Atlantic hurricane season

Last updated

Atlantic tropical storm and hurricane frequency, by month 1851-2017 Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms by month.png
Atlantic tropical storm and hurricane frequency, by month
Hurricane tracks from 1980 through 2014. Green tracks did not make landfall in US; yellow tracks made landfall but were not major hurricanes at the time; red tracks made landfall and were major hurricanes.

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Contents

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active. [2] In the Northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September; [2] the season's climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season. [3] This is the norm, but in 1938, the Atlantic hurricane season started as early as January 3.

Tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a pre-determined list. On average, 10.1 named storms occur each season, with an average of 5.9 becoming hurricanes and 2.5 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). The most active season was 2005, during which 28 tropical cyclones formed, of which a record 15 became hurricanes. The least active season was 1914, with only one known tropical cyclone developing during that year. [4] The Atlantic hurricane season is a time when most tropical cyclones are expected to develop across the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is currently defined as the time frame from June 1 through November 30, though in the past the season was defined as a shorter time frame. During the season, regular tropical weather outlooks are issued by the National Hurricane Center, and coordination between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center occurs for systems which have not formed yet, but could develop during the next three to seven days.

Concept

The basic concept of a hurricane season began during 1935, [5] when dedicated wire circuits known as hurricane circuits began to be set up along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, [6] a process completed by 1955. [7] It was originally the time frame when the tropics were monitored routinely for tropical cyclone activity, and was originally defined as from June 15 through October 31. [8] Over the years, the beginning date was shifted back to June 1, while the end date was shifted to November 15, [6] before settling at November 30 by 1965. [9] [10] This was when hurricane reconnaissance planes were sent out to fly across the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico on a routine basis to look for potential tropical cyclones, in the years before the continuous weather satellite era. [8] Since regular satellite surveillance began, hurricane hunter aircraft fly only into storm areas which are first spotted by satellite imagery. [11]

Operations

During the hurricane season, the National Hurricane Center routinely issues their Tropical Weather Outlook product, which identifies areas of concern within the tropics which could develop into tropical cyclones. If systems occur outside the defined hurricane season, special Tropical Weather Outlooks will be issued. [12] Routine coordination occurs at 1700 UTC each day between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center to identify systems for the pressure maps three to seven days into the future within the tropics, and points for existing tropical cyclones six to seven days into the future. [13] Possible tropical cyclones are depicted with a closed isobar, while systems with less certainty to develop are depicted as "spot lows" with no isobar surrounding them.

HURDAT

The North Atlantic hurricane database, or HURDAT, is the database for all tropical storms and hurricanes for the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, including those that have made landfall in the United States. The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database — which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) webpage — has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity.

HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. HURDAT contains numerous systematic as well as some random errors in the database. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as their understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack of exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall.

Re-analysis project

HURDAT is regularly updated annually to reflect the previous season's activity. The older portion of the database has been regularly revised since 2001. The first time in 2001 led to the addition of tropical cyclone tracks for the years 1851 to 1885. The second time was August 1992 when Hurricane Andrew was upgraded to a Category 5. Recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 19th and 20th centuries by various researchers have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events. Possible changes for the years 1951 onward are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years.

In addition to the groundbreaking work by Partagas[ needs context ], additional analyses, digitization and quality control of the data was carried out by researchers at the NOAA Hurricane Research Division funded by the NOAA Office of Global Programs. [14]

The National Hurricane Center's Best Track Change Committee has approved changes for a few recent cyclones, such as Hurricane Andrew. Official changes to the Atlantic hurricane database are approved by the National Hurricane Center Best Track Change Committee.

