Ada, Oklahoma

Last updated
Ada, Oklahoma
Ada City Hall, Ada, Oklahoma.jpg
Ada City Hall
Location in the state of Oklahoma
Coordinates: 34°45′49″N96°40′6″W / 34.76361°N 96.66833°W / 34.76361; -96.66833 Coordinates: 34°45′49″N96°40′6″W / 34.76361°N 96.66833°W / 34.76361; -96.66833
Country United States
State Oklahoma
County Pontotoc
Post Office1891
  TypeCity Council
   Mayor Tre Landrum
  Total15.8 sq mi (40.8 km2)
  Land15.7 sq mi (40.7 km2)
  Water.1 sq mi (.2 km2)  0%
1,010 ft (308 m)
  Density1,077.2/sq mi (417.1/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
Area code(s) 580
FIPS code 40-00200 [1]
GNIS feature ID1089523 [2]

Ada is a city in and the county seat of Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, United States. [3] The population was 16,810 at the 2010 census, an increase of 7.1 percent from 15,691 at the 2000 census. [4] The city was named for Ada Reed, the daughter of an early settler, and was incorporated in 1901. [5] Ada is home to East Central University, and is the headquarters of the Chickasaw Nation.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Pontotoc County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Pontotoc County is in the south central part of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,492. Its county seat is Ada. The county was created at statehood from part of the Chickasaw Nation in Indian Territory. It was named for a historic Chickasaw tribal area in Mississippi. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Pontotoc is usually translated "cattail prairie" or "land of hanging grapes."

East Central University

East Central University is a public, co-educational teaching university in Ada, in the south central region of Oklahoma. East Central one of the six universities that are part of Oklahoma's Regional University System. Beyond its flagship campus is Ada, the university has courses available in McAlester, Shawnee, Ardmore, and Durant, as well as online courses. Nearly 4,500 students are enrolled in the school's undergraduate and graduate programs. Founded as East Central State Normal School in 1909, its present name was adopted in 1985. Some of its more famous alumni include former NFL player Mark Gastineau, past governors Robert S. Kerr and George Nigh, former U.S. Representative Lyle Boren, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Tom Colbert, and U.S. Army General James D. Thurman.


Ada is an Oklahoma Main Street City, an Oklahoma Certified City, and a Tree City USA member. [5]

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.


Pontotoc County Courthouse in Ada PontCoCH.jpg
Pontotoc County Courthouse in Ada

In the late 1880s, the Daggs family (by way of Texas) became the first white family to settle what is now known as Ada, which was formerly known as Daggs Prairie. In April 1889, Jeff Reed (a native Texan and relative of the Daggs family) was appointed to carry the mail from Stonewall to Center (which was later combined with Pickett), two small communities in then Indian Territory. With his family and his stock, he sought a place for a home on a prairie midway between the two points, where he constructed a log house and started Reed's Store. Other settlers soon built homes nearby. In 1891, a post office was established and named after Reed's oldest daughter, Ada. [6] Ada incorporated as a city in 1901 and grew rapidly with the arrival of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway line. Within a decade the Santa Fe Railroad and the Oklahoma Central Railway also served the town. [7]

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Stonewall, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Stonewall is a town in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, United States. Named for Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, the settlement's post office was established in December, 1874. The population was 465 at the 2000 census.

Ada was originally a sundown town, where African Americans were not allowed to live. In the 1900s, the town was opened up to African Americans so that black witnesses could stay while testifying in district court. Despite a violent episode in 1904, the town remained open to African Americans to provide labor for a local cotton compress. [8] [9]

Sundown town all-white municipalities that practice a form of segregation

Sundown towns, also known as sunset towns or gray towns, are all-white municipalities or neighborhoods in the United States that practice a form of segregation -- historically by enforcing restrictions excluding people not white Anglo-Saxon Protestants via some combination of discriminatory local laws, intimidation, and violence. The term came from signs posted that "colored people" had to leave town by sundown. Sundown towns were primarily a Northern phenomenon. "At least until the early 1960s, …northern states could be nearly as inhospitable to black travelers as states like Alabama or Georgia."

In 1909, the women of Ada organized an effort to build a normal school in their city. It resulted in the founding of East Central College (now East Central University). [7]

Normal school educational institution to train teachers

A normal school is the historical term for an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy and curriculum. Most such schools, where they still exist, are now denominated "teacher-training colleges" or "teachers' colleges" and may be organized as part of a comprehensive university. Normal schools in the United States and Canada trained teachers for primary schools, while in continental Europe, the equivalent colleges educated teachers for primary, secondary and tertiary schools.

