Arkansas National Guard

Last updated
Arkansas National Guard
Seal of the Arkansas National Guard.jpg
Active1804–present
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
AllegianceFlag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas
BranchFlag of the United States Army (official proportions).svg  United States Army
Flag of the United States Air Force.svg  United States Air Force
Type National Guard
Role Militia
Part of National Guard Bureau
HeadquartersCamp Robinson, North Little Rock, Arkansas
Motto(s)Arkansas First!
Commanders
Governor and Commander in Chief Asa Hutchinson
Adjutant General Mark H. Berry
This article is part of a series on the
Arkansas National Guard
Seal of the Arkansas National Guard.jpg
Arkansas National Guard
Arkansas Army National Guard
Arkansas Territorial Militia, (1804–1836)
Arkansas Militia, 1836–1879
Arkansas State Guard, 1879–1907
Arkansas State Guard and the Spanish–American War
Arkansas National Guard 1907–1949
Arkansas Air National Guard (1946–Present)
Arkansas Army National Guard (1949–Present)
See also
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansasportal

The Arkansas National Guard comprises both the Arkansas Army National Guard and Arkansas Air National Guard. The state functions of the National Guard range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service by the President.

Arkansas Army National Guard

The Arkansas Army National Guard is a component of the Arkansas National Guard and the United States National Guard. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau.

Arkansas Air National Guard

The Arkansas Air National Guard is the air force militia of the State of Arkansas, United States of America. It is, along with the Arkansas Army National Guard, an element of the Arkansas National Guard.

Martial law temporary state of government typically involving curfews; the suspension of civil law, civil rights, and habeas corpus; and the application of military law to civilians

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory.

Contents

Dual missions, state and federal

National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and Temporary DutY Assignments TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there have been several individual activations to support military operations since 2001.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

State of emergency Legal declaration or de facto acts by a government allowing assumption of extraordinary powers

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted to do. A government can declare such a state during a disaster, civil unrest, or armed conflict. Such declarations alert citizens to change their normal behavior and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law—a concept in which the senate could put forward a final decree that was not subject to dispute.

A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government.

Federal mission

When National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-In-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed." For much of the final decades of the 20th century, National Guard personnel typically served "one weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity. The current forces formation plans of the US Army call for the typical National Guard unit (or National Guardsman) to serve one year of active duty for every six years of service. More specifically, current Department of Defense policy is that individual Guardsman will be given 24 months between deployments of no more than 12 months each.

"One weekend a month, two weeks a year" is a former recruiting slogan used by the U.S. Army National Guard. It indicated the amount of time an individual would need to spend actively in the Guard to be a Guardsman with benefits. Though never officially, it was also informally used by Air National Guard, U.S. Army Reserve, U.S. Naval Reserve, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, U.S. Air Force Reserve and U.S. Coast Guard Reserve personnel in describing their similar military time commitment.

United States Department of Defense United States federal executive department

The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".

State mission

The Governor may call individuals or units of the Arkansas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." When not activated for its Federal mission, the Governor through the State Adjutant General commands Guard forces. The Governor can call the Guard into action during local or statewide emergencies, such as storms, drought, and civil disturbances, to name a few. [1]

Military support to civilian authorities (MSCA)

Upon the request of either the judge or sheriff of a county or the mayor of a city... ...whenever it is made to appear to the Governor that there is a breach of the peace, riot, resistance to process of this State, or disaster or imminent danger thereof... ...the Governor may order into the active service of the state... ...for such period, and to such extent, and in such manner as he may deem necessary, all or any part of the organized militia. [2]

The intent is that the National Guard is called only when civilian resources have been used first and fully exhausted. While in this status, Guard units report only to military authorities, Guard Authorities do not replace Civilian Authorities. The use of the National Guard is intended as a temporary measure to prevent the loss of life or damage to property.

Examples of MSCA missions conducted in state active duty status

Arkansas Guard helps fight flood waters in the small community of Payneway, May 2011 Flickr - DVIDSHUB - Arkansas Guard helps fight flood waters (Image 9 of 12).jpg
Arkansas Guard helps fight flood waters in the small community of Payneway, May 2011

When Tornados hit Dumas, Arkansas on Saturday, Feb. 24, 2007 the Arkansas National Guard deployed 130 Soldiers to conduct the following missions: [3]

Security operations
Prevention of looting
Curfew enforcement
Power generation

In 2009 the Arkansas National Guard conducted over 101 MSCA missions, including: [4]

Texas wildfires
Major ice storm – 81 missions
Mena tornado
Water purification to support the town of Dierks, Arkansas
H1N1 flu vaccinations

The types of missions that the Arkansas National Guard conducted in 2009 included: [4]

Power generation
Emergency shelter
Cots and blankets
County disaster response teams (search and rescue, route clearance, debris removal)
Water provision

Examples of MSCA provided in a Title 32 status

The National Guard may also respond to natural disasters and other domestic operations in a Title 32 status. In this situation, the Guard is still under the direct command and control of the Governor, but the Federal Government provides the funding through Title 32 of the United States Code.

