Washington, Arkansas

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Washington, Arkansas
City of Washington
Old Washington.jpg
Hempstead County Arkansas Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Washington Highlighted 0573370.svg
Location of Washington in Hempstead County, Arkansas.
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Washington
Location of Washington in the U.S.
Coordinates: 33°46′26.4″N93°40′57.7″W / 33.774000°N 93.682694°W / 33.774000; -93.682694 Coordinates: 33°46′26.4″N93°40′57.7″W / 33.774000°N 93.682694°W / 33.774000; -93.682694
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas
County Hempstead
Township Ozan
Settled1824
Incorporated1880
Named for George Washington
Government
[1]
  Type Mayor–Council
   Mayor Paul Henley (I)
   Council Washington City Council
Area
[2]
  Total1.01 sq mi (2.61 km2)
  Land1.01 sq mi (2.61 km2)
  Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation
446 ft (136 m)
Population
  Total180
  Estimate 
(2017) [3]
170
  Density168.82/sq mi (65.15/km2)
Demonym(s) Washingtonian
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP code
71862
Area code 870
FIPS code 05-73370
GNIS feature ID 78702

Washington is a city in Ozan Township, Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 180 at the 2010 census, [4] up from 148 in 2000. It is part of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area. The city is home to Historic Washington State Park.

Hempstead County, Arkansas County in the United States

Hempstead County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,609. The county seat is Hope. Hempstead County is Arkansas's fourth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Pulaski counties. The county is named for Edward Hempstead, a delegate to the U.S. Congress from the Missouri Territory, which included present-day Arkansas at the time. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

2010 United States Census 23rd national census of the United States, taken in 2010

The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

Contents

History

From its establishment in 1824, Washington was an important stop on the rugged Southwest Trail for pioneers traveling to Texas. That same year it was established as the "seat of justice" for that area, and in 1825 the Hempstead County Court of Common Pleas was established, located in a building constructed next door to a tavern owned by early resident Elijah Stuart. Between 1832 and 1839 thousands of Choctaw American Indians passed through Washington on their way to Indian Territory. Frontiersmen and national heroes James Bowie, Sam Houston and Davy Crockett all traveled through Washington en route to the Alamo. Houston is believed to have planned parts of the revolt strategy in a tavern in Washington during 1834. [5] James Black, a local blacksmith, is credited with creating the legendary Bowie knife carried by Jim Bowie at his blacksmith shop in Washington. [6]

Southwest Trail

The Southwest Trail was a 19th-century pioneer route that was the primary passageway for American settlers bound for Texas.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Tavern place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food

A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, and in most cases, where travelers receive lodging. An inn is a tavern that has a license to put up guests as lodgers. The word derives from the Latin taberna whose original meaning was a shed, workshop, stall, or pub.

During the War with Mexico, beginning in 1846, Washington became a rally point for volunteer troops on their way to serve with the US Army. [7] Later, the town became a major service center for area planters, merchants and professionals. Following the capture of Little Rock by the Union Army in 1863, the pro-Confederate States of America state government moved the state government offices to Hot Springs for a short time, then ultimately based the state government out of Washington, making it the (rebel) state capital until 1865. [8] [9] Albert G. Simms (1882–1964), a United States Representative from New Mexico, was born here. Following the construction of the Cairo and Fulton railroad eight miles to the south of Washington, which connected much of the state with Little Rock, the town began a slow decline. Now located on the area's primary travel route, Hope took on Washington's formerly important role. [10]

Little Rock, Arkansas Capital of Arkansas

Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. It is also the county seat of Pulaski County. It was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s. The capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau. The six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau.

Union Army Land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic.

Confederate States of America (de facto) federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.

Geography

Washington is in north-central Hempstead County, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Hope, the county seat. U.S. Route 278 passes through Washington as Columbus Street, leading southeast to Hope and northwest 19 miles (31 km) to Nashville. Arkansas Highway 195 has its northern terminus in Washington and leads southwest 14 miles (23 km) to Fulton on the Red River.

Hope, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

Hope is a city in Hempstead County in southwestern Arkansas, United States. Hope is the county seat of Hempstead County and the principal city of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Hempstead and Nevada counties. As of the 2010 census the population was 10,095, and in 2015 the population was estimated at 9,891.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

U.S. Route 278 highway in the United States

U.S. Route 278 is a parallel route of U.S. Route 78. It currently runs for 1,074 miles (1,728 km) from Hilton Head Island, South Carolina to Wickes, Arkansas at U.S. Route 71/U.S. Route 59. It is longer than its parent highway, US 78. US 278 passes through the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. This highway passes through the cities and towns of Augusta, Covington, Atlanta, Powder Springs, Hiram, Dallas, Rockmart, and Cedartown, Georgia; Gadsden and Cullman, Alabama; Tupelo, Oxford, and Greenville, Mississippi; and Monticello and Hope, Arkansas.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Washington has a total area of 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2), all land. [11] The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Washington has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [12]

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Humid subtropical climate category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 730
1890 519−28.9%
1900 374−27.9%
1910 3996.7%
1920 55639.3%
1930 457−17.8%
1940 432−5.5%
1950 344−20.4%
1960 321−6.7%
1970 290−9.7%
1980 265−8.6%
1990 148−44.2%
2000 1480.0%
2010 18021.6%
Est. 2017170 [3] −5.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [13]

As of the census [14] of 2000, there were 148 people, 78 households, and 40 families residing in the city. The population density was 147.6 people per square mile (57.1/km²). There were 93 housing units at an average density of 92.7/sq mi (35.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 38.51% White and 61.49% Black or African American.

Census Acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include agriculture, business, and traffic censuses. The United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, classifications and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice.

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

There were 78 households out of which 14.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 44.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 2.58.

In the city, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, and 25.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $19,375, and the median income for a family was $21,042. Males had a median income of $41,875 versus $20,313 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,066. There were 10.8% of families and 18.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 25.0% of under eighteens and 21.7% of those over 64.

Education

Washington is within the Hope School District. [15] Students attend Hope High School. The former Washington School District was dissolved on July 1, 1990, with its territory given to the Hope school district as well as the Blevins and Saratoga school districts. [16]

Culture

Washington is home to Historic Washington State Park. [17]

Notable people

See also

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References

  1. "Washington". Arkansas Municipal League. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  2. "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  3. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  4. "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Washington city, Arkansas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  5. "Role in developing history". The Arkansas School for Mathematics.
  6. "Washington". The Official Site of Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  7. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  8. Climate Summary for Washington, Arkansas
  9. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  11. "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Hempstead County, AR." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 15, 2017.
  12. "ConsolidationAnnex_from_1983.xls." Arkansas Department of Education. Retrieved on October 13, 2017.
  13. "Historic Washington State Park". Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism . Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  14. "James Black (1800–1872)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  15. "Augustus Hill Garland (1832–1899)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  16. "Daniel Webster Jones (1839–1918)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  17. "Charles Burton Mitchel (1815–1864)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture . Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  18. "Biographical Information on Albert Gallatin Simms". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Retrieved February 2, 2018.