On April 19, 1909, an organized mob hanged four men, among whom was American outlaw Deacon Jim Miller, who was set to be tried for the murder of a former U.S. marshal and member of the local freemason lodge. [10] The town had a population of about 5,000 at the time, and 38 murders a year at the time of the lynching. [10] The Daily Ardmoreite reported that the four lynched men were "one of the bloodiest band of murderers in the state of Oklahoma and an organization of professional assassins, that for a record of blood crimes, probably has no equal in the annals of criminal history in the entire southwest." [11]

Jim Miller (outlaw) American outlaw, born 1861

James Brown Miller, also known as "Killin' Jim", "Killer Miller" and "Deacon Jim", was an American outlaw and professional killer of the American Old West, said to have killed 12 people during gunfights – perhaps the most known homicides by one man of his era. Miller was referred to by the alias "Deacon Jim" by some because he regularly attended the Methodist Church, and he did not smoke or drink. He was lynched in Ada, Oklahoma, in 1909 along with three other men, by a mob of residents angry that he had assassinated a former deputy U.S. marshal.

The Ardmoreite is an American daily newspaper published weekday and Sunday mornings. The Ardmoreite is owned by GateHouse Media.

The first manufacturing company in Ada, the Portland Cement Company, installed the first cement clinker in Oklahoma in 1910. American Glass Casket Company began manufacturing glass caskets in 1916, but the business failed. Hazel Atlas Glass bought the plant in 1928 and produced glass products until 1991. [7]

National Register of Historic Places

The following sites in Ada are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: [12]


Ada is located in the rolling hills of southeastern Oklahoma. Ada is 88 miles (142 km) from Oklahoma City, 122 mi (196 km) from Tulsa, and 133 mi (214 km) from Dallas, Texas. [5]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.8 square miles (40.9 km2), of which 15.7 square miles (40.7 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km2) (0.44%) is water.


Climate data for Ada, Oklahoma
Record high °F (°C)84
Average high °F (°C)51
Average low °F (°C)30
Record low °F (°C)−10
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.1
Average snowfall inches (cm)2.7
Source: Weatherbase [13]


Chickasaw language stop sign, with Chickasaw word "Hika" ("stop"), in Ada, Oklahoma. Chickasaw stop.jpg
Chickasaw language stop sign, with Chickasaw word "Hika" ("stop"), in Ada, Oklahoma.
Picture taken on Broadway of the former Stout family residence with one of the city's water towers behind it. Broadway - Watertower.jpg
Picture taken on Broadway of the former Stout family residence with one of the city's water towers behind it.
Historical population
1910 4,349
1920 8,01284.2%
1930 11,26140.6%
1940 15,14334.5%
1950 15,9955.6%
1960 14,347−10.3%
1970 14,8593.6%
1980 15,9027.0%
1990 15,820−0.5%
2000 15,691−0.8%
2010 16,8107.1%
Est. 201517,303 [14] 2.9%
Sources: [1] [15] [16] [17]
Language offerings for audio tours at the Chickasaw Cultural Center, including Chickasaw, English, and Spanish. Chickasawlanguageaudiotour.jpg
Language offerings for audio tours at the Chickasaw Cultural Center, including Chickasaw, English, and Spanish.

As of the 2010 census, Ada's 16,810 residents consisted of 6,697 households and 3,803 families. The population density was 999.3 people per square mile (385.9/km²). The 7,862 housing units were dispersed at an average density of 475.9 per square mile (183.8/km²). Ada's 2006 racial makeup was 73.81% White, 3.54% African American, 15.10% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, and 5.81% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.89% of the population.

Of Ada's 6,697 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.2% were non-families. The 15.8% of those 65 years or older living alone made up a substantial portion of the 37.1% single-person households. Average household size was 2.20 persons; average family size was 2.91.

The age breakdown in 2006 was 22.3% under the age of 18, 17.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% aged 65 or older. The median age was 33 years. The disparity between the number of males and the number of females seems to be decreasing: for every 100 females aged 18 or over, there were only 84.5 males, but when all females and males were taken into account, there were 100 females for every 88.4 males.

Median household income was $22,977, while median family income was $31,805. Males had a median income of $25,223 versus $17,688 for females. Ada's per capita income was $14,666. Some 14.8% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under 18 and 11.4% of those 65 or over.