Hurricane Katrina

The Governor of Arkansas initially activated troops in a state active duty status in response to an Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) request from the Governor of Louisiana. EMAC provides mutual aid across state lines, provides assets for states' personnel and equipment shortfalls, places responding assets under operational control of requesting governor and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recognizes cross-state support as reimbursable.

The Arkansas National Guard provided the first guard units from outside Louisiana to respond to the Louisiana Governor’s request for support when the 77th Theater Aviation Brigade deployed assets to New Orleans. A total of 3000 Arkansas National Guard Soldiers and Airmen were mobilized, with 1500 deployed to Louisiana at the peak of operations. The Arkansas National Guard assisted with processing over 10,000 evacuees through the Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) at Fort Smith Arkansas. Arkansas National Guard units were among the last to leave Louisiana, finally handing off its missions to the Louisiana National Guard in February 2006. [5]

Operation Jump Start

When President Bush ordered National Guard Troops to help secure the border with Mexico, the Arkansas National Guard responded with a Joint Task Force of Soldiers and Airmen, operating in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. At its peak, Arkansas had over 230 Arkansas troops and airmen on orders including:

Arizona – 23 Airmen from the 188th Fighter Wing and 189th Air Lift Wing
New Mexico – 137 from 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team and 87th Troop Command, ans 1 Airman from 188th Fighter Wing
Texas – 53 from the 77th Theater Aviation Brigade
Arkansas – 19 support personnel at the state Joint Operations Center and the Joint Forces Headquarters

State military facilities

The Arkansas National Guard operates over 70 National Guard Readiness Centers (traditionally referred to as Armories) in 55 Arkansas Counties. The state also maintains two Maneuver Training Centers, Chaffee Maneuver Training Center at Fort Smith, Arkansas and Robinson Maneuver Training Center at North Little Rock, Arkansas.

Chaffee Maneuver Training Center

Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) encompasses over 65,000 acres, large enough to support Brigade size training exercises, or up to approximately 7000 soldiers. Acreage available to support Field Artillery training as well as various small arms training ranges. A recent addition to Fort Chaffee is the convoy live fire range to meet the latest training requirement of the Global War On Terrorism. Fort Chaffee became a center for processing hurricane evacuees, providing shelter and relief to over 10,000 Citizens of Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

Robinson Maneuver Training Center

Robinson Maneuver Training Center (Camp Robinson) a 32,000 Acre facility located at North Little Rock, Arkansas, which houses the Joint Forces Headquarters, Arkansas National Guard, the Headquarters, Arkansas Air National Guard, Headquarters, 77th Theater Aviation Brigade, Headquarters, 87th Troop Command, and is home to 3 Premier Training Centers, the National Guard Professional Education Center (PEC), the Guard Marksmanship Training Center (NGMTC) and the 233rd Regional Training Institute.

National Guard Professional Education Center

Camp Robinson is home to the PEC and its 75-acre campus consisting of 25 buildings and a total staff of approximately 420 military, civilian contractor personnel. We annually provide instruction to over 20,000 members of the military force. The Professional Education Center also hosts over 5,000 conferees annually from the National Guard, Army Reserve, Active Army, DOD, State and Federal agencies. These conferences typically provide 3 to 5 day training sessions covering specific subjects and discussions on a wide variety of issues such as: mobilizations and deployments; standards; new tactics, techniques, and procedures; and leadership development. The Army National Guard Senior Commanders' Conference, FORSCOM Command Readiness Program Conference, Winston P. Wilson Marksmanship Competition, Training and Requirements Opportunities Sourcing Conference, Army National Guard Fixed Wing Conference, and the Army National Guard Chief of Staff Advisory Council Conference are just a few of the conferences held at PEC. [6]

