Washington, Arkansas

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Washington, Arkansas
City of Washington
Old Washington.jpg
Hempstead County Arkansas Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Washington Highlighted 0573370.svg
Location of Washington in Hempstead County, Arkansas.
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Washington
Location of Washington in the U.S.
Coordinates: 33°46′26.4″N93°40′57.7″W / 33.774000°N 93.682694°W / 33.774000; -93.682694 Coordinates: 33°46′26.4″N93°40′57.7″W / 33.774000°N 93.682694°W / 33.774000; -93.682694
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas
County Hempstead
Township Ozan
Settled1824
Incorporated1880
Named for George Washington
Government
[1]
  Type Mayor–Council
   Mayor Paul Henley (I)
   Council Washington City Council
Area
[2]
  Total1.01 sq mi (2.61 km2)
  Land1.01 sq mi (2.61 km2)
  Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation
446 ft (136 m)
Population
 (2010)
  Total180
  Estimate 
(2017) [3]
170
  Density168.82/sq mi (65.15/km2)
Demonym(s) Washingtonian
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP code
71862
Area code 870
FIPS code 05-73370
GNIS feature ID 78702

Washington is a city in Ozan Township, Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 180 at the 2010 census, [4] up from 148 in 2000. It is part of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area. The city is home to Historic Washington State Park.

Contents

History

From its establishment in 1824, Washington was an important stop on the rugged Southwest Trail for pioneers traveling to Texas. That same year it was established as the "seat of justice" for that area, and in 1825 the Hempstead County Court of Common Pleas was established, located in a building constructed next door to a tavern owned by early resident Elijah Stuart. Between 1832 and 1839 thousands of Choctaw American Indians passed through Washington on their way to Indian Territory. Frontiersmen and national heroes James Bowie, Sam Houston and Davy Crockett all traveled through Washington en route to the Alamo. Houston is believed to have planned parts of the revolt strategy in a tavern in Washington during 1834. [5] James Black, a local blacksmith, is credited with creating the legendary Bowie knife carried by Jim Bowie at his blacksmith shop in Washington. [6]

During the War with Mexico, beginning in 1846, Washington became a rally point for volunteer troops on their way to serve with the US Army. [7] Later, the town became a major service center for area planters, merchants and professionals. Following the capture of Little Rock by the Union Army in 1863, the pro-Confederate States of America state government moved the state government offices to Hot Springs for a short time, then ultimately based the state government out of Washington, making it the (rebel) state capital until 1865. [8] [9] Albert G. Simms (1882–1964), a United States Representative from New Mexico, was born here. Following the construction of the Cairo and Fulton railroad eight miles to the south of Washington, which connected much of the state with Little Rock, the town began a slow decline. Now located on the area's primary travel route, Hope took on Washington's formerly important role. [10]

Geography

Washington is in north-central Hempstead County, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Hope, the county seat. U.S. Route 278 passes through Washington as Columbus Street, leading southeast to Hope and northwest 19 miles (31 km) to Nashville. Arkansas Highway 195 has its northern terminus in Washington and leads southwest 14 miles (23 km) to Fulton on the Red River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Washington has a total area of 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2), all land. [11] The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Washington has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [12]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 730
1890 519−28.9%
1900 374−27.9%
1910 3996.7%
1920 55639.3%
1930 457−17.8%
1940 432−5.5%
1950 344−20.4%
1960 321−6.7%
1970 290−9.7%
1980 265−8.6%
1990 148−44.2%
2000 1480.0%
2010 18021.6%
Est. 2017170 [3] −5.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [13]

As of the census [14] of 2000, there were 148 people, 78 households, and 40 families residing in the city. The population density was 147.6 people per square mile (57.1/km²). There were 93 housing units at an average density of 92.7/sq mi (35.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 38.51% White and 61.49% Black or African American.

There were 78 households out of which 14.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 44.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 2.58.

In the city, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, and 25.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $19,375, and the median income for a family was $21,042. Males had a median income of $41,875 versus $20,313 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,066. There were 10.8% of families and 18.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 25.0% of under eighteens and 21.7% of those over 64.

Education

Washington is within the Hope School District. [15] Students attend Hope High School. The former Washington School District was dissolved on July 1, 1990, with its territory given to the Hope school district as well as the Blevins and Saratoga school districts. [16]

Culture

Washington is home to Historic Washington State Park. [17]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "Washington". Arkansas Municipal League. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  2. "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 22, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  3. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  4. "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Washington city, Arkansas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. "Role in developing history". The Arkansas School for Mathematics. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  7. "Washington". The Official Site of Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 12, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on May 27, 2002. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  12. "Climate Summary for Washington, Arkansas". Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  13. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  14. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  15. "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Hempstead County, AR." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 15, 2017.
  16. "ConsolidationAnnex_from_1983.xls Archived September 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine ." Arkansas Department of Education. Retrieved on October 13, 2017.
  17. "Historic Washington State Park". Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Archived from the original on February 8, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  18. "James Black (1800–1872)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  19. "Augustus Hill Garland (1832–1899)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  20. "Daniel Webster Jones (1839–1918)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  21. "Charles Burton Mitchel (1815–1864)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  22. "Biographical Information on Albert Gallatin Simms". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.