1494–1850 (pre-HURDAT era)

PeriodSeasonsIndividual years
Pre-19th century Pre-17th century (pre 1600), 17th century (1600s), 18th century (1700s) 1780
1800–1849 1800–1809, 1810–1819, 1820–1829, 1830–1839, 1840–1849 1842

1850–1899 (1851–present HURDAT era)

Most intense Atlantic
hurricane seasons
(since 1850) [nb 1]
Rank Season ACE
1 1933 259
2 2005 250
3 1893 231
4 1926 230
5 1995 228
6 2004 227
7 2017 225
8 1950 211
9 1961 189
10 1998 182

1850s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsStrongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1850 770Not known yetOne
1851 1851 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 63124 Four • Great Florida Middle Panhandle Hurricane of 1851 (cat 3)First Atlantic hurricane season to be included in the ATL-HURDAT
1852 1852 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 551100+ One • Great Mobile Hurricane of 1852 (cat 3)One of only three known seasons in which all tropical cyclones became hurricanes.
1853 1853 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 84240 Three
1854 1854 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 53130+ Three • Coastal Hurricane of 1854 (cat 3)
1855 1855 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 541Not known Five • Middle Gulf Shore Hurricane of 1855 (cat 3)
1856 1856 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 642200+ One The Last Island Hurricane of 1856 (cat 4)
1857 1857 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 430424 Two & Four
1858 1858 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 660None Three & Six
1859 1859 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 871Numerous Six

1860s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsStrongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1860 1860 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 76160+ One
1861 1861 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 86022+ One and Three
1862 1862 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6303 Two and Three
1863 1863 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 95090 One, Two, Three & Four
1864 1864 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 530None One, Three & Five
1865 1865 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 730326 Four & Seven
1866 1866 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 761383 Six • Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1866 (cat 4)
1867 1867 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 961811 'San Narciso' Hurricane San Narciso of 1867 (cat 3)
1868 1868 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4302 One, Two & Four
1869 1869 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 107138 Six • First New England Gale of 1869 (cat 3)
Saxby's New England Gale of 1869 (cat 2)

1870s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsStrongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1870 1870 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 111022,052 Four • First Key West Hurricane 1870/Hurricane of San Marcos 1870 (cat 3)
• Second Key West Hurricane 1870 (cat 2)
1871 1871 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 86230 Three and Four • Central Florida Hurricane of 1871 (cat 3)
• Hurricane Santa Juana of 1871 (cat 3)
1872 1872 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 540Unknown Two
1873 1873 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 532626 Five • Central Florida Hurricane of 1873 (cat 3)
1874 1874 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 740Unknown Seven
1875 1875 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 651800 Three Indianola Hurricane of 1875 (cat 3)
1876 1876 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 54219 "San Felipe" Hurricane San Felipe of 1876 (cat 3)
• Cuba-South Florida Hurricane of 1876 (cat 3)
1877 1877 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 83134 Four • Florida Panhandle hurricane of 1877 (cat 3)
1878 1878 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12101108 Seven Gale of 1878 (cat 2)
1879 1879 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 86247 Four • Great Beaufort Carolina Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)
• Louisiana Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)

1880s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsStrongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1880 1880 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1192133 Eight • Brownsville Hurricane of 1880 (cat 4)
1881 1881 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 740700 Five and Six • Georgia Hurricane of 1881 (cat 2)
1882 1882 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6526 Six • Pensacola Hurricane of 1882 (cat 3)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1882 (cat 4)
1883 1883 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 432236 Two and Three • Bahamas-North Carolina Hurricane of 1883 (cat 3)
1884 1884 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4418 Two
1885 1885 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 86125 Two
1886 1886 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12104200+ "Indianola" Indianola Hurricane of 1886 (cat 4)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
• Texas-Louisiana Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
Seven hurricanes struck the United States, the most during a single year. [17]
Indianola, Texas struck by two major hurricanes (1875 and 1886) which effectively closed down the town. [18] [ circular reference ]
1887 1887 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 191122 Seven Tied for third most active season on record; with 1995, 2010, 2011, and 2012.
Has the most storms forming outside the normal hurricane season
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm
1888 1888 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 962924 Three and Four Miami-Louisiana Hurricane of 1888 (cat 3)
• Hurricane San Gil of 1888 (cat 3)
1889 1889 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 96040 Six

