Jonesboro, Arkansas

Last updated
Jonesboro, Arkansas
City of Jonesboro
Jonesboro collage.png
Clockwise from top: Craighead County Courthouse, house in the West Washington Avenue Historic District, downtown Jonesboro, and Arkansas State University's Dean B. Ellis Library
Jonesboro, Arkansas seal.png
Seal
Nickname(s): 
J-boro, J-boog, J-Town, JB
Motto(s): 
People, Pride, Progress
Craighead County Arkansas Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Jonesboro Highlighted 0535710.svg
Location of Jonesboro in Craighead County, Arkansas.
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jonesboro, Arkansas
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 35°49′41″N90°41′39″W / 35.82806°N 90.69417°W / 35.82806; -90.69417 Coordinates: 35°49′41″N90°41′39″W / 35.82806°N 90.69417°W / 35.82806; -90.69417
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas
County Craighead
Incorporated February 19, 1859
Government
   Mayor Harold Perrin
Area
[1]
   City 80.55 sq mi (208.62 km2)
  Land79.98 sq mi (207.15 km2)
  Water0.57 sq mi (1.48 km2)
Elevation
259 ft (79 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 67,263
  Estimate 
(2017) [2]
75,866
  Density948.56/sq mi (366.24/km2)
   Metro
124,042
Time zone UTC−06:00 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−05:00 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
72401, 72404
Area code(s) 870
FIPS code 05-35710
GNIS feature ID0077389
Website www.jonesboro.org

Jonesboro is a city located on Crowley's Ridge in the northeastern corner of the U.S. State of Arkansas. Jonesboro is one of two county seats of Craighead County and the home of Arkansas State University. According to the 2010 Census, [3] the city had a population of 71,551 and is the fifth-largest city in Arkansas.

Crowleys Ridge

Crowley's Ridge is an unusual geological formation that rises 250 to 550 feet (170 m) above the alluvial plain of the Mississippi embayment in a 150-mile (240 km) line from southeastern Missouri to the Mississippi River near Helena, Arkansas. It is the most prominent feature in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain between Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the Gulf of Mexico.

Craighead County, Arkansas County in the United States

Craighead County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,443. The county has two county seats — Jonesboro and Lake City. Craighead County is Arkansas's 58th county, formed on February 19, 1859, and named for state Senator Thomas Craighead. It is one of several dry counties within the state of Arkansas, in which the sale of alcoholic beverages is largely prohibited.

Arkansas State University public university in Arkansas, United States

Arkansas State University is a public research university in Jonesboro, Arkansas. It is the flagship campus of the Arkansas State University System and the second largest university in Arkansas by enrollment. It was founded in 1909 and is located atop 1,376 acres (5.6 km2) on Crowley's Ridge. Arkansas State has Sun Belt rivalries with all West Division schools. Their primary Sun Belt rivals are Little Rock, Louisiana-Monroe, and Louisiana.

Contents

Jonesboro is the cultural and economic center of northeastern Arkansas. It is the principal city of the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the Jonesboro metropolitan area had a population of 121,026 [4] and a population of 163,116 in the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. [5]

Jonesboro metropolitan area

The Jonesboro Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties – Craighead and Poinsett – in northeast Arkansas, anchored by the city of Jonesboro. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 121,026. It is also part of the larger Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area.

Jonesboro is a regional center for manufacturing, agriculture, medicine, education, and trade.

History

The Jonesboro area was first inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, historic tribes included the Osage, the Caddo, and the Quapaw. [6] The name of the state of Arkansas comes from the Quapaw language. [6] French and Spanish traders and trappers had relations with these groups.

Osage Nation Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States

The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family. They migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, and the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers.

Caddo confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes

The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory in 1859.

Quapaw ethnic group

The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley. The Dhegiha Siouan-speaking tribe historically migrated from the Ohio Valley area to the west side of the Mississippi River and resettled in what is now the state of Arkansas; their name for themselves refers to this migration and traveling downriver.

After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, American settlers eventually made their way to the area where Jonesboro is located. They began exploring, hunting, trapping, and trading with the local Indian tribes. A permanent settlement of Jonesboro was set up shortly after 1815.

Louisiana Purchase Acquisition by the United States of America of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana

The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, the U.S. acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi. The treaty was negotiated by French Treasury Minister François Barbé-Marbois and American delegates James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston.

In 1859, land was taken from nearby Greene, Mississippi, and Poinsett counties and was used to form Craighead County. Jonesboro was designated as the original county seat. As the population increased in the west of the county, Lake City was named as the second seat. [7] In 1859 Jonesboro had 150 residents. It was named after State Senator William A. Jones [8] in recognition of his support for the formation of Craighead County. Originally spelled Jonesborough, the city name was later shortened to its present-day spelling.

