|Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 29, 1976|
|Dissipated||October 8, 1976|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained: 145 mph (230 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||940 mbar (hPa); 27.76 inHg|
|Areas affected||Central Western Mexico|
|Part of the 1976 Pacific hurricane season|
Hurricane Madeline was the second landfalling major hurricane along the Pacific coast of Mexico in a week. Madeline formed on September 29, not far from Central America. The next day, the circulation dissipated, and as a result weakened to a remnant low. Four days later, on October 3, the low regenerated into a tropical depression. The system remained weak for three days as it drifted west-northwest. When it began to recurve towards Mexico on October 6, the cyclone rapidly intensified and eventually made landfall at peak intensity as a Category 4. Shortly after landfall, the cyclone rapidly dissipated.
Prior to the arrival of Madeline, 15,000 people evacuated form the coast, which had already been impacted by Hurricane Liza. Heavy damage was reported along with seven fatalities. Two dams were flooded and extensive crop damage was reported.
Early on September 27, 1976, the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (EPHC) reported that a tropical disturbance had formed about 770 km (480 mi) to the southwest of San Jose, Costa Rica. During the next two days the disturbance slowly developed while moving northwest. By the morning of September 29, the disturbance was upgraded to a 40 mph (65 km/h) tropical storm and based on ship reports and satellite imagery. Due to the fact that it attained tropical storm status, it was named Madeline. At this time, the cyclone had developed a center of circulation. Its intensification was short-lived and Madeline remained at tropical storm strength for just 12 hours before it was downgraded into a tropical depression. Madeline remained at tropical depression strength until September 30. At that time, the EPHC reported that the circulation center was no longer visible and downgraded the system to a remnant low, while located 575 mi (925 km) to the southeast of Acapulco, Mexico.
Over the following days, the low moved towards the west and started to regenerate with a circulation center becoming visible early on October 3. Based on this, the EPHC re-upgraded Madeline to a tropical depression. mph (120 km/h) winds and a pressure of 984 millibars.Continuing to intensify, Madeline was soon upgraded to a tropical storm for the second time. During the next day or two, Madeline remained near stationary before turning towards the northeast on October 5. As the cyclone moved over an area of warm seas surface temperatures, the storm started to intensify. During the next day, Madeline slowly developed an eye before intensifying into a hurricane. In addition, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft reported winds 75
During October 7, with warm water helping to fuel its intensification, Madeline quickly intensified into a Category 2 hurricane, and was upgraded to a major hurricane (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) early on October 8. Based on hurricane hunter reports, Madeline reached its peak sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a peak pressure of 940 millibars early on the 8th. This made Madeline a moderate Category 4 hurricane. Later that morning Madeline made landfall to the northwest of Zihuatanejo as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, before it rapidly dissipated over land.
Mexican army headquarters put in effect an emergency plan three days prior to the arrival of the hurricane. people evacuated from threatened areas in the path of Madeline. According to one report, evacuations prior to Madeline were considered a success. Hurricane warnings and flood warnings were issued along the coastlines of Michoacán and Guerrero. In addition, tropical storm warnings were issued for nine states in Mexico. This warning area extended as far inland as the area west of the Gulf of Mexico.An estimated 15,000
Hurricane Madeline produced heavy rains over Mexico, peaking at 16.57 in (421 mm), rainfall fell at El Povenir/San Marcos. According to Comision Nacional del Agua, a parent agency of the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, rainfall fell at 2,069 sites. Damage from the hurricane was considered to be severe. In Chilpancingo, Guerrero, two people drowned from the hurricane. In addition, five other deaths were reported. The cyclone also flooded two major hydro-electrical dams and power outages were reported. While no serious damage was reported in Zihuatanejo, many boats were damaged. In addition, the storm caused extensive crop damage. Losses from Madeline, combined with previous hurricanes Liza and Kathleen, were estimated at $200 million (1976 USD). It was the second storm to strike Mexico within a week; Hurricane Liza was the first. When Madeline was over the ocean, it impacted several ships, but no major damage from these ships was reported.