1890s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsStrongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1890 1890 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4219 Three
1891 1891 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1071700+ "Martinique" Martinique Hurricane of 1891 (cat 3)
1892 1892 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 95016 Three, Five, and Seven
1893 1893 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 121054,028 "Cheniere Caminada" Hurricane San Roque of 1893 (cat 3)
New York Hurricane of 1893 (cat 3)
1893 Sea Islands Hurricane (cat 3)
• Great Charleston Hurricane (cat 3)
1893 Cheniere Caminada hurricane (cat 4)
5 major hurricanes made landfall this year.
Two hurricanes caused more than 2,000 deaths in the United States.
Four simultaneous hurricanes on August 22, one of two times on record.
1894 1894 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 754200+ Six • Florida Panhandle Hurricane of 1894 (cat 3)
1895 1895 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 62056 Two
1896 1896 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 762130 Four • Hurricane San Ramon of 1896 (cat 3)
Cedar Keys Hurricane of 1896 (cat 3)
1897 1897 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 630None One
1898 1898 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1151562 "Georgia" Georgia Hurricane of 1898 (cat 4) Major hurricane last struck Georgia in 1881
1899 1899 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9523,439 "San Ciriaco" Hurricane San Ciriaco of 1899/Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1899 (cat 4) The San Ciriaco hurricane was the longest lasting Atlantic hurricane on record

1900s

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

1900s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1900 1900 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7328,000+$60 million "Galveston" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (cat 4) The Galveston hurricane was the deadliest disaster in the United States.
1901 1901 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 125110$1 million Seven
1902 1902 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 530NoneUnknown Four
1903 1903 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1071228$1.15 million Two Jamaica Hurricane of 1903 (cat 3)
1904 1904 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 53087$1 million Two
1905 1905 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5111Unknown Four
1906 1906 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1163367$2.48 million Four Mississippi Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
Florida Keys Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
1907 1907 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 500NoneUnknown One One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes, with the other being 1914.
1908 1908 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1061NoneUnknown Six Includes the only known March tropical cyclone in the basin
1909 1909 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11644,614$75 million "Grand Isle" 1909 Velasco hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Monterrey hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Grand Isle hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Key West Hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Greater Antilles hurricane (cat 2)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year

1910s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1910 1910 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 531100$1.25 million "Cuba" The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1910 (cat 4)
1911 1911 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 63027$3 million Three
1912 1912 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 741116$67,000 Seven The Jamaica Hurricane of 1912 (cat 3)
1913 1913 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6405$4 million Four
1914 1914 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1000Unknown One Least active season on record.
One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes, with the other being 1907.
1915 1915 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 654675$63 million "New Orleans" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1915 (cat 4)
New Orleans Hurricanes of 1915 (cat 4)
Two cat 4 hurricanes made landfall in US in same year.
Galveston last struck with major hurricane in 1900.
1916 1916 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1510531$5.9 million "Texas" Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
• Charleston Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
Great Texas Hurricane of 1916 (cat 4)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year following a very active 1915 season.
1917 1917 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4225$170,000 "Nueva Gerona" Nueva Gerona Hurricane of 1917 (cat 4)
1918 1918 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 64134$5+ million One • Louisiana Hurricane of 1918 (cat 3)
1919 1919 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 521~900$22 million "Florida Keys" Great Florida Keys Hurricane of 1919 (cat 4)

1920s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1920 1920 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5402$15.75 million One
1921 1921 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7526$36.5 million "Tampa Bay" • Hurricane San Pedro of 1921 (cat 3)
Great Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921 (cat 4)
1922 1922 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 531UnknownUnknown Two
1923 1923 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9410Unknown Five
1924 1924 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1152150+Unknown "Cuba" Great Cuba Hurricane of 1924 (cat 5) The earliest officially classified Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Scale
1925 1925 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 42059+$19.9 million One
1926 1926 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11861,315+$1.4+ billion "Miami" The Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Louisiana hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Great Havana-Bermuda Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
6 major hurricanes this year, 5 major landfalls
1927 1927 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 841184Unknown "Nova Scotia" Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1927 (cat 3)
1928 1928 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6414,000+$952.5+ million "Okeechobee" Great Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 (cat 5) The Okeechobee hurricane is the only known hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength.
1929 1929 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 53151$9.0 million "Florida" Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1929 (cat 4)

