 1968 [101]
Carmen 1980 [62] [102]
Skip 1985 [103]
John†* 1994 [104]
Seventeen-W 1996 [105]
Omeka 2010 [106]

† System crossed the dateline twice.

* Hurricane/Typhoon John formed in the eastern Pacific.

In addition, Typhoon June of 1958 and Tropical Storm Wene of 2000 are recognized per CPHC as basin-crossing storms, but aren't recognized as such by the JMA. [107] [108] Also, Tropical Storm Moke of 1984 may have achieved this feat as well, however it isn't recognized as an official western Pacific tropical cyclone by either the JMA or the JTWC. [98] [99]

From Central Pacific to Eastern Pacific

Tracks of tropical cyclones that crossed from the central Pacific to the eastern Pacific Tracks of Central-East Pacific crossover storms.png
Tracks of tropical cyclones that crossed from the central Pacific to the eastern Pacific

Tropical cyclones crossing from the eastern Pacific to the central Pacific are routine; ones going the other way are not. That event has happened thrice.

NameSeasonRef.
Ema 1982 [55]
Olaf Dagger-14-plain.png 2015 [109]
Ulika Dagger-14-plain.png 2016 [110]

Dagger-14-plain.png System crossed 140°W more than once.

It was previously believed that an Unnamed Hurricane of 1975 crossed 140°W and is still included in the NHC as such, but according to a reanalysis made by the CPHC the storm became extratropical before doing so. [55] [98] In addition, an unofficial cyclone formed on October 30, 2006 in the central Pacific subtropics. It eventually developed an eye-like structure. [111] Its track data indicates that it crossed from the central to the east Pacific because it formed at longitude 149°W and dissipated at 135°W. [112] NASA, which is not a meteorological organization, called this system a subtropical cyclone, and the Naval Research Laboratory Monterey had enough interest in it to call it 91C. [111] The system has also been called extratropical. [113] This cyclone is unofficial because it is not included in the seasonal reports of either Regional Specialized Meteorological Center. [114] [115]

Intensity records

Ten most intense

Linda, the second most intense Pacific hurricane on record Hurricane Linda Sep 12 1997 1700Z.jpg
Linda, the second most intense Pacific hurricane on record

Per lowest central pressure

The apparent increase in recent seasons is spurious; it is due to better estimation and measurement, not an increase in intense storms. That is, until 1988, Pacific hurricanes generally did not have their central pressures measured or estimated from satellite imagery.

RankHurricaneYearPressure
1 Patricia 2015 872 mbar Double-dagger-14-plain.png
2 Linda 1997 902 mbar*
3 Rick 2009 906 mbar*
4 Kenna 2002 913 mbarDouble-dagger-14-plain.png
5 Ava 1973 915 mbarDagger-14-plain.png
Ioke 2006 915 mbar*
7 Marie 2014 918 mbar*
Odile 918 mbarDouble-dagger-14-plain.png
9 Guillermo 1997 919 mbar*
10 Gilma 1994 920 mbar*
Walaka 2018 920 mbar*

* Estimated from satellite imagery

Double-dagger-14-plain.png Measured and adjusted

Dagger-14-plain.png Measured

~ Pressure while East of the International Dateline

Per highest sustained winds

RankHurricaneYearWinds
1 Patricia 2015 215  mph; 345  km/h
2 Linda 1997 185 mph; 295 km/h
3 Rick 2009 180 mph; 285 km/h
4 Patsy 1959 175 mph; 280 km/h
John 1994 175 mph; 280 km/h
6 Kenna 2002 165 mph; 270 km/h

Strongest landfalls

Hurricane Kenna of 2002 is the fourth strongest landfalling Pacific hurricane on record Hurricane Kenna 24 oct 2002 1750Z.jpg
Hurricane Kenna of 2002 is the fourth strongest landfalling Pacific hurricane on record
RankHurricaneSeasonLandfall windsRef.
Landfalling Pacific major hurricanes
Intensity is measured solely by wind speed
1 Patricia 2015 150 mph (240 km/h) [116]
2 Madeline 1976 145 mph (230 km/h) [117]
Iniki 1992 145 mph (230 km/h) [64]
4 Unnamed 1957 140 mph (220 km/h) [118]
“Mexico” 1959 140 mph (220 km/h) [118]
Kenna 2002 140 mph (220 km/h) [119]
7 Olivia 1967 125 mph (205 km/h) [118]
Tico 1983 125 mph (205 km/h) [120]
Lane 2006 125 mph (205 km/h) [121]
Odile 2014 125 mph (205 km/h) [122]
11 Willa 2018 120 mph (195 km/h) [123]
12 Olivia 1975 115 mph (185 km/h) [124]
Liza 1976 115 mph (185 km/h) [117]
Kiko 1989 115 mph (185 km/h) [125]

Strongest storm in each month

Intensity is measured solely by central pressure unless the pressure is not known, in which case intensity is measured by maximum sustained winds.