The 2002 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average season which produced fifteen named storms. Only eight hurricanes formed, including three Category 5 hurricanes, which tied for the most in a season with 1994 and 2018. Moreover, the season was a near-average season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), with a total index of 125 units. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific and they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.
The 1997 Pacific hurricane season was a very active hurricane season. With hundreds of deaths and hundreds of millions of dollars in damage, this season was one of the costliest and deadliest Pacific hurricane seasons. This was due to the exceptionally strong 1997–98 El Niño event. The season officially started on May 15, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when almost all tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.
The 1996 Pacific hurricane season is tied with 2021 for the most Pacific hurricanes to make landfall on Mexico in one year, with four striking the country. It was a below average season that produced 9 tropical storms, 5 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes. With 9 tropical storms, 1996 ranks as the second-least active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially began May 15, 1996, in the eastern north Pacific and on June 1, 1996, in the central north Pacific. It ended on November 30, 1996. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The season slightly exceeded these bounds when tropical storm One-E formed on May 13.
The 1989 Pacific hurricane season was the first near normal season since 1981. The season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 18 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir–Simpson scale.
The 1987 Pacific hurricane season was the last year in which the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was the primary warning center for tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The season officially started May 15, 1987, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1987, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1987. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority of tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.
The 1986 Pacific hurricane season featured several tropical cyclones that contributed to significant flooding to the Central United States. The hurricane season officially started May 15, 1986, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1986 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1986 in both regions. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 named storms and 9 hurricanes developed during the season; this is slightly above the averages of 15 named storms and 8 hurricanes, respectively. In addition, 26 tropical depressions formed in the eastern Pacific during 1986, which, at the time, was the second most ever recorded; only the 1982 Pacific hurricane season saw a higher total.
The 1985 Pacific hurricane season is the third-most active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially started on May 15, 1985, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1985, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1985. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At the time, the 1985 season was the most active on record in the eastern north Pacific, with 28 tropical cyclones forming. Of those, 24 were named, 13 reached hurricane intensity, and 8 became major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. At that time, the 24 named storms was a record; however, this record was broken seven years later in 1992, and was therefore recognized as the second busiest season within the basin, until it was surpassed exactly thirty years later by the 2015 season.
The 1983 Pacific hurricane season was the longest season ever recorded at that time. It was a very active Pacific hurricane season. The season started on May 15, 1983 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1983 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. During the 1983 season, there were 21 named storms, which was slightly less than the previous season. Furthermore, twelve of those storms became hurricanes. And eight of the storms reached major hurricane status, or Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). The decaying 1982–83 El Niño event likely contributed to this level of activity. That same El Niño influenced a very quiet Atlantic hurricane season.
The 1980 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1980, in the eastern Pacific and June 1, 1980, in the central Pacific, lasting until November 30, 1980. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean. This season was relatively uneventful; since no tropical cyclones made landfall, there were no reports of casualties or damage.
The 1973 Pacific hurricane season was an event in tropical cyclone meteorology. The most important system this year was Hurricane Ava, which was the most intense Pacific hurricane known at the time. Several other much weaker tropical cyclones came close to, or made landfall on, the Pacific coast of Mexico. The most serious of these was Hurricane Irah, which downed power and communication lines in parts of the Baja California Peninsula; the other landfalling storms caused rain and some flooding. No tropical cyclone this season caused any deaths.
The 1976 Pacific hurricane season was a very deadly and costly season. Hurricanes Kathleen, Liza, and Madeline were the most notable storms this year. Hurricane Kathleen caused death and destruction in California and Arizona due to flooding. Hurricane Liza was the deadliest storm of the season when it killed over 600 people in Mexico. Hurricane Madeline is notable for being one of the most intense Pacific hurricanes at landfall.
The 1975 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1975, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1975, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1975. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeast Pacific Ocean.
The 1972 Pacific hurricane season was an ongoing event in tropical cyclone meteorology. There were few notable storms this year. Only one person was killed and storm effects were almost not serious at all. The most notable systems were Hurricane Celeste and Joanne. Celeste was the strongest storm of the season, and caused heavy damage to Johnston Atoll. Hurricane Joanne brought gale-force winds to the Continental United States and caused flooding in Arizona and northern Mexico, which killed one person. The only other system to directly impact land was Hurricane Annette.