1930s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1930 1930 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 3228,000$50 million "Dominican Republic" Dominican Republic Hurricane of 1930 (cat 4) The fifth deadliest hurricane on record
1931 1931 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13312,502$7.5 million "Belize" Belize Hurricane of 1931 (cat 4)
1932 1932 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15643,315$37 million "Cuba" Freeport Texas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Hurricane San Ciprián of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Cuba Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Two Category 5 hurricanes; one in November (the latest such on record); four major hurricanes made landfall
1933 1933 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 20116651$86.6 million "Tampico" Chesapeake–Potomac Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Great Cuba-Brownsville Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Outer Banks Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Tampico Yucatán Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Second most active season on record following very active 1932 season.
Two Category 5 hurricanes.
Five major hurricanes made landfall
1934 1934 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13712,017$4.26 million Thirteen
1935 1935 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8532,604$12.5 million "Labor Day" Great Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 (cat 5)
Cuba Hurricane of 1935 (cat 4)
The Labor Day hurricane is most intense landfalling tropical cyclone in the Atlantic known to date
1936 1936 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17715$1.23 million Thirteen Very active season with no major landfalling hurricanes
1937 1937 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11410Unknown Six
1938 1938 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 942~700$290.3 million "New England" Long Island Express Hurricane (cat 3) Earliest starting season on record (January 3).
Long Island express made landfall as a fast moving category 3.
1939 1939 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6315Unknown Five

1940s

YearMapNumber of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanesNotes
1940 1940 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 960101$4.7 million Four
1941 1941 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 64363$10 million "Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
• Nicaragua Hurricane of 1941 (cat 4)
Florida Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year
1942 1942 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 114117$30.6 million Three Matagorda Texas Hurricane of 1942 (cat 3)
1943 1943 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 105219$17.2 million Three First year of Hurricane Hunters
1944 1944 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14831,153$202 million "Great Atlantic" Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Cuba-Florida Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Atlantic hurricane only category 2 at landfall
1945 1945 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 115280$80 million "Southeast Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1945 (cat 3)
Homestead Florida Hurricane of 1945 (cat 4)
1946 1946 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7305$5.2 million Four
1947 1947 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 105294$145.3 million "Fort Lauderdale" Fort Lauderdale Hurricane of 1947 [George] (cat 4)
Cape Sable Hurricane of 1947 [King] (cat 2)
First year of Atlantic tropical cyclone naming. [19]
1948 1948 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 106494$30.9 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1948 [Easy] (cat 4)
Miami Hurricane of 1948 [Fox] (cat 3)
1949 1949 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16733$58.2 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1949 (cat 4)
Texas Hurricane of 1949 (cat 2)

1950s

YearMapNumber of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
1950 1950 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1611620$37 million Dog NoneRecord 8 tropical storms in October
1951 1951 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1283257$80 million Easy None
1952 1952 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1152607$3.75 million Fox NoneIncludes the only known February tropical cyclone in the basin
1953 1953 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14731$6 million Carol NoneFirst year of female names for storms.
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm.
1954 1954 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16731,069$752 million Hazel Carol, Edna, Hazel Includes Alice, one of only two storms in the basin to span two calendar years, tying for the latest storm in a season
1955 1955 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13941,518$1.2 billion Janet Connie, Diane, Ione, Janet
1956 1956 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 124176$67.8 million Betsy None
1957 1957 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 832513$152.5 million Carrie Audrey
1958 1958 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 127341$12 million Helene None
1959 1959 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 147259$23.3 million Gracie Gracie

