|Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||October 1, 1992|
|Dissipated||October 5, 1992|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained: 130 mph (215 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||948 mbar (hPa); 27.99 inHg|
|Areas affected||Southwestern Mexico|
|Part of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season|
Hurricane Virgil was a late season hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season that struck southwestern Mexico in October 1992. Forming from a tropical wave that left Africa on September 13, it slowly developed into a tropical depression. It soon strengthened into Tropical Storm Virgil, and rapidly intensified into a hurricane on October 2. Continuing to intensify, the hurricane attained major hurricane strength, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane off the coast of Mexico. Shortly before landfall, it weakened to a Category 2 hurricane, and it dissipated on October 5. Damage was generally minimal, though one person was reported missing.
Virgil originated from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on September 13, 1992, beginning a westward course through the Atlantic and Caribbean without much development, although there was an increase convection near the Lesser Antilles on the September 20. However, this was disorganized and suppressed by an upper-level trough during the wave's passage through the Caribbean Sea. The wave crossed over Panama on September 25, and convection began to increase when it reached the Eastern Pacific, although it was initially disorganized. The system later became better organized, and on October 1, the wave organized into a tropical depression. Shortly thereafter, it was upgraded to a tropical storm and was named Virgil.
Upon becoming a tropical storm, the system was expect to move near the coast of Mexico, and forecasters noted that there was some potential for a landfall. mph (215 km/h), but shortly thereafter the storm began to weaken.The system became a little better organized and over warm water and low wind shear Virgil steadily intensified. Virgil was upgraded to a hurricane the next day; an eye formed an hour later. During the period of strengthening, Virgil turned more towards the north. Continued strengthening occurred, and it attained major hurricane status on October 2. At this time, the system was anticipated to make landfall in Mexico as a Category 4 hurricane. The storm had maximum winds of 130
By 0900 UTC October 2, the eye started to become less defined. Based on this, the storm was downgraded into a category 3 hurricane. mph (195 km/h). Virgil's eye continued to become less defined, and was downgraded to Category 2 intensity at the time of first landfall on October 4 in Michoacan midway between Manzanillo and Lazaro Cardenas. . After briefly tracking over Manzanillo Bay, the hurricane moved onshore Colima as a Category 1 hurrican. It rapidly weakened over land, and was a dissipating tropical depression by the time it moved offshore.Although an eye was no longer visible on satellite imagery, the storms had displayed very deep convection, thus the NHC initially maintained the intensity at 120
Prior to the arrival of the hurricane, several watches and warnings were issued. During the afternoon of October 2, a hurricane watch was first issued for areas west of Zinhuantatenjo. The next day, the watch was upgraded into a hurricane warning. Fifteen hours later the area east of Zinhuantatenjo, a tropical storm warning was issued. The watches were gradually dropped over the next few days, and by October 4. 15 in (380 mm) of rain in the high terrain of Mexico.The NHC warned the possibility of mudslides and landslides and
Due to the sparsely populated area it struck, only minor damage was reported. Heavy rain and flooding were reported, peaking at over 10 inches (25 cm) in one location. One person was reported missing in the state of Colima, and three people were injured in Guerrero. More than 1,000 homes were damaged in Guerrero, Michoacán, and Colima, as was 7,400 acres (30 km²) of farmland. A flood on the Atoyac River washed away 500 homes in Guerrero, which prompted the evacuation of 2,500 people. A passenger train north of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán, was derailed when it encountered washed-out roadbeds. The storm also caused power outages.
The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season was a significantly below average season, but it did feature Hurricane Andrew, the costliest Atlantic hurricane known at the time, surpassing Hugo of 1989 and later surpassed by Katrina of 2005. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. The first storm, an unnamed subtropical storm, developed in the central Atlantic on April 21, over a month before the official start of hurricane season. On August 16, Hurricane Andrew formed and would later strike the Bahamas, as well U.S. States of Florida and Louisiana, becoming the costliest Atlantic hurricane on record until the record was surpassed just over 13 years later. Andrew caused $27.3 billion in damage, mostly in Florida, as well as 65 fatalities. In addition, Andrew was also the strongest hurricane of the season, reaching winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) while approaching Florida.