Greene County, Arkansas County in the United States

Greene County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,090. The county seat is Paragould, which sits atop Crowley's Ridge.

Mississippi County, Arkansas County in the United States

Mississippi County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,480. There are two county seats, Blytheville and Osceola. The county was formed on November 1, 1833, and named for the Mississippi River which borders the county to the east. Mississippi County is part of the First Congressional District in Arkansas. The Mississippi County Judge is John Alan Nelson.

Poinsett County, Arkansas County in the United States

Poinsett County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,583. The county seat is Harrisburg.

The Bell House is one of twelve Jonesboro sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Jonesboro AR historic Bell House 303 Cherry St.JPG
The Bell House is one of twelve Jonesboro sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

During the late 19th century, the city tried to develop its court system and downtown infrastructure. Shortly after being named county seat, the highest point in Jonesboro was identified and a court house was planned for construction. This was delayed for several years as the locals did not want to ruin their deer hunting. The first court house was finally completed but was destroyed by a fire in 1869. A store across from this site was rented and used as a court house. It was destroyed in an 1876 fire. Another building was constructed on the same site, but it fell to a fire in 1878, a major one that destroyed most of downtown Jonesboro. Soon afterward, another court house was constructed, and it still stands.

The St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known as the Cotton Belt Railroad was constructed through Jonesboro, with its tracks passing just north of the center of the city. During the first train's journey, it became stuck and supplies had to be carried into town. [6] It connected St. Louis to points in Arkansas and Texas. Other major railways began to construct tracks to and from Jonesboro, including the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and Missouri Pacific Railroad. Some of the rail companies still own and use the tracks that run through Jonesboro.

St. Louis Southwestern Railway defunct American railway (1891–1992)

The St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known by its nickname of "The Cotton Belt Route" or simply Cotton Belt, is a former US Class I railroad which operated between St. Louis, Missouri, and various points in the states of Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Texas from 1891 to 1980. In 1980 the Cotton Belt began operating the Rock Island's Golden State Route which added the states of Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico to the operation. Operation of the Cotton Belt was assumed by parent Southern Pacific in 1992.

St. Louis–San Francisco Railway defunct American Class I railway

The St. Louis–San Francisco Railway, also known as the Frisco, was a railroad that operated in the Midwest and South Central U.S. from 1876 to April 17, 1980. At the end of 1970 it operated 4,547 miles (7,318 km) of road on 6,574 miles (10,580 km) of track, not including subsidiaries Quanah, Acme and Pacific Railway or the Alabama, Tennessee and Northern Railroad; that year it reported 12,795 million ton-miles of revenue freight and no passengers. It was purchased and absorbed into the Burlington Northern Railroad in 1980. Despite its name, it never came close to San Francisco.

Missouri Pacific Railroad defunct American Class I railroad

The Missouri Pacific Railroad, commonly abbreviated as MoPac and nicknamed The Mop, was one of the first railroads in the United States west of the Mississippi River. MoPac was a Class I railroad growing from dozens of predecessors and mergers, including the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway (SLIMS), Texas and Pacific Railway (TP), Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad (C&EI), St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway (SLBM), Kansas, Oklahoma and Gulf Railway (KO&G), Midland Valley Railroad (MV), San Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Railroad (SAU&G), Gulf Coast Lines (GC), International-Great Northern Railroad (IGN), New Orleans, Texas and Mexico Railway (NOTM), Missouri-Illinois Railroad (MI), as well as the small Central Branch Railway, and joint ventures such as the Alton and Southern Railroad (AS).

The city set up the Jonesboro School District in 1899. [9] In 1900, St. Bernard's Regional Medical Center was established by the Olivetan Benedictine Sisters. [10] The Grand Leader Department Store, the first department store in the city, was opened in 1900. Woodland College and two schools within the Jonesboro School District were opened in 1904. Arkansas State College (now Arkansas State University) was established in 1909, [11] a year in which the first horseless carriages were driven in the city. There is a recording on a Sanborn Fire Insurance Map dating back to March 1897 of a Presbyterian Church existing at the corner of Church St. and Monroe, and a Christian church located at the corner of Union and Huntington Ave. Other early churches of the city were started in the 1910s. First Baptist Church was founded in 1911, and First Methodist Church in 1916.

On September 10, 1931, Governor Harvey Parnell authorized the Arkansas National Guard to be deployed in Jonesboro to quell the Church War, a clash between the followers of Joe Jeffers and Dow H. Heard, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jonesboro. Jeffers' supporters also attacked the mayor and police chief, resulting in front-page coverage of the incident in The New York Times .