1960s

YearMapNumber of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
1960 1960 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 842455$442.34 million Donna Donna
1961 1961 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1285345$392 million Hattie Carla, Hattie Two Category 5 Hurricanes
1962 1962 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 74039>$4.88 million Ella NoneNo major hurricanes
1963 1963 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10737,225$589 million Flora Flora The sixth deadliest hurricane on record
1964 1964 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1375261$605 million Cleo Cleo, Dora, Hilda
1965 1965 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 104176$1.45 billion Betsy Betsy Current extent of the reanalysis project as of November 2019
1966 1966 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11731,094$410 million Inez InezOne named storm de-classified in post-analysis
1967 1967 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 86164$217 million Beulah Beulah
1968 1968 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 84010$10 million Gladys NoneThe name "Edna" was retroactively retired, due to the storm in 1954.
There was one subtropical storm with Category 1 hurricane strength.
No major hurricanes, nor category 2 hurricanes.
1969 1969 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18125364$1.7 billion Camille CamilleFourth most active season on record.
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record.
Includes one subtropical storm.

1970s

YearMapNumber of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
1970 1970 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 105271$454 million Celia CeliaFirst season of a 24-year period of decreased activity in the Atlantic (-AMO)
1971 1971 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 136145$213 million Edith NoneIncludes first documented Hurricane to cross Central America, Irene
1972 1972 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 730122$2.1 billion Betty Agnes Includes three subtropical storms
No major hurricanes
1973 1973 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 84115$18 million Ellen NoneIncludes one subtropical storm
1974 1974 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11428,260+$1.97 billion Carmen Carmen, Fifi Includes four subtropical storms
Fifi was the fourth deadliest hurricane on record
1975 1975 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 96380$100 million Gladys Eloise Includes one subtropical storm
1976 1976 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 106272$100 million Belle NoneIncludes two subtropical storms
1977 1977 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 65110$10 million Anita Anita
1978 1978 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 125237$45 million Greta GretaIncludes the January subtropical storm in the Atlantic
1979 1979 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9522,118$4.3 billion David David, Frederic First year for alternating male/female names.
Includes one subtropical storm of Category One strength .

1980s

YearMapNumber of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
1980 1980 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 151192256$1 billion Allen AllenIncludes the storm with the highest sustained winds attained so far in the Atlantic
1981 1981 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18127310$45 million Harvey None
1982 1982 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9621141$100 million Debby NoneIncludes one subtropical storm
1983 1983 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 743122$2.6 billion Alicia AliciaLeast active hurricane season in the satellite era
1984 1984 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17135135$66 million Diana NoneIncludes one subtropical storm
1985 1985 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 131173241$4.5 billion Gloria Elena, Gloria Hurricane Kate struck Florida on November 21, the latest United States hurricane landfall
1986 1986 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1064070$57 million Earl NoneNo major hurricanes
1987 1987 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1473110 $90 million Emily None
1988 1988 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 191253550$7 billion Gilbert Gilbert, Joan Included strongest hurricane on record until 2005; first hurricane since 1978 to cross Central America
1989 1989 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 151172112$10.7 billion Hugo Hugo

1990s

YearMapNumber of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
1990 1990 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 161481116$150 million Gustav Diana, Klaus No tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in the United States
1991 1991 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1284230$2.5 billion Claudette Bob
1992 1992 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 974166$27 billion Andrew AndrewHurricane Andrew was the costliest U.S. hurricane until 2005.
Includes one subtropical storm.
1993 1993 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10841274$271 million Emily None
1994 1994 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 127301,184$1.56 billion Florence NoneNo major hurricanes
1995 1995 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 2119115115$9.3 billion Opal Luis, Marilyn, Opal, Roxanne Tied for third most active season on record
First season of an ongoing period of increased activity in the Atlantic (+AMO)
1996 1996 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 131396179$3.8 billion Edouard Cesar, Fran, Hortense Cesar was renamed Douglas after it crossed Central America.
Highest number of major hurricanes at the time
1997 1997 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 983111$110 million Erika NoneIncludes one subtropical storm
1998 1998 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 141410312,000+$12.2 billion Mitch Georges, MitchFour simultaneous hurricanes on September 26, the first time since 1893.
Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest hurricane in over 200 years.
1999 1999 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 161285465$5.9 billion Floyd Floyd, Lenny Most Category 4 hurricanes on record
Total132110642514,440$62.7 billion Mitch15