The 1991 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season since 1984 in which no hurricanes developed from tropical waves, which are the source for most North Atlantic tropical cyclones. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was the least active in four years due to higher than usual wind shear across the Atlantic Ocean. The first storm, Ana, developed on July 2 off the southeast United States and dissipated without causing significant effects. Two other tropical storms in the season – Danny and Erika – did not significantly affect land. Danny dissipated east of the Lesser Antilles, and Erika passed through the Azores before becoming extratropical. In addition, there were four non-developing tropical depressions. The second depression of the season struck Mexico with significant accompanying rains.
The 1996 Pacific hurricane season saw four Pacific hurricanes make landfall in Mexico which is the highest in a single season tied with the 2021 season. It was a below average season that produced 9 tropical storms, 5 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes. It officially began May 15, 1996, in the eastern north Pacific and on June 1, 1996, in the central north Pacific. It ended on November 30, 1996. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The season slightly exceeded these bounds when tropical storm One-E formed on May 13.
The 1992 Pacific hurricane season is the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, only surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.
The 1991 Pacific hurricane season was a near-average Pacific hurricane season. The worst storm this year was Tropical Storm Ignacio, which killed 23 people in Mexico and injured 40 others. Elsewhere, Hurricane Fefa caused flooding in Hawaii. Hurricane Kevin was the strongest system of the season and became the then longest-lasting hurricane in the eastern north Pacific basin at the time, and Hurricane Nora was the strongest November storm to that point. The season officially started on May 15, 1991, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1991, in the central Pacific. It lasted until November 30, 1991, in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.
Hurricane Calvin was one of three Pacific hurricanes on record to make landfall along the Mexican coast during the month of July. The fourth tropical cyclone, third named storm, and second hurricane of the 1993 Pacific hurricane season, Calvin developed from an area of convection to the south of Mexico on July 4. The following day, the system intensified into a tropical storm, which was named Calvin. Continued strengthening ensued as Calvin curved from its initial westward track northward, and was upgraded to a hurricane on July 6 Calvin eventually turned northwest, and became a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). By July 7, Hurricane Calvin made landfall near Manzanillo at peak strength. Calvin rapidly weakened after landfall, and was a tropical storm when it reemerged into the Pacific Ocean on early on July 8. Despite this, the hurricane did not reintensify, and continued to weaken as it headed rapidly northwestward. As Calvin made a second Mexican landfall near the southern tip of Baja California peninsula late on July 8, it weakened to a tropical depression. Early on July 9, the depression dissipated shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean for a third time.
Hurricane Adolph of the 2001 Pacific hurricane season was the first and one of only two East Pacific hurricanes in May to reach Category 4 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale since record keeping began in the East Pacific, with the other being Amanda of 2014. Adolph was the first depression of the season, forming on May 25; it became a hurricane three days later. After rapidly intensifying, Adolph became the most powerful storm in terms of maximum sustained winds this season, along with Hurricane Juliette. The storm briefly threatened land before dissipating on June 1, after moving over colder waters.
Hurricane Lester was a small but powerful tropical cyclone that caused heavy flooding in Central America and southern Mexico in October 1998. Lester was the fifteenth tropical cyclone, twelfth named storm and eighth hurricane of the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. Lester originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on September 29. Under favorable conditions, the storm was classified as a tropical depression on October 15. The depression was upgraded to a tropical storm later that day and a hurricane on October 16. After undergoing fluctuations in intensity, Lester reached peak winds of 115 mph (185 km/h), a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. After several days, it degenerated into a tropical storm on October 26, and dissipated shortly after. The hurricane made its closest approach to land on October 28, producing moderate winds and heavy rainfall. A mudslide triggered by the precipitation killed two children, although damage is unknown.