MonthNameYearMinimum pressureMaximum windsClassification
January Pali 2016977 mb (hPa)100 mph (155 km/h)Category 2
February Ekeka Dagger-14-plain.png1992unknown mb (hPa)115 mph (185 km/h)Category 3
March Hali Dagger-14-plain.png19921005 mb (hPa)50 mph (85 km/h)Tropical storm
April Carmen Dagger-14-plain.png1980unknown mb (hPa) [62] 50 mph (85 km/h)Tropical storm
May Amanda 2014932 mb (hPa)155 mph (250 km/h)Category 4
June Ava 1973915 mb (hPa)160 mph (260 km/h)Category 5
July Gilma 1994920 mb (hPa)160 mph (260 km/h)Category 5
August Ioke 2006915 mb (hPa)160 mph (260 km/h)Category 5
September Linda 1997902 mb (hPa)185 mph (295 km/h)Category 5
October Patricia 2015872 mb (hPa)215 mph (345 km/h)Category 5
November Sandra 2015934 mb (hPa)150 mph (240 km/h)Category 4
December Omeka 2010997 mb (hPa)60 mph (95 km/h)Tropical storm

Dagger-14-plain.png This tropical cyclone is the strongest to form in its month by virtue of its being the only known system.

Unusual landfall locations

California

Hawaii

Hurricane Iniki over Hawaii Iniki 1992-09-11 2331.png
Hurricane Iniki over Hawaii

Wettest tropical cyclones

All of these values are point maxima.

Mexico

Rainfall data from 2001's Hurricane Juliette Juliette 2001 rainfall.gif
Rainfall data from 2001's Hurricane Juliette
Wettest Pacific tropical cyclones and their remnants in Mexico
Highest-known totals
PrecipitationStormLocationRef.
Rankmmin
1101139.80 Juliette 2001 Cuadano/Santiago [138]
2686.027.01 Pauline 1997 San Luis Acatlan [139]
3628.124.73 Odile 1984 Costa Azul/Acapulco [140]
4610.124.02 Isis 1998 Caduano/Santiago [141]
5570.022.44 Flossie 2001 Suchixtlahuaca [142]
6566.922.32 Greg 1999 Tecoman [143]
7531.920.94 Nora 1997 La Cruz/Elota [144]
8525.320.68 Eugene 1987 Aquila [145]
9523.020.59 Lidia 1981 El Varonjal/Badiraguato [146]
10500.119.69 Ignacio 2003 Yeneca/Los Cabos [147]

Hawaii

Hurricane Lane Lane 2018-08-21 2350Z.jpg
Hurricane Lane
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Hawaii
Highest-known totals
PrecipitationStormLocationRef.
Rankmmin
1132152.02 Lane 2018 Mountainview, Hawaii [148]
2132152.00 Hiki 1950 Kanalohuluhulu Ranger Station [149]
398538.76 Paul 2000 Kapapala Ranch 36 [150]
463525.00 Maggie 1970 Various stations [151]
551920.42 Nina 1957 Wainiha [152]
651620.33 Iwa 1982 Intake Wainiha 1086 [153]
747618.75 Fabio 1988 Papaikou Mauka 140.1 [153]
838715.25 Iselle 2014 Kulani NWR [154]
938115.00 One-C 1994 Waiakea Uka, Piihonua [104]
1037214.63 Felicia 2009 Oahu Forecast National Wildlife Refuge [155]

Continental United States

Hurricane Tico Tico 1983-10-18 2030Z.png
Hurricane Tico
Wettest Pacific tropical cyclones and their remnants on the continental United States
Highest-known totals
PrecipitationStormLocationRef.
Rankmmin
1533.7 mm21.01 in Norma 1981 Breckenridge, Texas [156]
2430.5 mm16.95 in Tico 1983 Chickasha, Oklahoma [157]
3374.9 mm14.76 in Kathleen 1976 San Gorgonio, California [158]
4350.5 mm13.80 in Roslyn 1986 Matagorda Texas #2 [159]
5305.1 mm12.01 in Nora 1997 Harquahala Mountains [144]
6304.8 mm12.00 in Octave 1983 Mount Graham [160]
7302.8 mm11.92 in Norma 1970 Workman Creek [161]
8294.6 mm11.60 in Unnamed 1939 Mount Wilson [162]
9288.3 mm11.35 in Paine 1986 Fort Scott, Kansas [163]
10216.7 mm8.53 in Ismael 1995 Hobbs, New Mexico [164]

