South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

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Satellite image of Cyclone Gafilo, the strongest storm on record in the basin by minimum central pressure Gafilo 2004-03-06 0655Z.jpg
Satellite image of Cyclone Gafilo, the strongest storm on record in the basin by minimum central pressure

In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Equator Intersection of a spheres surface with the plane perpendicular to the spheres axis of rotation and midway between the poles

An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel). It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles.

Contents

Warnings and nomenclature

In 1946, Réunion's first airstrip opened, then called Gillot, and now called Roland Garros Airport. In 1950, the first meteorological station on the island opened at the airport, operated by Météo-France (MFR). The agency began publishing annual reviews in the 1962–63 season. Each year, the Météo-France office (MFR) based on Réunion island issues warnings on tropical cyclones within the basin, which is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa to 90°  E, south of the equator. The agency issues the warnings as part of its role as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, designated as such in 1993 by the World Meteorological Organization. Intensities are estimated through the Dvorak technique, which utilizes images from satellites by the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Roland Garros Airport airport in Réunion, France

Roland Garros Airport, formerly known as Gillot Airport, is located in Sainte-Marie on Réunion, France. The airport is 7 kilometres (3.8 NM) east of Saint-Denis; it is named after the French aviator Roland Garros who was born in Saint-Denis.

Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.

1962–63 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1962–63 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an average cyclone season, although it began early with the first October storm since 1911. Two storms formed in December, both of them passing near the Mascarene Islands.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center a joint United States Navy  United States Air Force task force also issues tropical cyclone warnings for the region. [5] Wind estimates from Météo-France and most other basins throughout the world are sustained over 10 minutes, while estimates from the United States-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center are sustained over 1 minute. 1-minute winds are about 1.12 times the amount of 10-minute winds. [6]

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

United States Air Force Air and space warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

If a tropical storm in the basin strengthens to attain 10 minute sustained winds of at least 118 km/h (74 mph), the MFR classifies it as a tropical cyclone, equivalent to a hurricane or typhoon (a use of "tropical cyclone" which is more restrictive than the usual definition). [7]

Typhoon type of tropical cyclone when is located i northwest Pacific. Classified by JMA typhoons wind scale and JTWC typhoons wind scale

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean.

History of the basin

The first storm in the database for MFR originated on January 11, 1848. In January 1960, the first named storm was Alex, and each subsequent year had a list of storm names. Beginning in 1967, satellites helped locate cyclones in the basin, and in the following year, the MFR began estimating storm intensities from the satellite images. By 1977, the agency was using the Dvorak technique on an unofficial basis, but officially adopted it in 1981. Originally, the basin only extended to 80° E, and while it was extended eastward to the current 90° E, a lack of satellite imagery initially made data uncertain east of 80° E. The World Meteorological Organization designated the MFR as a Regional Tropical Cyclones Advisory Centre in 1988, and upgraded it to a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in 1993. In May 1998, two Europe-based Meteosat satellites began providing complete coverage of the basin. On July 1, 2002, the MFR shifted the cyclone year to begin on this date and end on June 30 of the following year; previously, the cyclone year began on August 1 and ended on the subsequent July 31. In 2003, the MFR extended their area of warning responsibility to 40°  S, having previously been limited at 30° S. [2] During 2011, MFR started a reanalysis project of all tropical systems between 1978–98, with methods such as a Dvorak technique reanalysis and use of microwave imagery. [8] Preliminary results from this reanalysis project include correcting an increasing trend in the number of very intense tropical cyclones in the basin since 1978. [8] This also revealed a seemingly systematic underestimation of tropical cyclone intensities in the past. [8]

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Dvorak technique

The Dvorak technique is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. Within the Dvorak satellite strength estimate for tropical cyclones, there are several visual patterns that a cyclone may take on which define the upper and lower bounds on its intensity. The primary patterns used are curved band pattern (T1.0-T4.5), shear pattern (T1.5–T3.5), central dense overcast (CDO) pattern (T2.5–T5.0), central cold cover (CCC) pattern, banding eye pattern (T4.0–T4.5), and eye pattern (T4.5–T8.0).