2000s

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

2000s

YearMapNumber of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
2000 2000 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 191583105$1.296 billion Keith KeithIncludes one subtropical storm
2001 2001 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 171594187$11.45 billion Michelle Allison, Iris, Michelle
2002 2002 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14124250$2.47 billion Isidore Isidore, Lili Record-tying 8 named storms formed in September
2003 2003 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 21167393$6.33 billion Isabel Fabian, Isabel, Juan 2 off-season storms
2004 2004 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1715963,260$61.17 billion Ivan Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne Includes one subtropical storm
Record-tying 8 named storms forming in August
2005 2005 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 31281573,960$180.7 billion Wilma Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, WilmaSecond costliest hurricane season on record
Season holds most activity records, including cyclones, storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and Category 5's (4)
Most retired names
Only year to use the Greek alphabet
Includes 1 subtropical storm and 1 subtropical depression
2006 2006 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10105214$504.42 million Gordon and Helene None
2007 2007 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 171562478$3.42 billion Dean Dean, Felix, Noel Includes one subtropical storm
Two Category 5 Hurricanes that made landfall
2008 2008 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1716851,065$49.46 billion Ike Gustav, Ike, Paloma Tied for fifth most active season on record
Only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November
2009 2009 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 119329$58 million Bill None
Total17415174369,221$316.89 billionWilma24 retired names

2010s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
2010 2010 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 2119125392$7.4 billion Igor Igor, Tomas Tied for third most active season on record (with 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012)
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record with twelve (Alex, Danielle, Earl, Igor, Julia, Karl, Lisa, Otto, Paula, Richard, Shary, and Tomas)
Record tying 8 named storms forming in September (Gaston through Nicole)
2011 2011 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 201974112$17.4 billion Ophelia Irene Tied for third most active season on record (with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2012)
2012 2012 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1919102302$72.32 billion Sandy SandyTied for third most active season (with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011)
Tied (with 2016) for most active season before July (Alberto through Debby)
Record tying 8 named storms forming in August (Ernesto through Leslie [Leslie spanned most of September])
2013 2013 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15142054$1.512 billion Humberto Ingrid Includes one subtropical storm (Unnamed December SS [14L])
No major hurricanes, nor Category 2 hurricanes
Tied (with 1982) for fewest hurricanes since 1930 (Humberto and Ingrid, a tie with Alberto and Debby in 1982)
2014 2014 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 986221$371.6 million Gonzalo None
2015 2015 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12114289$813.9 million Joaquin Erika, Joaquin
2016 2016 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 161574748≥ $17.49 billion Matthew Matthew, Otto Earliest start since 1938 (January 12, since January 3)
Record for earliest formation of 3rd and 4th storm (Colin and Danielle)
Tied (with 2012) for most active season before July (Alex through Danielle)
Includes southernmost Category 5 on record, and the first since 2007 (Matthew, since Felix)
First hurricane in 20 years to cross Central America into the Eastern Pacific basin (Otto)
2017 2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18171063,363≥ $294.67 billion Maria Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate Costliest hurricane season on record (US$294.67 Billion)
First April system (Arlene) since 2003 (Ana)
Earliest Main Development Region named storm on record (Bret)
First U.S. major hurricane landfall since Wilma in 2005 (Harvey)
Highest rainfall produced by a tropical cyclone in the United States and its territories (Maria)
First-ever three Category 4 U.S. hurricane landfalls in a single season (Harvey, Irma, and Maria)
Second season to feature multiple Category 5 landfalls after 2007 (Irma and Maria after Dean and Felix)
Only one of four seasons to produce ten hurricanes in a row (Franklin through Ophelia)
Only season on record with three hurricanes with an ACE value over 40 (Irma, Jose, and Maria)
Most ACE produced in a single month in Atlantic basin (September, caused by Irma through Maria)
Easternmost Major hurricane on record (Ophelia)
2018 2018 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 161582175≥ $50.205 billion Michael Florence, MichaelIncludes a record seven storms that were subtropical at one point (Alberto, Beryl, Debby, Ernesto, Joyce, Leslie, and Oscar)
Fourth consecutive season for a storm to develop before the official start (Alberto)
The first season on record to have a Category 5 hurricane present in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean (Michael, followed by Lane, Walaka, and Willa)
2019 2019 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 201863107≥ $11.12 billion Dorian TBDRecord fifth consecutive season for a storm to develop before the official start (Andrea).
Includes two subtropical storms (Andrea and Rebekah).
Dorian and Lorenzo in 2019 became two of six Category 5 storms in four years, the others being Matthew, Irma and Maria, and Michael, the most consecutive years with Category 5 storms on record.
Total16615572305,359$470.50 billionMaria