Overall

Hurricane Juliette Juliette 2001-09-25 1800Z.png
Hurricane Juliette
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants within the Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone basin
Highest-known totals
PrecipitationStormLocationRef.
Rankmmin
1132152.02 Lane 2018 Mountainview, Hawaii [165]
2132152.00 Hiki 1950 Kanalohuluhulu Ranger Station, Hawaii [58]
3101139.80 Juliette 2001 Cuadano/Santiago, Mexico [138]
4984.538.76 Paul 2000 Kapapala Ranch, Hawaii [166]
5686.027.01 Pauline 1997 San Luis Acatlan, Mexico [139]
6635.025.00 Maggie 1970 Hawaii [167]
7628.124.73 Odile 1984 Costa Azul/Acapulco, Mexico [140]
8610.124.02 Isis 1998 Caduano/Santiago, Mexico [141]
9570.022.44 Flossie 2001 Suchixtlahuaca, Mexico [142]
10566.922.32 Greg 1999 Tecoman, Mexico [143]

Worldwide cyclone records set by Pacific storms

See also

Related Research Articles

1960 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1960 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active season since 1952. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first system, an unnamed storm, developed in the Bay of Campeche on June 22. It brought severe local flooding to southeastern Texas and was considered the worst disaster in some towns since a Hurricane in 1945. The unnamed storm moved across the United States for almost a week before dissipating on June 29. In July, Hurricane Abby resulted in minor damage in the Leeward Islands, before impacting a few Central American counties — the remnants of the storm would go on to form Hurricane Celeste in the East Pacific. Later that month, Tropical Storm Brenda caused flooding across much of the East Coast of the United States. The next storm, Hurricane Cleo, caused no known impact, despite its close proximity to land.

1971 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1971 Atlantic hurricane season was fairly active with several notable storms. Hurricane Edith, the strongest of the season, was a Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, the highest category on the scale. It struck Nicaragua at peak intensity, killing dozens, and later hit southern Louisiana. Until 2003, Hurricane Ginger held the record for the longest known duration of a North Atlantic tropical cyclone, lasting 27.25 days from early September to early October; it is currently the second longest-lasting Atlantic hurricane. Ginger moved ashore in North Carolina, producing heavy rains and damaging winds. An unnamed storm in August attained hurricane status further north than any other Atlantic hurricane. Between 11 and 12 September five tropical cyclones were active at the same time, the record for the Atlantic basin.

1988 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1988 Atlantic hurricane season was a near average season that proved costly and deadly, with 15 tropical cyclones directly affecting land. The season officially began on June 1, 1988, and lasted until November 30, 1988, although activity began on May 30 when a tropical depression developed in the Caribbean Sea. The June through November dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first cyclone to attain tropical storm status was Alberto on August 8, nearly a month later than usual. The final storm of the year, Tropical Storm Keith, became extratropical on November 24.

Hurricane Iwa Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1982

Hurricane Iwa, taken from the Hawaiian language name for the frigatebird, was at the time the costliest hurricane to affect the state of Hawaiʻi. Iwa was the twenty-third tropical storm and the twelfth and final hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season. It developed from an active trough of low pressure near the equator on November 19. The storm moved erratically northward until becoming a hurricane on November 23 when it began accelerating to the northeast in response to strong upper-level flow from the north. Iwa passed within 25 miles of the island of Kauaʻi with peak winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) on November 23, and the next day it became extratropical to the northeast of the state.

1994 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season was the final season of the eastern north Pacific's consecutive active hurricane seasons that unofficially started in 1982. The season officially started on May 15, 1994, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1994, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone formed on June 18, while the last system dissipated on October 26. This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, with all but two becoming tropical storms or hurricanes. A total of 10 hurricanes occurred, including five major hurricanes.