A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.

Statistics

From the 1980–81 to the 2010–11 season, there was an average of 9.3 tropical storms each year in the basin. A tropical storm has 10 minute winds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph). There are an average of five storms that become tropical cyclones, which have 10  minute winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). [9] As of 2002, there was an average of 54 days when tropical systems were active in the basin, of which 20 had tropical cyclones active, or a system with winds of over 120 km/h (75 mph). The median start date for the season was November 17, and the median end date was April 20. [1]

1980–81 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 1980–81 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an average cyclone season.

2010–11 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2010–11 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the least active cyclone season on record in the basin, tied with 1982–83, producing only four systems of gale intensity. This was due to cooler than normal water temperatures and the Walker circulation – a broad atmospheric circulation – causing unusually moist conditions in the eastern Indian Ocean and unusually dry conditions in the western Indian Ocean. The basin includes the waters of the ocean south of the equator and west of 90º E to the eastern coast of Africa.

Climatology

Tracks of storms in the basin from 1980 to 2005 Southwest Indian Ocean cyclone tracks 1980-2005.jpg
Tracks of storms in the basin from 1980 to 2005

Generally, the monsoon does not cross into the Mozambique Channel until December; as a result, storms rarely form there before that time. [1] From 1948 to 2010, 94 tropical systems developed in the small body of water, of which about half made landfall. [10] Occasionally, small storms form in the Mozambique Channel that resemble Mediterranean tropical cyclones or storms in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean; these systems are well-organized but have weaker convection than typical tropical cyclones, and originate over cooler than normal water temperatures of less than 26 °C (79 °F). A survey in 2004 conducted by weather expert Gary Padgett found meteorologists split whether these storms should be classified as tropical or subtropical. [11]

In an average year, ten tropical depressions or storms strike Madagascar, and most generally do not cause much damage. [12] Occasionally, storms or their remnants enter the interior of southeastern Africa, bringing heavy rainfall to Zimbabwe. [13]

Seasons

Before 1959

1959

SeasonTDTCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
1959–1960 68Carol48

1960s

SeasonTDTCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
1960–1961 61Doris
1961–1962 145Daisy/Maud
1962–1963 104Delia
1963–1964 124Giselle
1964–1965 141Freda
1965–1966 175Ivy
1966–1967 132Gilberte
1967–1968 84Georgette/Janine38
1968–1969 84Dany/Helene
1969–1970 138Jane

1970s

SeasonTDMTSTCITCVITCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
1970–1971 1611841Maggie-Muriel32
1971–1972 97210Fabienne7
1972–1973 1311421Lydie11
1973–1974 87100Deidre-Delinda
1974–1975 106200Gervaise9
1975–1976 86110Terry-Danae
1976–1977 98310Jack-Io301
1977–1978 1412210Aurore2
1978–1979 106420Celine74
1979–1980 1111420Viola-Claudette30

1980s

SeasonTDMTSTCITCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
1980–81 121032Alice-Adelaide/Florine
1981–82 141052Chris-Damia100$250 million
1982–83 6300Bemany/Elinah33$23 million
1983–84 141144Andry/Annette-Jaminy/Kamisy 356$496 million
1984–85 9910Helisaonina0Unknown
1985–86 131351Erinesta99$150 million
1986–87 10810Daodo10$2 million
1987–88 111141Gasitao100$10 million
1988–89 121160Leon-Hanitra/Krissy11$217 million
1989–90 9951Walter-Gregoara46$1.5 million

1990s

SeasonTDMTSTCITCVITCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
1990–91 117300 Bella 88
1991–92 1411310Harriet-Heather2
1992–93 1811420Edwina20 [A 1] [14]
1993–94 1814840 Geralda 558
1994–95 2011530Marlene [15]
1995–96 2111630 Bonita 11 [16]
1996–97 2112530Daniella311
1997–98 165100Anacelle88
1998–99 146220Evrina2
1999–00 149431 Hudah 1,073 [17]

