Australian region tropical cyclone

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An Australian region tropical cyclone is a non-frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in either the Southern Indian Ocean or the South Pacific Ocean. [1] Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The Australian region between 90°E and 160°E is officially monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, and the Papua New Guinea National Weather Service and, while others like the Fiji Meteorological Service and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on 1 July and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from 1 November and lasts until 30 April each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Contents

Basin history

There is a history of tropical cyclones affecting northeastern Australia for over 5000 years; however, Clement Lindley Wragge was the first person to monitor and name them. [2]

In the early history of tropical cyclones in the Australian region, the only evidence of a storm was based on ship reports and observations from land. Later, satellite imagery began in the basin in the 1959/60 season, although it was not continuous until 1970. In Western Australia in particular, the lack of population centers, shipping lanes, radars, and offshore stations meant that storms were tracked infrequently. After the onset of satellite imagery, the Dvorak technique was used to estimate storm's intensities and locations. [3]

Background

The Australian region is currently defined as being between 90E and 160E and is monitored by five different warning centres during the season that runs from 1 November to 30 April.[ citation needed ]

Seasons

Before 1967

1967–1969

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
1967–68
1968–69
1969–70 1414114?

1970s

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
1970–71 202010Sheila-SophieUnknown?
1971–72 181810EmilyUnknown?
1972–73 15158Flores1,574>? [4]
1973–74 19199JessieUnknown?
1974–75 16167Tracy71>?
1975–76 16159WatoreaUnknown?
1976–77 13136TedUnknown?
1977–78 952AlbyUnknown?
1978–79 13125HazelUnknown?
1979–80 15159AmyUnknown?

1980s

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
1980–81 141411MabelUnknownUnknown
1981–82 15157Chris-DamiaUnknownUnknown
1982–83 775ElinorUnknownUnknown
1983–84 222111Kathy1$19 Million
1984–85 201811Kristy0$3.5 Million
1985–86 17168Victor153$250 Million
1986–87 972Elsie0None
1987–88 652Gwenda-Ezenina1$17.9 Million
1988–89 14136 Orson 6$93.9 Million
1989–90 14144AlexUnknownUnknown

1990s

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
1990–91 12107Marian27
1991–92 12109Harriet-Heather5
1992–93 884Oliver0
1993–94 14127Theodore22
1994–95 1966Chloe1
1995–96 19159Olivia1
1996–97 17155Pancho34
1997–98 1194Tiffany [5]
1998–99 21149 Gwenda 8 [5]
1999-00 14125 John/Paul0 [5]

2000s

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
2000–01 983 Sam 2 [5]
2001–02 14104 Chris 19 [5]
2002–03 1183 Inigo 62 [5]
2003–04 13105 Fay 0 [5]
2004–05 13104 Ingrid 5 [5]
2005–06 18149 Monica 0 [5]
2006–07 853 George 3 [5]
2007–08 1493Pancho149 [5]
2008–09 24113 Hamish 5 [5]
2009–10 1384 Laurence 3 [5]
1379341 Inigo 249

2010s

SeasonTropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
DeathsDamagesReferences
2010–11 28115 Yasi 3 [5] [6]
2011–12 2172Lua16> [6]
2012–13 16104 Narelle 20 [7]
2013–14 17105 Ita 22
2014–15 1897 Marcia 1>
2015–16 1130Stan0None [A 1]
2016–17 3093 Ernie 16
2017–18 23113 Marcus 41
2018-19 25116 Veronica 14
2019-20 1773Damien28None
1948336 Marcus 133

See also

Notes

  1. Number of tropical lows and tropical cyclones excludes Tropical Cyclone Raquel, which was considered to have been a part of the 2014-15 year. [8]

Related Research Articles

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

2002–03 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 2002–03 Australian region cyclone season included Cyclone Inigo, which tied with Cyclone Gwenda in 1999 as the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Australian basin. It began on 1 November 2002 and ended on 30 April 2003. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, which runs from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Australian region, which is defined as in the southern hemisphere between 90°E and 180°E. The season's ten tropical depressions existed within these dates, with the first, designated as Tropical Cyclone 07S, entering the basin on 27 December 2002. The last system, Cyclone Epi, dissipated on 6 June 2003. Tropical cyclones in this area were monitored by four Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane and one in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

A South Pacific tropical cyclone is a non frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in the South Pacific Ocean. Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W is officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service and New Zealand's MetService, while others like the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

1993–94 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1993–94 South Pacific cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season with five tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1993, to April 30, 1994, with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 26 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 25.

1978–79 Australian region cyclone season

The 1978–79 Australian region cyclone season was the only season in which a reconnaissance aircraft flew into a tropical cyclones. Operationally, Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) tracked eleven tropical cyclones, while two additional systems were later added to the United States's Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track. Prior to 1985, the Australian region basin was defined as in the southern hemisphere between 80°E and 160°E, with the modern day season boundaries ranging from 1 November to 30 April of the following year. The first storm, an unnamed system, developed on 19 November 1978. The final cyclone, Kevin, dissipated by 12 May 1979. Tropical cyclones in this area were monitored by three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the BOM in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane.