The 1961 Pacific hurricane season was an event in meteorology. It officially started on May 15, 1961, in the eastern Pacific and lasted until November 30, 1961. Ten tropical cyclones, 9 named storms and two hurricanes formed during the 1961 season, none of the hurricanes reached beyond category 1 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The 1968 Pacific hurricane season ties the record for having the most active August in terms of tropical storms. It officially started on May 15, 1968, in the eastern Pacific and June 1 in the central Pacific and lasted until November 30, 1968. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.
Hurricane Hernan was fourth and final tropical cyclone to strike Mexico at hurricane intensity during the 1996 Pacific hurricane season. The thirteenth tropical cyclone, eighth named storm, and fifth hurricane of the season, Hernan developed as a tropical depression from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico on September 30. The depression quickly strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Hernan later that day. Hernan curved north-northwestward the following day, before eventually turning north-northeastward. Still offshore of the Mexican coast on October 2, Hernan intensified into a hurricane. Six hours later, Hernan attained its peak as an 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (SSHWS). After weakening somewhat, on 1000 UTC October 3, Hurricane Hernan made landfall near Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h). Only two hours after landfall, Hernan weakened to a tropical storm. By October 4, Tropical Storm Hernan had weakened into a tropical depression, and dissipated over Nayarit on the following day.
Tropical Storm Norman was a tropical cyclone that hit Mexico in September 2000. The sixteenth cyclone and fourteenth named storm of the 2000 Pacific hurricane season, Norman originated in a tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa on September 4, and moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean; the wave entered the Pacific on September 16. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression on early on September 20, and later that day the storm reached its peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h), and subsequently made landfall to the west of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán. After weakening to a tropical depression over land, the storm re-emerged over open waters, and made a second landfall before dissipating shortly thereafter. The storm produced heavy rain that resulted in flooding and mudslides, killing about nine people.
The 2009 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season that spawned only 22 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. It was also recognized as the deadliest season in the Philippines for decades. The first half of the season was very quiet whereas the second half of the season was extremely active. The season's first named storm, Kujira, developed on May 3 while the season's last named storm, Nida, dissipated on December 3.
Hurricane Eugene was the only tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mexico during the 1987 Pacific hurricane season. The eighth tropical cyclone, fifth named storm, and first hurricane of the season, Eugene developed on July 22 from a tropical disturbance centered well offshore of Mexico. Later that day, the system intensified into a tropical storm while moving northwestward. Eugene reached hurricane status on July 24; it briefly peaked as a Category 2 hurricane the next day. Hurricane Eugene weakened back to a Category 1 hurricane; subsequently, the hurricane made landfall near Manzanillo. Shortly after landfall, Eugene rapidly weakened inland, and was only a tropical storm when it re-emerged into open water, where it quickly dissipated. Throughout southwestern Mexico, the storm produced high winds, especially in the southwestern portion of the country. The hurricane deluged the southwest Mexican coastline, resulting in the highest rainfall totals from a tropical cyclone in five Mexican states. Over 5,000 people were left homeless, including 60 in Manzanillo. The city's airport control tower was also damaged, requiring closure. Elsewhere, 200 to 300 houses were destroyed in Colima. In all, Eugene injured 18 people, and caused three fatalities and $142.12 million (1987 USD) in damage.
During 2021, tropical cyclones formed in seven major bodies of water, commonly known as tropical cyclone basins. Tropical cyclones will be assigned names by various weather agencies if they attain maximum sustained winds of 35 knots. During the year, 127 systems have formed and 91 were named, including one subtropical depression and excluding one system, which was unofficial. One storm was given two names by the same RSMC. The most intense storm of the year was Typhoon Surigae, with maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 220 km/h (140 mph) and a minimum pressure of 895 hPa (26.43 inHg). The deadliest tropical cyclone was Typhoon Rai, which caused 410 fatalities in the Philippines and 1 in Vietnam, while the costliest was Hurricane Ida, which caused an estimated $75.25 billion USD in damage after striking Louisiana and the Northeastern United States. Six Category 5 tropical cyclones formed during the year, tying 2003.