1973 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific ocean

The 1973 Pacific hurricane season was an event in tropical cyclone meteorology. The most important system this year was Hurricane Ava, which was the most intense Pacific hurricane known at the time. Several other much weaker tropical cyclones came close to, or made landfall on, the Pacific coast of Mexico. The most serious of these was Hurricane Irah, which downed power and communication lines in parts of the Baja California Peninsula; the other landfalling storms caused rain and some flooding. No tropical cyclone this season caused any deaths.

Hurricane Nina was the final tropical storm and hurricane of the 1957 Pacific hurricane season and the last storm to form during the active Central Pacific hurricane season this year. This storm was named "Nina" because during this time, hurricanes in this basin were given names from the typhoon naming lists. This storm was the last to form during a series of typhoons to form in the Pacific in November.

Mexico tropical cyclone rainfall climatology

Mexico tropical cyclone rainfall climatology discusses precipitation characteristics of tropical cyclones that have struck Mexico over the years. One-third of the annual rainfall received along the Mexican Riviera and up to half of the rainfall received in Baja California Sur is directly attributable to tropical cyclones moving up the west coast of Mexico. The central plateau is shielded from the high rainfall amounts seen on the oceanward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental mountain chains.

Hurricane Hiki was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States, behind Hurricane Lane in 2018, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. It was also considered the first official hurricane in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. The fourth tropical cyclone of the 1950 Pacific hurricane season, Hiki formed as a tropical depression to the southeast of Hawaii on August 12. On the following day, the depression headed northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hiki. While paralleling the Hawaiian Islands on August 16, Hiki strengthened into a hurricane. Around that time, the storm peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The following day, Hiki curved southwestward on August 17. Two days later, the hurricane resumed moving northwestward and weakened to a tropical storm shortly thereafter. Around midday on August 21, Hiki weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated about six hours later.

Hurricane Eugene (1987) Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 1987

Hurricane Eugene was the only tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mexico during the 1987 Pacific hurricane season. The eighth tropical cyclone, fifth named storm, and first hurricane of the season, Eugene developed on July 22 from a tropical disturbance centered well offshore of Mexico. Later that day, the system intensified into a tropical storm while moving northwestward. Eugene reached hurricane status on July 24; it briefly peaked as a Category 2 hurricane two days later. Hurricane Eugene weakened back to a Category 1 hurricane; subsequently, the hurricane made landfall near Manzanillo. Shortly after landfall, Eugene rapidly weakened inland, and was only a tropical storm when it re-emerged into open water, where it quickly dissipated. Throughout Mexico, the storm produced high winds, especially in the southwestern portion of the country. The hurricane deluged the southwest Mexican coastline, resulting in the highest rainfall totals from a tropical cyclone in five Mexican states. Over 5,000 people were left homeless, including 60 in Manzanillo. The cities airport control tower was also damaged, thus requiring closure. Elsewhere, 200 to 300 houses were destroyed in Colima. In all, Eugene injured 18 people and caused three fatalities and $142.12 million (1987 USD) in damage.

Hurricane Cindy (1959) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1959

Hurricane Cindy impacted the Carolinas, the Mid-Atlantic states, New England, and the Canadian Maritime Provinces during the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season. The third storm of the season, Cindy originated from a low-pressure area associated with a cold front located east of northern Florida. The low developed into a tropical depression on July 5 while tracking north-northeastward, and became Tropical Storm Cindy by the next day. Cindy turned westward because of a high-pressure area positioned to its north, and further intensified into a weak hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas on July 8. Early on July 9, Cindy made landfall near McClellanville, South Carolina, and re-curved to the northeast along the Fall Line as a tropical depression. It re-entered the Atlantic on July 10, quickly restrengthening into a tropical storm while it began to move faster. On July 11, Cindy passed over Cape Cod, while several other weather systems helped the storm maintain its intensity. Cindy transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on July 12 as it neared the Canadian Maritime Provinces.

Hurricane Iselle 2014 tropical cyclone

Hurricane Iselle was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii in recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the annual hurricane season, Iselle developed from an area of disturbed weather southwest of Mexico on July 31, 2014. Assuming a west-northwest course that it would maintain throughout its existence, generally favorable atmospheric conditions allowed for gradual strengthening, with the cyclone attaining hurricane status a day after formation. Continued strengthening progressed for several days up until August 4, when Iselle reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 947 mbar, making it a Category 4 hurricane. Thereafter, Iselle encountered hostile environmental conditions and quickly weakened before making landfall on the Big Island on August 8 as a moderate tropical storm. Its passage over the island disrupted the cyclone, and Iselle later dissipated on August 9.

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