Tropical Storm Kiko was a strong tropical storm that capsized a boat off the western coast of Mexico, killing at least 15 people. The 15th and final tropical cyclone of the 2007 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko developed out of a tropical wave that formed off the coast of Africa on September 26 and traversed the Atlantic. The wave crossed over Central America and entered the Pacific Ocean on October 8, where it spawned Tropical Depression 15-E on October 15. The depression drifted to the south over the next day before briefly being declared Tropical Storm Kiko. It subsequently weakened into a tropical depression, but later reattained tropical storm intensity. By October 18, Kiko was forecast to make landfall along the western Mexican coastline as a moderate tropical storm. However, the cyclone turned to the west and reached its peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) on October 20. The tropical storm slowly weakened to a remnant low-pressure area by October 24 and completely dissipated on October 27 without making landfall.
Hurricane Hernan was fourth and final tropical cyclone to strike Mexico at hurricane intensity during the 1996 Pacific hurricane season. The thirteenth tropical cyclone, eighth named storm, and fifth hurricane of the season, Hernan developed as a tropical depression from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico on September 30. The depression quickly strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Hernan later that day. Hernan curved north-northwestward the following day, before eventually turning north-northeastward. Still offshore of the Mexican coast on October 2, Hernan intensified into a hurricane. Six hours later, Hernan attained its peak as an 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (SSHWS). After weakening somewhat, on 1000 UTC October 3, Hurricane Hernan made landfall near Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h). Only two hours after landfall, Hernan weakened to a tropical storm. By October 4, Tropical Storm Hernan had weakened into a tropical depression, and dissipated over Nayarit on the following day.
Tropical Storm Norman was a tropical cyclone that hit Mexico in September 2000. The sixteenth cyclone and fourteenth named storm of the 2000 Pacific hurricane season, Norman originated in a tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa on September 4, and moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean; the wave entered the Pacific on September 16. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression on early on September 20, and later that day the storm reached its peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h), and subsequently made landfall to the west of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán. After weakening to a tropical depression over land, the storm re-emerged over open waters, and made a second landfall before dissipating shortly thereafter. The storm produced heavy rain that resulted in flooding and mudslides, killing about nine people.
Hurricane Tina was the strongest and longest-lived storm of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, which also threatened land for a brief period. The twenty-fourth tropical cyclone, twenty-second tropical storm, fourteenth hurricane, and eighth major hurricane of the record breaking season, Tina formed from a tropical wave on September 17. The storm moved towards the west and strengthened into a hurricane. A breakdown in a ridge and to the north and a trough then re-curved Tina to the northeast and towards land, still moving slowly and gradually slowing down. The trough broke down and was replaced by a strong ridge. Tina then changed direction again and headed out to sea. It intensified into a Category 4 storm with winds of 150 mph and a central pressure of 932 millibars. Tina then slowly weakened as it turned to the north. Tropical Depression Tina dissipated on October 11, shortly after entering the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility. Although the tropical cyclone never made landfall, heavy rains were recorded across western Mexico. While at peak intensity, the storm also displayed annular characteristics.
Tropical Storm Odile was a late season tropical storm that formed during the 2008 Pacific hurricane season and affected parts of southern Mexico. A tropical depression formed on October 8, and became Tropical Storm Odile 18 hours later. The storm paralleled the south coast of Mexico, with the center located only several miles offshore. After peaking in intensity, increasing southeasterly vertical wind shear induced a trend of rapid weakening on the storm. Correspondingly, Odile was downgraded to a tropical depression early on 12 October, subsequently degenerating into a remnant low about 55 mi (85 km) south of Manzanillo, Colima. From thereon, the low proceeded slowly south-southwestward before dissipating on October 13. Since Odile stayed at sea, its effects along coastlines were limited. The most notable damages were caused by flooding along the southern coast of Mexico, mostly in Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Michoacán. The exact amount of damage, however, remains unknown, and no fatalities were reported as a result of the storm.