2000s

SeasonTDMTSTCITCVITCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
2000–01 116420Ando4 [A 1] [18]
2001–02 1511951 Hary 52 [19]
2002–03 1412730 Kalunde 169 [A 1]
2003–04 1510531 Gafilo 396 [20] [21]
2004–05 1810431Juliet253 [21]
2005–06 136320Carina75 [22] [23]
2006–07 1510760Dora/Favio 188 [A 1] [23]
2007–08 1513640 Hondo 123 [23]
2008–09 1210220 Fanele/Gael30 [24]
2009–10 169541Edzani40 [A 1] [24] [25]
1449752344Gafilo1,339

2010s

SeasonTDMTSTCITCVITCStrongest
storm
DeathsDamage
USD
Notes and
References
2010–11 93200 Bingiza 34 [A 1] [26]
2011–12 1410320 Funso 164 [A 1] [26]
2012–13 1110730Felleng35
2013–14 1511552 Hellen 11
2014–15 1411432Bansi111
2015–16 88331 Fantala 13 [27]
2016–17 75310 Enawo 341
2017–18 98630Berguitta108
2018–19 151511100 Kenneth 1,040Most active and costliest season on record
1028145305Fantala1,857

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of tropical storms includes one subtropical depression that had winds above 65 km/h (40 mph).

Related Research Articles

Tropical cyclones are unofficially ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

2005–06 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2005–06 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the fifth least-active on record. The Météo-France office on the island of Réunion tracked 13 tropical disturbances, of which six intensified into a moderate tropical storm. Three of these systems proceeded to attain tropical cyclone status – reaching 10 minute maximum sustained winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). The American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center also tracked eight storms in the basin. Activity was below normal due to a powerful Walker circulation, which increased convection over the neighboring Australian basin, but suppressed activity in the western Indian Ocean. As a result, most of the storms developed near or entered from the Australian basin, crossing 90°E to enter the South-West Indian Ocean.

2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season had the earliest named storm since 1992. Many storms formed in the north-east portion of the basin, and several more originated around Australia. The basin is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean west of longitude 90°E to the coast of Africa and south of the equator. Eleven tropical storms formed, compared to an average of nine. Tropical systems were present during 73 days, which was significantly higher than the average of 58 for this basin.

Cyclone Gamede South-West Indian cyclone in 2007

Cyclone Gamede was among the wettest tropical cyclones on record, dropping more than 5.5 m (18 ft) of rain in a nine-day period on Réunion island in the southwest Indian Ocean. Only Cyclone Hyacinthe has a higher recorded rainfall total. The seventh named storm of the 2006–07 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Gamede formed south of Diego Garcia on February 19 as a tropical disturbance. It tracked generally westward and steadily intensified, reaching tropical cyclone status on February 23. For two days, Gamede stalled northwest of the Mascarene Islands as an intense tropical cyclone, during which it reached 10 minute maximum sustained winds of winds of 165 km/h (105 mph), according to the Météo-France meteorological office in Réunion. The American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute winds of 195 km/h (120 mph), equivalent to a Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. For four days, Gamede remained within 400 km (250 mi) of Réunion before accelerating southward. On March 2, Gamede transitioned into an extratropical cyclone to the southeast of Madagascar. The MFR tracked the storm for four more days.

2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2008, and officially ended on April 30, 2009, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2009. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone year was a near average event in tropical cyclone formation. the season officially started on July 1, 2009, and ended on June 30, 2010, after incorporating the tropical cyclone season which ran from November 1 to April 30 for all areas except for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2010. In this basin which officially runs from 30 to 90E and is to the south of the equator, the main warning center is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on La Reunion Island; however they delegate the naming of Cyclones to the Meteorological services of Mauritius and Madagascar.

Tropical cyclones of 2010 were spread across seven oceanic basins in their respective seasons; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Megi, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 885 mbar before striking the east coast of Luzon in the Philippines. Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) designated names to 70 systems worldwide, of which 46 occurred in the northern hemisphere while 21 developed in the southern hemisphere. The most active basin in 2010 was the North Atlantic, which documented 19 named systems, while the North Indian Ocean, despite only amounting to five named systems, was its basin's most active since 1998. Conversely, both the West Pacific typhoon and East Pacific hurricane seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 14 and 8, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece. That hemisphere's strongest tropical cyclone was Cyclone Edzani, which bottomed out with a barometric pressure of 910 mbar in the South-West Indian Ocean.