During the 20th century, Jonesboro began to diversify its economy, with industrial businesses that allowed it to grow beyond the cotton culture. The university attracts educated residents.

The Jonesboro Lynching of 1881 took place at midnight on March 12. The Decatur Daily Republican reported that four black men—Green Harris (sometimes referred to as Hawes), Giles Peck, John Woods (sometimes referred to as Jud Woods), and Burt Hoskins (sometimes referred to as Haskins)—had been arrested and tried before magistrates Jackson and Akers at New Haven Church, eight miles north of Jonesboro. The hearing, which found that the men were guilty, was attended by several hundred people. According to this and several other reports, the accused made a complete confession. The magistrates bound them over to the grand jury, and they were ordered taken to the jail in Jonesboro. The hour being late, however, it was decided to hold them overnight in the church under a strong guard. The large crowd gradually dispersed, “muttering threats of vengeance.”

Around midnight, between 200 and 300 masked men surrounded the church, overpowered the guards, and broke in the doors and windows. They seized the accused, dragged them to a tree about 200 yards away, and hanged them. Once again, the crowd dispersed, “leaving the bodies of their victims dangling in the air and presenting a horrible spectacle in the moonlight.” According to the Republican, “The crime and punishment form one of the blackest pages in the annals of the state.”

On May 15, 1968 an F4 tornado struck Jonesboro, destroying 164 homes. [12]

The Westside Middle School massacre occurred on March 24, 1998. Two young boys (aged 11 and 13 years) fired upon students at Westside Middle School while hidden in woodlands near the school. They killed four students and one teacher, and injured 10 persons.[ citation needed ]

In the 2007–2008 school year the Jonesboro Public School District elementary schools were reclassified as magnet schools. [13]

Geography

Jonesboro is located at 35°49′41″N90°41′39″W / 35.82806°N 90.69417°W / 35.82806; -90.69417 (35.828067, -90.694048) [14] atop Crowley's Ridge in northeastern Arkansas.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 80.5 square miles (208.4 km2), of which 79.9 square miles (206.9 km2) is land and 0.58 square miles (1.5 km2), or 0.72%, is water. [3]

Climate

Jonesboro has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Climate data for Jonesboro
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)46
(8)
51
(11)
61
(16)
71
(22)
80
(27)
88
(31)
92
(33)
90
(32)
83
(28)
73
(23)
60
(16)
49
(9)
70
(21)
Average low °F (°C)26
(−3)
30
(−1)
38
(3)
48
(9)
57
(14)
66
(19)
70
(21)
68
(20)
60
(16)
48
(9)
38
(3)
29
(−2)
48
(9)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.29
(84)
3.57
(91)
4.45
(113)
4.99
(127)
4.92
(125)
3.29
(84)
2.73
(69)
2.67
(68)
3.12
(79)
3.89
(99)
5.02
(128)
4.25
(108)
46.18
(1,173)
Source: [15]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1890 2,065
1900 4,508118.3%
1910 7,12358.0%
1920 9,38431.7%
1930 10,32610.0%
1940 11,72913.6%
1950 16,31039.1%
1960 21,41831.3%
1970 27,05026.3%
1980 31,53016.6%
1990 46,53447.6%
2000 55,51519.3%
2010 67,26321.2%
Est. 201775,866 [2] 12.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [16]
A flock of Canada geese at Craighead Forest Park Craighead Forest Park.jpg
A flock of Canada geese at Craighead Forest Park

As of the census [17] of 2013, there were 71,551 people, 26,111 households, and 16,637 families residing in the city. The population density was 697.1 people per square mile (269.1/km²). There were 28,321 housing units at an average density of 304.7 per square mile (117.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.7% White, 18.4% Black, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. 5.2% of the population were Hispanic.

There were 26,111 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.4% were non-families. There are 878 unmarried partner households: 776 heterosexual, 50 same-sex male, and 52 same-sex female households. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 16.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,196, and the median income for a family was $42,082. Males had a median income of $21,633 versus $31,633 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,884. About 12.9% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.4% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Air Service

The region is served by the Jonesboro Municipal Airport. Scheduled commercial flights between Jonesboro and St. Louis Lambert International Airport, are offered daily by Air Choice One.

Public transport

The city is served by the Jonesboro Economic Transit System (JETS). As of 2011, JETS operates three fixed routes, as well as para-transit service for disabled persons.