2020s

YearMapNumber of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
DeathsDamage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired namesNotes
2020 2020 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 22000None Arthur TBDRecord-breaking 6th straight season with a pre-season storms. (Arthur and Bertha)
Total22000NoneArthur

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851–2019.

Atlantic hurricane season

A 2011 study analyzing one of the main sources of hurricanes - the African easterly wave (AEW) - found that the change in AEWs is closely linked to increased activity of intense hurricanes in the North Atlantic. The synoptic concurrence of AEWs in driving the dynamics of the Sahel greening also appears to increase tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic. [20]

Tropical cyclone count adjusted for lack of observation prior to 1965. Adjusted Tropical Storm Count.png
Tropical cyclone count adjusted for lack of observation prior to 1965.

Number of storms of each strength since the satellite era

SeasonTropical DepressionsNamed StormsHurricanesCategory ≥2Major hurricanes (Category ≥3)Category≥4Category 5
1967 29862111
1968 148 [nb 2] 5 [nb 3] 0000
1969 2018 [nb 4] 127511
1970 1910 [nb 5] 53200
1971 221362111
1972 19731000
1973 24841100
1974 2111 [nb 6] 43210
1975 239 [nb 7] 65310
1976 2310 [nb 8] 64200
1977 16651111
1978 2412 [nb 9] 53220
1979 269 [nb 10] 5 [nb 11] 3221
1980 151195211
1981 2212 [nb 12] 74310
1982 96 [nb 13] 21110
1983 7431100
1984 2013 [nb 14] 52110
1985 141173310
1986 10641000
1987 14731100
1988 191253331
1989 151174221
1990 161482100
1991 128 [nb 15] 4 [nb 16] 3210
1992 107 [nb 17] 43111
1993 10842100
1994 127 [nb 18] 31000
1995 2119118530
1996 13 [nb 19] 13 [nb 20] 9 [nb 21] 6620
1997 98 [nb 22] 31100
1998 1414107321
1999 161288550
2000 1915 [nb 23] 84320
2001 171595420
2002 141243210
2003 211674321
2004 161597641
2005 3128 [nb 24] 158754
2006 1010 [nb 25] 52200
2007 171562222
2008 171686540
2009 11933210
2010 2119129540
2011 201974420
2012 1919105200
2013 1514 [nb 26] 20000
2014 9863210
2015 121142210
2016 1615 [nb 27] 74421
2017 18 [nb 28] 17 [nb 29] 108642
2018 161585221
2019 201864322