National Guard Marksmanship Training Center

The Marksmanship Training Center (MTC) programs and provides institutional training within Marksmanship related activities which will enhance effectiveness of unit level training programs in the Army and Air National Guard and missions based on the collective requirements identified by NGB-ART-I (Individual Training Branch), the Army Program for Individual Training (ARPRINT) for the Army National Guard, the United States Army Reserve (USAR), and the Active Component (AC) in support of the Army's Modular Force. Administer NGB Marksmanship training and competitive programs at all levels, stressing the development of combat skills to improve proficiency above basic marksmanship requirements and increase battlefield survivability. Provides training, training support and validation of mission essential task performance for the Army SNIPER training programs. Conduct mobile training team assistance and/or assessment visits to units. The MTC provides coordinating authority, quality assurance (QA), assessment and accreditation oversight for training responsibilities. The MTC provides for the review and development of associated TATS courseware in response to the Army's training needs and the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE). Additionally, the MTC provides operational, training, administrative, logistical, and resource management support as required to accomplish the mission to train the Army Warrior within each respective State and Territory as specified and approved by The Adjutant General (TAG). [7]

233rd Regional Training Institute

The 233rd Regional Training Institute has a long and proud history. It began in 1957 with the first Officer Candidate Class. For the next 39 years the Arkansas Military Academy built a proud heritage in the Arkansas National Guard setting the standard for some of the best officers in the Army. The RTI provides training to Soldiers from all 54 States and Territories.

In 1984, General Herbert Temple had a vision to develop a two-week course that would hone and improve the soldier combat skills needed to win on the modern battlefield. For ten years the Battle Skills School trained soldiers from all over the United States on the basic skills of survival and small unit tactics.

The Total Army School System took shape in Arkansas as the 233d Regiment (Regional Training Institute) in October 1994. The 233d RTI was organized from the Arkansas Military Academy and the Battle Skills School combining their respective TDAs.

The Mission of the RTI is to train infantry and artillery, and communications military occupational specialties, as well as non-commissioned officer education, and officer candidate school. The 233rd operates the second largest infantry school in the Army, only second to Fort Benning.[ citation needed ] Approximately 1,930 soldiers graduated training at the RTI during Fiscal Year 06. [8]

Manpower

As of 2009, the Arkansas National Guard Consisted of 10,582 Soldiers and Airmen. 8,750 of these Soldiers and Airmen are considered traditional members, meaning that they are required to drill at least one weekend per month and 2 weeks per year, but often work more. The Arkansas National Guard is supported by 1,836 full-time federal military employees and an additional 545 full-time state civilian employees.

State Military Department

The Arkansas State Military Department supports the Arkansas Guard by providing responsible fiscal, administrative, nursing, security, youth service, family support, natural resource conservation, recycling, waste water, public affairs, legal, museum, fire, police officers, skilled trades, and trained professional staff that will ensure well-maintained armories, facilities, training, and personnel administration for the National Guard.

Youth programs

The Arkansas National Guard Operates two programs to assist at-risk youth.

Youth Challenge

The Arkansas National Guard Youth Challenge program is a 22-week residential program for at-risk youth ages 16–19. In 2009 the program graduated 109 cadets. Of that number 71 earned a GED or a high school diploma. Twelve graduates of the program joined the military and six enrolled in college. The Cadets perform community service at numerous events, such as the Arkansas Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure against breast cancer. [9]

Civilian Student Training Program

Civilian Student Training Program is a state funded program that provides a structured, discipline base and military style, behavior modification environment. the program accepts adjudicated male nonviolent offenders ranging in age from 13–17. The nine-week residential multi-phase program stresses value-based learning, physical fitness, academic and life skills education, and community service. The program was proposed by the Arkansas National Guard and established by the state legislature in 1993. All participants are enrolled under court order. The program has graduated over 5,000 since its inception. The academic grade level increased of graduates increases by an average of 2.5 years. Over 25,000 hours of community service has been performed by CSTP graduates. [9]

Economic impact

The Arkansas National Guard's total operating budget for FY 2008 was, $244.8 million; of that, the federal government provided $232.4 million and the State of Arkansas provided $12.3 million in fiscal year 2008. There were also federal military construction projects related to the Arkansas National Guard totaling $83 million in fiscal year 2008. [10]