Perhaps 2,000-3,000 residents speak the Chickasaw language. [18]


The economy of Ada is diversified. In the mid and late 20th century, the town was a manufacturing center, producing products such as Wrangler jeans, auto parts, cement and concrete, plasticware, and other products. Since the start of the 21st century, manufacturers have made major investments in expansions and new technology [19] [20] [21] .

In 1975, the Chickasaw Nation opened its headquarters in Ada. [22] [7] Revenues for the Nation were over 12 billion dollars in 2011, most of which is funneled through Ada. [23] The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, a large water research lab staffed by the Environmental Protection Agency, opened in 1966. [7] LegalShield, a multi-level marketing provider of pre-paid legal services, is headquartered in the city. Oil and natural gas are still very much a part of the regional economy.

The largest employers in the region are the following: [24]


ECU's Honor Plaza ECUTiger.jpg
ECU's Honor Plaza

Higher education

East Central University, located in Ada, is a public four-year institution that has been in operation since 1909. ECU serves roughly 4,500 students and is perhaps best known internationally for its cartography program, as only a few such programs exist. ECU is also home to an Environmental Health Science Program, one of only 30 programs nationally accredited by the National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council (EHAC). [25]

Primary and secondary

Ada Public Schools has six primary and secondary schools.

Latta Public Schools has 1 high school in Ada: Latta High School

Technical school

Pontotoc Technology Center (formerly Pontotoc Area Vo-Tech) is located in Ada.



Major highways are:


Rail Freight is serviced by BNSF

Notable people

Because of its short, palindromic spelling with frequently used letters, Ada is a very common crossword puzzle answer. Associated clues often include "Oklahoma city", "Oklahoma palindrome", and "Sooner State city." [45]

In 2006, a true crime book by author John Grisham brought Ada into the national spotlight by relating various false convictions and imprisonments resulting from two unconnected murder trials. Two men had been tried and convicted of the murder of Debra Sue "Debbie" Carter. After twelve years on death row, DNA evidence proved the men's innocence and established the guilt of the prosecution's main witness. Similar problems surrounded the trials of the two men convicted for the murder of Denice Haraway. Two of the books examining these cases are The Dreams of Ada (1987) by Robert Mayer and The Innocent Man , Grisham's first non-fiction book. Accounts from both books suggest major flaws, irregularities, and outright miscarriages of justice including forced and made-up confessions by the police and prosecutors. Prosecutor Bill Peterson has self-published his disagreements with Grisham's version of events. [46] [47] [48]

Related Research Articles

Murray County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Murray County is a county located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,488. This is a 6.9 percent increase from 12,623 at the 2000 census. The county seat is Sulphur. The county was named for William H. Murray, a member and president of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention and later a Governor of Oklahoma.

Johnston County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Johnston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,957. Its county seat is Tishomingo. It was established at statehood on November 16, 1907 and named for Douglas H. Johnston, a governor of the Chickasaw Nation.

Coal County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Coal County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,925. Its county seat is Coalgate.

DeSoto County, Mississippi County in the United States

DeSoto County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 161,252, making it the third-most populous county in Mississippi. Its county seat is Hernando. DeSoto County is part of the Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is the second-most populous county in the MSA. The county has lowland areas that were developed in the 19th century for cotton plantations, and hill country in the eastern part of the county.

Pontotoc, Mississippi City in Mississippi, United States

Pontotoc is a city in, and the county seat of, Pontotoc County, Mississippi, located to the west of the much larger city of Tupelo. The population was 5,625 at the 2010 census.

Achille, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Achille is a town in Bryan County, Oklahoma, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 492, a 2.8 percent decrease from 506 at the 2000 census. The town's name comes from a Cherokee word, atsila, meaning fire.

Chickasha, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Chickasha is a city in and the county seat of Grady County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 16,036 at the 2010 census. Chickasha is home to the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma. The city is named for and strongly connected to Native American heritage, as "Chickasha" (Chikashsha) is the Choctaw word for Chickasaw.

Tishomingo, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Tishomingo is the largest city and the county seat of Johnston County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 3,034 at the 2010 census, a decline of 4.1 percent from 3,162 at the 2000 census. It was the first capital of the Chickasaw Nation, from 1856 until Oklahoma statehood in 1907. The city is home to Murray State College, a community college with an annual enrollment of 3,015 students. Tishomingo is part of the Texoma region.