1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active tropical cyclone seasons on record, with only two tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991, with the first disturbance of the season forming on November 23, 1990, before the last disturbance dissipated during May 19, 1991. During the season there was no deaths recorded from any of the tropical cyclones while they were within the basin. However six people were killed by Cyclone Joy, when it made landfall on Australia. As a result of the impacts caused by Joy and Sina, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

1989–90 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1989–90 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only five tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1989, to April 30, 1990, with the first disturbance of the season forming on November 8 and the last disturbance dissipating on March 19. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.

Timeline of the 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season; only two tropical cyclones occurred within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1990, to April 30, 1991, but the first disturbance of the season formed on November 23 and the last dissipated on May 19. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean. During the season, no one was killed from tropical disturbances within the South Pacific. However, six people were killed by Cyclone Joy when it made landfall on Australia. The only tropical cyclone to cause any damage while within this basin was Sina, which caused at least $18.5 million (1991 USD) worth of damage to Fiji and Tonga. As a result of the impacts of both Joy and Sina, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

2014–15 Australian region cyclone season

The 2014–15 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season. The season officially ran from 1 November 2014, to 30 April 2015, however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between 1 July 2014, and 30 June 2015, and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored, by one of the five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) that are operated in this region.

2015–16 Australian region cyclone season

The 2015–16 Australian region cyclone season was the least active tropical cyclone season since reliable records started during 1969, with only three named tropical cyclones developing in the region. Reasons for the low activity during the year included a positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurring and the 2014–16 El Niño event. Ahead of the season starting; the Australian Bureau of Meteorology predicted that there was a 91% chance that the season would be below average. As the 2015–16 tropical cyclone year opened on 1 July 2015, the newly named Tropical Cyclone Raquel moved south-westward into the Australian region. Over the next couple of days, the system meandered around 160°E and moved through the Solomon Islands, before it was last noted on 5 July. The basin subsequently remained quiet with only several weak tropical lows developing, before the first named tropical cyclone of the season was named Stan during 29 January 2016.

2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season east of 160°E

The 2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the most disastrous South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with a total of 50 deaths and $1.405 billion in damage. Throughout the season, 8 systems attained tropical cyclone status, whilst 5 became severe tropical cyclones. The most notable cyclone of the season by far was Winston, which attained a minimum pressure of 884 hPa, and maximum ten-minute sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h), making it the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Southern Hemisphere. Winston went on to devastate Fiji, causing $1.4 billion in damage and 44 deaths across the country.

Cyclone Raquel Category 1 South Pacific and Australian region cyclone in 2015

Tropical Cyclone Raquel was the first tropical cyclone to exist within the South Pacific Ocean during the month of July on record. The system was first noted during June 28, 2015, while it was located to the northeast of Honiara in the Solomon Islands within the South Pacific basin. Over the next few days the system moved south-westwards towards the Solomon Islands, under the influence of a ridge of high pressure and gradually developed further. The system was subsequently named Raquel during June 30, as it moved into the Australian region and developed into a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale. Strong vertical wind shear subsequently limited further development of the system, with atmospheric convection surrounding the system displaced to the west and south of the system. The system subsequently weakened into a tropical depression during July 2, after it had recurved and move eastwards into the South Pacific basin. During that day atmospheric convection surrounding the system improved, as it started to move towards the south-southwest and the Australian region. Raquel subsequently passed near or over several of the Solomon Islands between July 3–5, before it was last noted to the south-west of Guadalcanal during July 5, as it rapidly lost its tropical characteristics.

Tropical cyclones in 2015 Wikimedia list article

During 2015, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 133 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2014 Wikimedia list article

During 2014, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2020 Wikimedia list article

Throughout 2020 so far, 32 tropical or subtropical cyclones have formed in bodies of water known as tropical cyclone basins. Of these, 19 have been named, including a subtropical cyclone in the South Atlantic, by various weather agencies when they attained maximum sustained winds of 35 knots. The strongest storm of the year so far is Cyclone Harold in the South Pacific Ocean.

Tropical cyclones in 2012

During 2012, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 128 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 88 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

References

  1. RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (5 May 2015). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2014). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B–1–2B–4 (23–26). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  2. Nott, Jonathan (May 2004). "Palaeotempestology: the study of prehistoric tropical cyclones—a review and implications for hazard assessment". Environment International. 30 (3): 433–447. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2003.09.010.
  3. Buchan, S.J.; Black, P.G.; Cohen, R.L. (1999). "The Impact of Tropical Cyclone Olivia on Australia's Northwest Shelf". Offshore Technology Conference. doi:10.4043/10791-MS.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Padgett, Gary (1997–2011). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summaries". Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  6. 1 2 National Climate Centre (3 July 2012). "Record-breaking La Niña events – Tropical cyclone activity during 2010–11 and 2011–12" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  7. Nathan Paull and Miranda Forster (29 January 2013). "Floods recede as states count cost". Australian Associated Press. News Limited. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  8. Queensland Regional Office (September 2015). Tropical Cyclone Raquel (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 15 September 2015.