2012–13 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2012–13 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation in the Southern hemisphere tropical cyclone year starting on July 1, 2012, and ending on June 30, 2013. Within this basin, tropical and subtropical disturbances are officially monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre on Réunion island, while the Mauritius and Madagascar weather services assign names to significant tropical and subtropical disturbances. The first tropical disturbance of the season developed on October 12 and rapidly developed into the earliest known intense tropical cyclone on record during October 14.

2014–15 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2014–15 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2014, and ended on April 30, 2015, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2015. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below-average season, with five tropical storms, three of which intensified into tropical cyclones. It officially began on November 15, 2016, and ended on April 30, 2017, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2017. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion, though the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued unofficial advisories.

2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season Period of the cyclone season in the southwest Indian Ocean between 2018 and 2019

The 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season is the costliest and most active season ever recorded since records began in 1967. Additionally, it is also the second-deadliest cyclone season recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean, behind only the 1891–92 season, in which the 1892 Mauritius cyclone devastated the island of Mauritius. Currently, this cyclone season is an ongoing event of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation in the South-West Indian Ocean basin. It officially began on November 15, 2018, and will end on April 30, 2019, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it will end on May 15, 2019. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

Tropical cyclones in 2015

Tropical cyclones in 2015 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Hurricane Patricia, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 872 mbar before striking the east coast of Colima in Mexico. 133 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2014

Tropical cyclones in 2014 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Vongfong, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking the east coast of Japan. 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2004 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Cyclone Gafilo, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 895 mbar becomes the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean before striking the east coast of Madagascar. 130 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 81 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2004 was the Western Pacific, which documented 29 named systems, while the North Atlantic, despite only amounting to 15 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive season since 1995. Conversely, both the Eastern Pacific hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 12 and 4, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2012

Tropical cyclones in 2012 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest tropical cyclone was Typhoon Sanba strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking South Korea. 132 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 88 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in the year was the Western Pacific, which documented 25 named systems, while the North Atlantic Pacific, despite only amounting to 19 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive since 2010 becoming the third-most active season on record. Conversely, the Eastern Pacific hurricane season experienced the average number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity, numbering 17 respectively. The least tropical cyclone season was North Indian Ocean had a late start, with the first system forming in October. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Cyclone Kenneth tropical cyclone

Intense Tropical Cyclone Kenneth was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mozambique since modern records began. The cyclone also brought significant damage to Comoro Islands and Tanzania. The fourteenth tropical storm, record-breaking tenth tropical cyclone, and tenth intense tropical cyclone of the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Kenneth formed from a vortex that the Météo-France office on La Réunion (MFR) first mentioned on 17 April. The MFR monitored the system over the next several days before designating it as a tropical disturbance on 21 April. The disturbance was located in a favorable environment to the north of Madagascar, which allowed it to strengthen into a tropical depression and later a tropical storm, both on the next day. The storm then began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as an intense tropical cyclone with 10-minute sustained winds of 215 km/h (130 mph) and a pressure of 934 hPa. At that time, Kenneth began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle and weakened slightly before making landfall later that day as an intense tropical cyclone. As a result of land interaction, Kenneth became disorganised as it made landfall and rapidly degenerated thereafter. The storm then shifted southward, with the MFR cancelling all major warnings for inland cities. Kenneth was reclassified as an overland depression after landfall, with the MFR issuing its warning at midnight UTC on 26 April. Thunderstorm activity developed off the coast of Mozambique on 27 April as the system began drifting northward, prior to the dissipation of remnants of the tropical cyclone on 29 April.

References

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  27. $4.5 million in damages from cyclone that hit remote Seychellois island, World Bank says (Seychelles News Agency, May 17, 2016)