CountyCityImpact
ArkansasCity$1,269,979
AshleyCrossett$714,035
BaxterMountain Home$1,203,954
BentonBentonville$921,755
BentonSiloam Springs$842,348
BentonRogers$855,546
BooneHarrison$2,265.463
BradleyWarren$3,435,145
CarrollBerryville$674,586
ClarkArkadelphia$708,266
ClayRector$1,340,758
CleburneHeber Springs$1,130,293
ColumbiaMagnolia$1,466,699
CraigheadJonesboro$4,308,507
CrittendenWest Memphis$909,426
CrossWynne$23,320
DallasFordyce$589,634
DeshaDumas$1,285,005
DrewMonticello$1,296,634
FaulknerConway$1,666,875
FranklinOzark$869,503
FranklinCharleston$988,245
GarlandHot Springs$3,159,283
GreeneParagould$1,400,640
HempsteadHope$700,683
Hot SpringsMalvern$2,868,561
IndependenceBatesville$1,039,968
JacksonNewport$1,286,802
JeffersonPine Bluff$3,762,741
JohnsonClarksville$1,031,235
LawrenceWalnut Ridge$625,606
LoganBooneville$1,645,150
LoganParis$1,030,461
LonokeLonoke$605,157
LonokeCabot$513,329
MillerTexarkana$679,858
MississippiBlytheville$846,821
MonroeBrinkley$658,596
NevadaPrescott$611,455
OuachitaCamden$705,243
PerryPerryville$561,727
PhillipsWest Helena$1,890,242
PoinsettHarrisburg$711,870
PoinsettMarked Tree$1,387,015
PolkMena$641,656
PopeRussellville$3,539,263
PrairieHazen$1,926,785
PulaskiLittle Rock$3,183,860
PulaskiNorth Little Rock$103,632,033
PulaskiLittle Rock Air Force Base$26,663,208
SalineBenton$1,416,622
SearcyMarshall$860,222
SebastianFort Smith$34,664,749
SevierDeQueen$688,250
St FrancisForrest City$709,944
UnionEl Dorado$631,499
WashingtonFayetteville$3,930,279
WashingtonLincoln$739,739
WashingtonSpringdale$928,628
WhiteBeebe$650,411
WhiteSearcy$3,038,279
WoodruffAugusta$432,097
YellDardanelle$893,552
YellDanville$637,648

History

The Arkansas National Guard traces its roots to the creation of the Territorial Militia in 1804. Interest in the Militia in Arkansas generally waxed and waned throughout the 19th century as various national emergencies arose and passed. Arkansas provided troops for the War with Mexico, the American Civil War, and the Spanish–American War during the 19th century. In each case, in answer to the governor's call, local militia companies would turn out and be formed into regiments or battalions for induction into federal service. The militia was also heavily engaged in the violence that characterized the Reconstruction period following the Civil War.

Interest in the militia or Arkansas State Guard as it was known following reconstruction, ebbed and flowed throughout the 19th century, increasing just before or major conflicts, but diminishing in between. Most militia activity was at the local, county and city level, and was often provided for with private funds. It was only late in the 19th century, in the preparations for the Spanish–American War that the State Guard, as it was known then, truly came into existence as a stable organized force.

Following the Spanish–American War, the Arkansas State Guard, along with the militia forces of all other states, was reorganized as the Arkansas National Guard. With the reorganization came the first nationally directed training and increased funding. During World War I, units were stripped of their state designations and were given federal designations upon mustering into federal service. The National Guard saw a massive expansion and increased funding and training following World War I. A similar increase was seen after World War II. Following World War II, the air component was separated into the Arkansas Air National Guard. Both the air and land components of the Arkansas National Guard supplied forces for the Korean War. In 1967 during a nationwide reorganization of National Guard Units, the Arkansas Army National Guard took on most of its current force structure with one Infantry Brigade, One Field Artillery Brigade, Aviation units, and various Separate Companies under the Troop Command. Arkansas units have served in every major conflict since the Seminole War, with the exception of Vietnam. Arkansas Army and Air units remain fully engaged in the ongoing Global War on Terrorism.

Throughout its service to the nation during times of war, the Arkansas National Guard has continued to perform its role of providing service to the citizens of the state during times of disaster. The Guard has responded to numerous tornadoes, floods and fires, in addition to being called upon to provide security and quell violence in times of civil disturbance. The Guard has also provided support to neighboring states, most notably Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Ike.

The history of the Arkansas National Guard is divided into the following time periods:

List of Adjutants General of Arkansas (1819–present)

Bibliography

Arkansas Historical Quarterly Articles relating to the Arkansas National Guard

Atkinson, James H., “The Arkansas Gubernatorial Campaign and Election of 1872”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, I (December 1942)

Bearden, Russell. "Jefferson County's Worst Disaster: The Flood of 1927." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 43 (Winter 1984), pp.