Tropical Depression Two-E was a short-lived tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall to southwestern Mexico. It was the only cyclone during the month in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, forming on June 3 from a tropical wave. The depression initially moved northeastward, threatening the Mexican states of Michoacán and Guerrero with a potential of it attaining tropical storm status. It remained a tropical depression, weakening due to land interaction and wind shear, and on June 5 it dissipated just off the coast. Rainfall from the depression peaked at 19.1 inches (486 mm) in Acapulco, which resulted in mudslides and flooding. A total of 42 houses were flooded, and 72 people were forced to leave their homes due to the storm; no deaths were reported.
Tropical Depression Five-E was a tropical depression which made landfall along the south-western Mexican coastline in July 2008. It was the fifth tropical cyclone of the 2008 Pacific hurricane season. The depression developed out of a weak tropical wave which formed off the coast of Africa on June 23. The wave remained poorly organized throughout its journey through the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The wave entered the Eastern Pacific on July 2 after passing through Central America. The wave developed into an area of low pressure that afternoon.
The meteorological history of Hurricane Georges spanned seventeen days from September 15 to October 1, 1998. Hurricane Georges began as a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa during mid-September 1998. Tracking westward, the wave spawned an area of low pressure two days later, which quickly strengthened into a tropical depression. On September 16, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Georges, and to Hurricane Georges the next day. Over the next few days, an eye developed and deep Atmospheric convection persisted around it. Strong outflow and warm sea surface temperatures allowed the storm to intensify as it tracked towards the west-northwest. The storm reached its peak intensity on September 20 with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h), just below Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, and a barometric pressure of 937 mbar.
Tropical Storm Carlos was the first of five tropical cyclones to make landfall during the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. It formed on June 26 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It quickly strengthened as it approached the coast, and early on June 27 Carlos moved ashore in Oaxaca with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). The storm rapidly deteriorated to a remnant low, which persisted until dissipating on June 29. Carlos brought heavy rainfall to portions of southern Mexico, peaking at 337 mm (13.3 in) in two locations in Guerrero. Throughout its path, the storm damaged about 30,000 houses, with a monetary damage total of 86.7 million pesos. At least nine people were killed throughout the country, seven due to mudslides and two from river flooding; there was also a report of two missing fishermen.
Tropical Storm Zeke was the final named storm of the record-breaking 1992 Pacific hurricane season. Forming out of a tropical wave on October 25, Zeke began as a disorganized depression. Tracking west-northwestward, the system gradually developed organized convection and intensified into a tropical storm. However, it soon entered a high wind shear environment, causing Zeke to weaken to a tropical depression. The following day, the storm re-intensified despite unfavorable conditions and later attained peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) on October 29. Rapid weakening followed shortly thereafter as convection dissipated and the center became exposed. During the afternoon of October 30, Zeke degenerated into a remnant low pressure system and dissipated several days later several hundred miles south of Baja California Sur.
Hurricane Winifred was the last tropical cyclone to make landfall in the record-breaking 1992 Pacific hurricane season. Impacting western Mexico, especially Colima and Michoacán, Hurricane Winifred brought heavy rain and destruction to the area. Rains flooded farms and roads, and caused more than $5 million in damage and a total of three people were killed.
Hurricane Rick was a strong Category 2 Pacific hurricane which made landfall on Lázaro Cárdenas in Mexico. The seventeenth named system and the eighth hurricane of the 2021 Pacific hurricane season, Rick formed as a low pressure system and was quickly upgraded to a tropical depression on October 21. Late on October 22, the storm was designated as a tropical storm and was given the name Rick. A few hours later, on October 23, the storm was upgraded to a hurricane. Rick continued to intensify and reached peak intensity early on October 25, making landfall as a category 2 hurricane at 10:00 UTC that morning. It was the fifth named storm and fourth hurricane to make landfall Mexico this year from the Pacific.