List of highways

Education

Elementary and secondary education

The Dean B. Ellis Library at Arkansas State University's main campus Dean B. Ellis Library, Arkansas State University (3 September 2005).jpg
The Dean B. Ellis Library at Arkansas State University's main campus

There are six public school districts operating within the city limits of Jonesboro: [18]

The North East Arkansas Career & Tech Center [19] is also located in Jonesboro.

Points of Interest

Craighead Forest Park is a city-owned park located on Crowley's Ridge featuring a 60-acre fishing lake, camping facilities, hiking/biking trails, nature areas, picnic sites and recreational fields.

Crowley's Ridge Parkway runs through Jonesboro. It was designated one of Arkansas' Scenic Byways in 1997, and it was designated Arkansas' first National Scenic Byway in 1998.

In 2004 the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission opened the 160 acre Forrest L. Wood Crowley's Ridge Nature Center in south Jonesboro, adjacent to Craighead Forest Park. The center includes exhibits on the origins and history of the Ridge, wildlife, educational models and displays, land and water features, hiking trails, an observation tower and an auditorium.

Located on the ASU campus, The Arkansas State University Museum is accredited by the American Association of Museums and features 21,000 square feet of historic, archaeological, and natural history exhibits. The museum focuses on the history and cultural heritage of Northeast Arkansas and the Mississippi River Delta region.

Shopping

Entrance into The Mall at Turtle Creek Mall at Turtle Creek Entrance.jpg
Entrance into The Mall at Turtle Creek

The Mall at Turtle Creek, opened in 2006, is the largest mall in northeast Arkansas. It was the only enclosed mall opened in the United States that year. [20] Before the opening of the mall, Indian Mall was the primary shopping destination in northeast Arkansas. In 2012, Indian Mall, named for the former mascot of Arkansas State University, was demolished. The only store to remain in its original location was Sears.

In 2012, Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked Jonesboro ninth of the "10 Best Cities for Cheapskates". [21]

Local Media

Television
Call SignChannelNetwork(s)
KAIT 8.1 ABC
8.2 NBC
8.3 CW+
KTEJ 19.1 PBS
19.2 Create
19.3 PBS Kids
19.4 World
KJNB-LD/KJNE-LD 39.1/42.1 FOX
39.2/42.2 CBS
39.3/42.3 MeTV/MyNetworkTV
KVTJ 48.1Religious
FM Radio
Call SignFrequencyFormatBranding
KASU 91.9Public Radio91.9 KASU
K224DW (KDXY-HD2)92.7SportsESPN Jonesboro
K237FI (KNEA)95.3Sports95.3 The Ticket
K253BQ (KJBX-HD2)98.5Country98.5 The Outlaw
KEGI 100.5Classic Rock100.5 The Eagle Rocks
K267AS (KBTM)101.3News/TalkNews Talk 101.3 KBTM
KIYS 101.7Top 40101.7 KISS-FM
KLEK-LP102.5Community102.5 KLEK
KFLO-LP 102.960s, 70s, 80s, and some HitsKFLO 102.9FM
KDXY 104.9Country104.9 The Fox
KJBX 106.3Hot ACMix 106.3
K298AV (KDXY-HD3)107.5Top 40107.5 The Party Station
KFIN 107.9CountryThe BIG 107.9 KFIN
AM Radio
Call SignFrequencyFormatBranding
KNEA 970Sports95.3 The Ticket
KBTM 1230News/TalkNews Talk 101.3 KBTM

Notable people

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References

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  2. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  3. 1 2 "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Jonesboro city, Arkansas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  4. "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Jonesboro, AR Metro Area, Arkansas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2013-03-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. 1 2 3 History of Jonesboro Archived 2007-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Craighead County Arkansas Genealogy Trails". Genealogytrails.com. 2006-03-03. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  8. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 170.
  9. Jonesboro Public School System
  10. St. Bernard's Medical Center: History & Facts
  11. About Arkansas State University Archived 2008-01-12 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Grazulis, Thomas P. (1993). Significant tornadoes, 1680-1991: A Chronology and Analysis of Events. St. Johnsbury, Vermont: Environmental Films. p. 1099. ISBN   1-879362-03-1.
  13. KAIT - Jonesboro, AR: Teachers get Ready for Magnet Schools
  14. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  15. "Average weather for Jonesboro, Arkensas". Weather.com. July 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  16. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  17. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  18. "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Craighead County, AR" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  19. North East Arkansas Career & Tech Center
  20. "The Mall at Turtle Creek to hold grand opening March 28-April 8 - Memphis Business Journal". Memphis Business Journal. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  21. "10 Best Cities for Cheapskates". Kiplinger. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  22. "Michelle Gray's Biography". Project Vote Smart . Retrieved April 12, 2015.