Bearsss, Edwin C., “Marmaduke Attacks Pine Bluff”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, XXIII (Winter 1964)

Brown, Walter Lee, “The Mexican War Experiences of Albert Pike and the ‘Mounted Devils’ of Arkansas”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XII (Winter 1953)

Cowen, Ruth Caroline, “Reorganization of Federal Arkansas, 1862–1865”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XVIII (Summer 1959)

Davidson, Bertha, “Arkansas in the Spanish–American War, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, V (Autumn 1946)

Coulter, Nate. "The Impact of the Civil War Upon Pulaski County, Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 41 (Spring 1982), pp. 67–82.

Demuth, David O. "An Arkansas County Mobilizes: Saline County, Arkansas, 1917–1918." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 36 (Fall 1977), pp. 211–233.

Finley, Randy. "Black Arkansans and World War I." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 49 (Autumn 1990), pp. 249–277.

Huff, Leo E., “The Martial Law Controversy in Arkansas, 1861–1865: A Case history of Internal Confederate Conflict”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXXVII (Summer 1978)

Huff, Leo E., “Guerrillas, Jayhawkers and Bushwackers in Northern Arkansas During the Civil War”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXIV (Summer 1965)

Huff, Leo E., “The Military Board in Confederate Arkansas”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXVI (Spring 1967)

Mahon, Harold E. "The Search for Arkansas Civil War Records, 1892." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 41 (Autumn 1982), pp. 253–256.

Mitchell, James. "Civil War Letters from James Mitchell to His Wife, Sarah Elizabeth Latta Mitchell." Edited by Frances Mitchell Ross. Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 37 (Winter 1978).

Moneyhon, Carl H. "Disloyalty and Class Consciousness in Southwestern Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 52 (Autumn 1993), pp. 223–243.

Richter, Wendy. "The Impact of the Civil War on Hot Springs, Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 43 (Summer 1984), pp. .

Scott, Kim Allen. "Witness for the Prosecution: The Civil War Letters of Lieutenant George Taylor." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 48 (Autumn 1989), pp. 260–271.

Sherwood, Diana, “The story of Arkansas Militia from 1819 to 1916...”, Arkansas Gazette, June 23, 1940.

Sullivan, David M. "John Albert Pearson, Jr.: Arkansas Soldier and Confederate Marine." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 45 (Autumn 1986), pp. 250–260.

Sutherland, Daniel E. "No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 54 (Autumn 1995), pp. 269–303.

Williams, Charles G. "The Confederate Home Guard in Southwest Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 49 (Summer 1990), pp. 168–172.

White, Lonnie J., “James Miller: Arkansas’ First Territorial Governor”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XIX (Spring 1960)

White, Lonnie J., “Disturbances on the Arkansas – Texas Border, 1827–1831”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XIX (Summer 1960)

Woodward, Earl F., “The Brooks and Baxter War in Arkansas, 1872–1874”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, XXX (Winter 1971)

Worley, Ted R., ed., “Documents Relating to the Peace Society of 1861”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XVII (Spring 1958)

Books relating to the Arkansas National Guard

The War Child's Children: The Story of the Third Regiment, Arkansas Cavalry, Confederate States Army. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1965.

Abingdon, E. H., Back roads and bicarbonate : the autobiography of an Arkansas country doctor (New York, c1955)

Bauer, K. Jack, The Mexican War: 1846–1848 (New York, 1974)

Bearss, Edwin C., Battle of Wilson’s Creek (Diamond, MO, 1975)

Bearss, Edwin C. and Gibson, A. M., Fort Smith: Little Gibraltar on the Arkansas (Norman, OK, 1969)

Berger, Carl, The Korean Knot – A Military–Political History (Philadelphia, 1957)

Bishop, Albert W., Loyalty on the Frontier (St. Louis, 1863)

Carter, Clarence Edwin, Territorial Papers of the United States XX (New York, 1972 -)

Clayton, Powell, Aftermath of the Civil War, in Arkansas (New York, 1915)

Clendenen, Clarence C., Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (New York, 1969)

Collier, Calvin L. First In—Last Out: The Capitol Guards, Ark. Brigade. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1961.

Dacus, Robert H. Reminiscences of Company "H," First Arkansas Mounted Rifles. Dardanelle: Post-Dispatch Print, 1871.