Sulphur, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Sulphur is a city in and county seat of Murray County, Oklahoma, United States. Founded by the Poteet tribe in 1837. This was long before the Barefoot clan or the Flowers had immigrated from neighboring Davis, Oklahoma. The population was 4,929 at the 2010 census, a 3.4 percent gain from 4,794 at the 2000 census. The area around Sulphur has been noted for its mineral springs, since well before the city was founded late in the 19th Century. The city received its name from the presence of sulfur in the water.

McAlester, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

McAlester is a city in and the county seat of Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 18,363 at the 2010 census, a 3.4 percent increase from 17,783 at the 2000 census, making it the largest city in the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, followed by Durant. The town gets its name from James Jackson McAlester, an early white settler and businessman who later became lieutenant governor of Oklahoma. Known as "J. J.", McAlester married Rebecca Burney, the daughter of a full-blood Chickasaw family, which made him a citizen of the Chickasaw Nation.

Asher, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Asher is a town in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 393 at the 2010 census, a decline of 6.2 percent from 419 at the 2000 census.

Purcell, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Purcell is a city in and the county seat of McClain County, Oklahoma, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 5,884.

Allen, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Allen is a town in Hughes and Pontotoc counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The population was 932 at the 2010 census.

Chickasaw Nation federally recognized Native American nation

The Chickasaw Nation is a federally recognized Native American nation, located in Oklahoma. They are one of the members of the Five Civilized Tribes. The Chickasaw Nation traces its origins to its homeland of modern day Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama and Kentucky.

The Chickasaw Turnpike is a short two-lane toll road in the rural south central region of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It stretches for 13.3 miles (21.4 km) from north of Sulphur to just south of Ada. The Oklahoma Turnpike Authority (OTA) owns, maintains, and collects tolls on the turnpike. The first section of the Chickasaw Turnpike opened on September 1, 1991.

<i>The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town</i> book

The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town is a 2006 true crime book by John Grisham, his only nonfiction title as of 2019. The book tells the story of Ronald 'Ron' Keith Williamson of Ada, Oklahoma, a former minor league baseball player who was wrongly convicted in 1988 of the rape and murder of Debra Sue Carter in Ada and was sentenced to death. After serving 11 years on death row, he was exonerated by DNA evidence and other material introduced by the Innocence Project and was released in 1999.

Ron Williamson American baseball player

Ronald Keith Williamson was a former minor league baseball catcher/pitcher who was one of two men wrongly convicted in 1988 in Oklahoma for the rape and murder of Debra Sue "Debbie" Carter. His friend Dennis Fritz was sentenced to life imprisonment, while Williamson was sentenced to death. Both were released 11 years later when DNA evidence proved their innocence. Their story became the subject of bestselling author John Grisham's first nonfiction book, The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town, and the adapted Netflix docu-series of the same name.

South Central Oklahoma official tourism region of Oklahoma

South Central Oklahoma is an amorphous region in the state of Oklahoma, perhaps encompassing 10 counties. It is centered on the Arbuckle Mountains, an ancient, eroded range traversing some 70 miles (110 km) across the region, and surrounded by rivers and lakes, notably Lake Texoma, Lake Murray and Lake of the Arbuckles. For tourism purposes, the Oklahoma Department of Tourism has more narrowly defined South Central Oklahoma, which they refer to as Chickasaw Country, as being a seven-county region including Pontotoc, Johnston, Marshall, Garvin, Murray, Carter, and Love counties. A ten-county definition might also include Coal, Atoka, and Bryan counties, although the Department of Tourism includes those in Choctaw Country. The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma covers the eastern third of the region. Its headquarters is in Durant, and its capitol building, now a museum, is in Tuskahoma. The Chickasaw Nation lies within the region, with the tribal capitol building located at Tishomingo and its headquarters in Ada. The Chickasaw Nation, which runs ""., promotes the idea of Chickasaw Country as the 13 south-central Oklahoma counties that comprise the Chickasaw Nation, being the Tourism Department’s seven counties plus Coal, Bryan, Jefferson, Stephens, Grady, and McClain counties.