Dierks, Jack Cameron, A Leap to Arms: The Cuban Campaign of 1898 (Philadelphia,1970

Diggs, Jack F., The 142d Field Artillery, 1889–1976 (Fayetteville, Ark. 1976)

Dougan, Michael B., Confederate Arkansas: The People And Politics Of A Frontier State In Wartime (University, Ala., University of Alabama Press, c1976)

Dupuy, Ernest, The National Guard, a Compact History (New York, 1971), pp. 30 – 31

Eno, Clara B., History of Crawford County, Arkansas (Van Buren, AR, 195?)

Harrell, John M., The Brooks and Baxter war: a history of the reconstruction period in Arkansas (St. Louis, 1893)

Herndon, Dallas T., Annals of Arkansas (Hopkinsville, KY, 1947)

Herndon, Dallas T., Centennial History of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1922)

Hill, Jim Dan, The Minute Men in Peace and War: A History of the National Guard (Harrsiburg, 1964)

Houck, Louis, A History of Missouri: From the Earliest Explorations and Settlements Until the Admission of the State into the Union (Chicago, 1908), III

Janeway, Eliot, The Struggle for Survival (New York, 1961).

Gammage, Washington Lafayette. The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battlefield: Being a History of the Fourth Arkansas Regiment, from Its First Organization down to the Present Date. Little Rock: Arkansas Southern Press, 1958. [Originally published 1863.]

Lavender, David S., Climax at Buena Vista: the American campaigns in northeastern Mexico, 1846–47 (Philadelphia, 1966)

Lemke, W. J., ed., 50th anniversary of the first Washington County troops to serve overseas : originally Company A (Springdale) and Company B (Fayetteville) of the Arkansas National Guard, but after August 1917 the 142nd Field Artillery; Golden anniversary memories, by Jerome Thompson and Claiborne Mobley, both U. S. Army colonels (retired) (Fayetteville, 1967)

Leeper, Wesley Thurman. Rebels Valiant: Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles (Dismounted). Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1964.

Little, George. A History of Lumsden's Battery, C.S.A. Tuscaloosa: R. E. Rhodes Chapter, U.D.C., 1905.

McNutt, Walter S., A History of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1932), p. 234.

Mahon, John K., American Militia, Decade of Decision 1789–1800 (Gainesville, 1960)

Mason, Jr., Herbert M., The Great Pursuit (New York, 1970)

Masterson, James R., Tall Tales of Arkansaw (Boston, 1842)

Meeks, Melinda, “The Life of Archibald Yell”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXVI (Winter 1967

Morris, Richard B. and Commager, Henry Steele, eds., Encyclopedia of American History (New York, 1970)

National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York, 1900), X

Pope, William F., Early Days in Arkansas, Being in Most Part the Personal Recollections of an Old Settler (Little Rock, 1895)

Winkler, Angelina Virginia (Walton). The Confederate Capital and Hood's Texas Brigade. Austin: E. Von Boeckmann, 1894.

Wright, Marcus Joseph. Arkansas in the War, 1861–1865. Batesville: Independence County Historical Society, 1963.

Ross, Margaret Smith, Arkansas Gazette: The Early Years, 1819–1866 (Little Rock, 1969)

Ross, Margaret Smith, ed., Letters of Hiram Abiff Whittington, An Arkansas Pioneer from Massachusetts, 1827–1834 (Little Rock, 1956)

Shinn, Josiah H., Pioneers and Makers of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1908)

Singletary, Otis A., Negro Militia and Reconstruction (Austin, 1957)

Staples, Thomas S., Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (New York, 1923)

Thomas, Daniel Yancy, “Powell Clayton”, Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1946)

Thomas, David Y., Arkansas and its People: A History, 1541–1930 (New York, 1930)

Thompson, George H., Arkansas and reconstruction: the influence of geography, economics, and personality (Port Washington, NY, 1976)

Thompson, George H., Leadership in Arkansas reconstruction (Columbia University, 1968)

Walthall, Melvin Curtis, We Can’t All Be Heroes: A History of the Separate Infantry Regiments in World War II (Hicksville, NY, 1975)

Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue (Baton Rouge, 1864)

Waskow, Arthur I., From Race Riots to Sit-in, 1919 and the 1960s: A Study in the Connection between conflict and Violence (Garden City, N. Y., 1966)

Weigley, Russell Frank, History of the United States Army (New York, 1967)

Weigley, Russell Frank, Towards an American Army: Military thought from Washington to Marshall (New York, 1962)

White, Lonnie J., Politics on the southwest frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (Memphis, 1964)

Williams, Charlean M., The old town speaks: Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas, gateway to Texas, 1835, Confederate capital, 1863 (Houston, TX, 1951)

Collections at the Arkansas Historical Commission

Adjutant General’s Office Letters Sent, Arkansas History Commission

Adjutant General’s "Letters, 18?8-1879," P. 19, Arkansas History Commission

“Letters, Adjutant General’s Office, Jan. 1, 1894 to Oct. 6, 1894”, Arkansas History Commission

"Letters of C. R. Wood," Arkansas History Commission

Arkansas Military Records, 1883–1891, Arkansas History Commission.

Gulley Collection, Arkansas History Commission.

Scrapbook titled “Brooks-Baxter War Telegrams”, Arkansas History Commission

Upham papers. Arkansas History Commission.

Ferguson, John L. and Atkinson, J. H., Historic Arkansas (Little Rock, Arkansas History Commission, 1966)

Collections at the University of Arkansas, Mullins Library, Special Collections Department

Arkansas., & Arkansas. (1929). The military code of the state of Arkansas: Approved March 4, 1929 together with related organic statutory laws. Little Rock, Ark: Commander-in-chief of the National Guard of Arkansas.

Arkansas. (1975). 50th anniversary, 1925–1975: 154th Observation Sq. S.l: s.n.

Arkansas. (1971). The Arkansas guardsman. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas Military Dept.

Arkansas. (1976). The Arkansas guardsman. North Little Rock, Ark: National Guard of Arkansas.

Arkansas. (1982). Arkansas guard. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.

Arkansas. (1979). Arkansas guard. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.

Arkansas. (1900). Arkansas National Guard annual report. North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept.

Arkansas. (1995). Annual report. Camp Joseph T. Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.

Arkansas. (1989). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept. of Arkansas.

Arkansas. (1965). History [of] Arkansas Army National Guard. Little Rock?: s.n.

Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation., Arkansas Militia Foundation., & Arkansas National Guard Historical Foundation. (1992). Arkansas military journal: A publication of the Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation. North Little Rock, AR: Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation.

Beals, M., & Public Affairs Video Archives. (1994). Melba Pattillo Beals, author: Warriors don't cry : book review. S.l.: C-SPAN.

Clarke, C. N. (1870). Clyde Nuell Clarke papers: Scrapbook and photographs.

F.J. McCarthy & Co. (1924). Historical review of Battery "H" 206th Coast Artillery (A-a) regiment Little Rock unit Arkansas National Guard. Little Rock, Ark: F.J. McCarthy & Co.

Goldstein, D. M., & Dillon, K. V. (1992). The Williwaw War: The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War II. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

Lemke, W. J. (1967). 50th anniversary of the first Washington County troops to serve overseas: Originally Company A (Springdale) and Company B (Fayetteville) of the Arkansas National Guard, but after August 1917 the 142nd Field Artillery. Fayetteville, Ark: Washington County Historical Society.

McDaniel, J. L. (2005). William Claude Bradford scrapbook 1885–1926. Farmers Branch, Tex: J. McDaniel.

Miller, J. (2004). The Little Rock Nine: Young champions for school integration. New York: PowerKids Press.

Obsitnik, L. (1918). Larry Obsitnik photo archives.

Renaud, B., & Renaud, C. (2006). Off to war: From rural Arkansas to Iraq. New York, NY: Kino on Video.

Try to stop us: A history and tribute to the men, past and present, who served in Battery C of the Ozark, Arkansas National Guard, 937th Battalion, 142nd Field Artillery. (2005). S.l: s.n.

Schlesing, A., & Breidenthal, S. (2005). The Bowie Brigade: Arkansas National Guard's 39th Infantry Brigade in Iraq. Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.

United States. (1993). Arkansas Beach: Report (to accompany S.J. Res. 78). Washington, D.C.?: U.S. G.P.O.

Publications of the Arkansas National Guard Historical Foundation

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, 1836–1860, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 3, Spring 1995, Number 3

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, 1860–1865, The Civil War, Volume II, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Winter 1995, Number 1

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, The Arkansas Militia in the Mexican War, 1846–47, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Winter 1995, Number 2

148th Evacuation Hospital, Desert Storm Story, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Spring 1996, Number 3

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Post Civil War, Volume I, 1866–1875, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Summer 1996, Number 4

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Brooks – Baxter War, Volume II, 1872–1874, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Fall 1996, Number 1

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Pre World War I, 1874–1916, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Winter 1996, Number 2

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas National Guard in World War I, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Summer 1997

Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas National Guard in the Post War Period, 1919–1938, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Fall 1997

Dover, CPT G. Keith, 176th Public Affairs Det. Unit History, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Fall 1997