  1. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  4. "Ada, OK Population - Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts - CensusViewer". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  5. 1 2 3 "About Ada". 2007-08-12. Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  6. City of Ada, OK (accessed February 23, 2007).
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "OHS Publications Division". 2016-05-05. Archived from the original on 2016-05-05. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  8. "After Negroes in Ada, I.T." Arkansas City Daily Traveler . Arkansas City, Kansas. March 30, 1904. p. 1 via Until recently the people of Ada, a town of 300, have refused to allow negroes to reside within the corporation. As district court is held there it became necessary to secure some place where negro witnesses might stay during the session. Judge Townsend induced the people to allow a negro restaurant to be established. Following this barber shops, stores and hotels were put up by negroes. Notices were served on these people by unknown parties that unless they left the town immediately they must suffer the consequences. They refused to leave and last night a negro restaurant was blown up by dynamite and an occupant of the building seriously injured. ... As a cotton compress is to begin operations here next fall considerable negro labor will be required, and most citizens now believe negroes should be allowed to live there.
  9. "Used Dynamite". Alexandria Daily Town Talk . Alexandria, Louisiana. March 31, 1904. p. 7 via Unknown parties dynamited the house of Lum Williams, seriously injuring one negro and demolishing the building. The negroes occupying the house had been warned several times not to let the sun go down on them in Ada. The card of warning was signed 'Old Danger.' Heretofore negroes were not allowed to live in Ada, and these were only allowed to stay to accomodate [ sic ] the negroes attending court. After court they refused to leave.
  10. 1 2 "Ada, Oklahoma Lynching, 1909" at Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon (accessed April 1, 2010)
  11. The Daily Ardmoreite. Ardmore, Oklahoma. Monday, 19 April 1909 (accessed January 1, 2008).
  12. Pontotoc County, Oklahoma
  13. "Historical Weather for Ada, Oklahoma, United States".
  14. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  15. "Number of Inhabitants: Oklahoma" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.[ permanent dead link ]
  16. "Oklahoma: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  17. "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  18. Robins Hunter, Phoebe. "Language Extinction and the Status of North American Indian Languages".
  19. Gray, Sydney. "100 year old cement plant gets modernized". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  20. "Ada company develops lead-free fuel to power general aviation industry". 9 August 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  21., Eric Swanson Staff Writer. "Globe Manufacturing celebrates 10 years in Ada". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  22. Floyd, Billie Fathree and Alberta Johnson Blackburn. "Ada". Archived 2010-04-12 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Retrieved 2009-10-7.
  23. "Financial Reports of the Chickasaw". Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  24. Oklahoma Department of Commerce (April 2011). "Southern WIA Economic Profile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-15.
  25. "Undergraduate Accredited Programs | NEHSPAC". Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  26. 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 8. (accessed July 26, 2013)
  27. "Major General Vaughn A. Ary". Headquarters, United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 14 Oct 2013.
  28. "Nick Blackburn Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  29. "Harry Brecheen Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  30. Dan Cody - Baltimore Ravens, Yahoo! Sports (accessed May 21, 2007).
  31. Douglas Edwards Chronology Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine , The Douglas Edwards Archives at St. Bonaventure University [ dead link ] (accessed July 26, 2013)
  32. Josh Fields Stats, Baseball Almanac (accessed July 26, 2013)
  33. Mark Gastineau, Pro Football Reference. (accessed July 26, 2013)
  34. Johny Hendrick, (accessed July 26, 2013)
  35. "Anthony Armstrong Jones was born". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  36. David Keirsey
  37. Congressional biography of Robert S. Kerr (accessed July 26, 2013)
  38. "Carolyn Roy, "Longtime KSLA anchor and news director Don Owen passes away"". KSLA-TV . Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  39. Louise S. Robbins - Oklahoma Library Legends Archived 2013-07-07 at the Wayback Machine , Oklahoma State University. (accessed July 26, 2013)
  40. Oral Roberts, Tulsa World Special Projects Page (accessed July 26, 2013)
  41. Editor, GLENN PUIT Executive. "Ole Red Blake Shelton launches new bar/restaurant in downtown Tishomingo". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  42. CNN (6 April 2018). "This Oklahoma student is excited she's reading a textbook used by Blake Shelton. Her mother is not". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  43. Leon Polk Smith Scholarship, Art Department Scholarships Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine , East Central University. (accessed July 26, 2013)
  44. Dwyer, Jim. "Ronald Williamson, Freed From Death Row, Dies at 51," New York Times, December 9, 2004. (accessed July 26, 2013)
  45. "ADA". Crossword Tracker. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  46. Frontline: burden of innocence (accessed November 13, 2008)
  47. The Innocence Project Archived 2008-09-19 at the Library of Congress Web Archives (accessed November 13, 2008).
  48. Grisham's Folly (accessed November 13, 2008).