Rushing, SSG Anthony, Arkansas Military Institute, The West Point of Arkansas, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2

Rushing, SSG Anthony, General Patrick R. Cleburne, The Stonewall Jackson of the West, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2

Wooten, Patty, An American Tragedy, Arkansas Internment Camps, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2

McPherson, 2LT Slade, A.M.A. A History of the Arkansas Military Academy, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2

Love, Brenda, Backing the Attack: Black Arkansas' Fight Against Germany, Japan and Jim Crow, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Spring 1998, Number 3

McGlasson, MAJ W.D., The Forgotten Story of Little Rock, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Spring 1998, Number 3

First Regiment, Arkansas Volunteer Infantry, Historical and Biographical, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1998, Number 4

McCalister, COL Heber L., History of the 153rd Infantry, Arkansas National Guard, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1998, Number 4

Barlow, SSG Nathan, Arkansas Medal of Honor Recipients, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 7, Fall 1999

Cumming, Travis, "We come here to fight, sir!" The Arkansas Regiment of Mounted Volunteers in the Mexican War, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 7, Fall 1999

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The history of the Arkansas National Guard and World War I begins with the reorganization of the Arkansas State Guard following the Spanish–American War. As a result of difficulties encountered during the mobilization of state militia forces, the United States Congress passed new legislation which resulted in the renaming of the Arkansas State Guard as the Arkansas National Guard. The new federal legislation resulted in increased funding and training for the guard. The newly reorganized Arkansas National Guard was call upon by the President to help defend the border with Mexico in 1916 in response to cross border raids during the Mexican Revolution. The Arkansas National Guard had just returned from the Mexican Expedition in 1917 when it was activated for World War I. As a part of their incorporation in the United States Army, all National Guard units were renumbered in accordance with a federal system. The Arkansas National Guard units were incorporated into the 39th Infantry Division and after training at Camp Beauregard, were shipped to France in August and September 1918. The 39th Division was broken up, with some units being used as replacements for other divisions. Most former Arkansas National Guardsmen returned to the United States in February through June 1919 and were demobilized.

The 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Josey's) (1861–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment that served during the American Civil War. The regiment was organized in May 1861 under the command of Colonel Patrick Cleburne. It served throughout the war in the western theater, seeing action in the Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia campaigns. Following its depletion in numbers the regiment was consolidated several times with other Arkansas regiments, finally merging in 1865 into the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment. There were two other regiments which also received the designation of "15th Arkansas". The 21st (McRae's) Arkansas Infantry was redesignated 15th Arkansas in February 1863, but to avoid confusion, was normally referred to as the 15th (Northwest) Arkansas Infantry Regiment. This second "15th Arkansas" was surrendered at Vicksburg in July 1863. A third regiment, under command of Colonels Gee and later Johnson, also received the designation 15th Arkansas Infantry. This last regiment surrendered at Port Hudson, Louisiana, in July 1863.

The following Confederate Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Prairie Grove of the American Civil War on December 7, 1862, in Washington County, Arkansas. The Union order of battle is listed separately.

The 154th Infantry Regiment was a United States infantry regiment, which was created from the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 3rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment, Arkansas National Guard, in 1917. The Regiment was activated as for World War I, re-designated as the 154th Infantry and shipped to France as a part of the 39th Infantry Division, but became a replacement regiment and its personnel were reassigned to other AEF units. The 154th Infantry Regiment was never reactivated in the Arkansas National Guard following World War I.

11th Arkansas Infantry Regiment

The 11th Arkansas Infantry (1861–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. Following the units surrender during the Battle of Island No. 10, it was consolidated with Griffiths 17th Arkansas Infantry Regiment and mounted. Following the surrender of Port Hudson, some unit members returned to Arkansas and became part of Poe's Arkansas Cavalry Battalion and Logan's 11th Arkansas Cavalry Regiment.

References

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  2. Arkansas Code Annotated 12-61-111(b)
  3. Arkansas. (2007). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept. of Arkansas, page 18
  4. 1 2 Arkansas. (2009). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept. of Arkansas, page 18
  5. Arkansas. (2006). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept. of Arkansas, page 18
  6. Laverne E. Weber, National Guard Bureau Professional Education Center, Accessed 5 October 2010, http://www.pec.ngb.army.mil/AboutPEC/ Archived 2010-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Arkansas National Guard, National Guard Marksmanship Training Center, accessed 5 October 2010, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-10-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  10. Arkansas. (2008). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Department of Arkansas, page 25