Notes

  1. There is an undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910, due to the lack of modern observation techniques, see Tropical cyclone observation. This may have led to significantly lower ACE ratings for hurricane seasons prior to 1910. [15] [16]
  2. This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  3. This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  4. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  5. This includes three subtropical storms that were not named at the time.
  6. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  7. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  8. This includes two subtropical storms that were not named at the time.
  9. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  10. This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  11. This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  12. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  13. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  14. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  15. This includes one tropical hurricane that was not formally named but was nicknamed "the Perfect Storm".
  16. This includes one tropical hurricane that was not formally named but was nicknamed "the Perfect Storm".
  17. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  18. This does not include two additional tropical storm-force cyclones formed late in the season that may have been subtropical or tropical but were each reported by the NHC as extropical.
  19. This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  20. This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  21. This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  22. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  23. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  24. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  25. This includes one tropical storm that was not named at the time.
  26. This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  27. This does not include one additional tropical storm-force cyclone over the Bay of Biscay that may have been subtropical but was reported by the NHC as extropical.
  28. This does not include one subtropical storm that formed over the Mediterranean Sea and was not reported on by the NHC.
  29. This does not include one subtropical storm that formed over the Mediterranean Sea and was not reported on by the NHC.

See also

Parent topics

Atlantic hurricane topics

Other tropical cyclone basins

Related Research Articles

Subtropical cyclone Meteorological phenomenon

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Pacific hurricane Mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Atlantic hurricane tropical cyclone that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.

Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project

The Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seeks to correct and add new information about past North Atlantic hurricanes. It was started around 2000 to update HURDAT, the official hurricane database for the Atlantic Basin, which has become outdated since its creation due to various systematic errors introduced into the database over time. This effort has involved reanalyses of ship observations from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) as well as reanalyses done by other researchers over the years. It has been ongoing as of 2016, and should last another four years.

2005 Azores subtropical storm Atlantic subtropical storm in 2005

The 2005 Azores subtropical storm was the 19th nameable storm and only subtropical storm of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was not officially named by the US National Hurricane Center as it was operationally classified as a non-tropical low. The storm developed in the eastern Atlantic Ocean out of a low-pressure area that gained subtropical characteristics on October 4. The storm was short-lived, crossing over the Azores later on October 4 before becoming extratropical again on October 5. No damages or fatalities were reported during that time. After being absorbed into a cold front, the system went on to become Hurricane Vince, which affected the Iberian Peninsula.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.

1881 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1881 Atlantic hurricane season ran through the summer and early fall of 1881. This is the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. In the 1881 Atlantic season there were three tropical storms and four hurricanes, none of which became major hurricanes. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea were recorded, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated. Of the known 1881 cyclones, Hurricane Three and Tropical Storm Seven were both first documented in 1996 by Jose Fernandez-Partagas and Henry Diaz. They also proposed changes to the known tracks of Hurricane Four and Hurricane Five.

Timeline of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season Notable hurricane events in the Atlantic Ocean in 1972

The 1972 Atlantic hurricane season is one of five Atlantic hurricane seasons not to have any major hurricanes, the others being 1968, 1986, 1994, and 2013. Although Subtropical Storm Alpha formed on May 23, the season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, Subtropical Storm Delta, dissipated on November 7.

Glossary of tropical cyclone terms Wikipedia glossary

The following is a glossary of tropical cyclone terms.

2020 Atlantic hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2020

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season officially starts on June 1 and ends on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time, as shown by the formations of Tropical Storms Arthur and Bertha, on May 16 and 27, respectively, marking the sixth consecutive year with pre-season systems. This also marks the first time since 2016 that two or more named storms developed before the start of the season, and the first time since 2012 that two or more named storms formed in the month of May.

References

  1. Landsea, Chris (contributor from the NHC). "Total and Average Number of Tropical Cylones by Month (1851-2017)". aoml.noaa.gov. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018.
  2. 1 2 Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". NOAA. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  3. McAdie, Colin (May 10, 2007). "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  4. "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. December 12, 2019.
  5. Associated Press (June 15, 1941). "Hurricane Bureau Begins Season's Vigil Tonight". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  6. 1 2 Associated Press (June 15, 1959). "1959 Hurricane Season Opens Officially Today". Meridian Record. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  7. Associated Press (June 15, 1955). "Hurricane Season Opens; New England Joins Circuit". The Robesonian. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  8. 1 2 Associated Press (June 15, 1960). "1960 Hurricane Season Open As Planes Prowl". The Evening Independent. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  9. Neal Dorst (January 21, 2010). "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season ?". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  10. Brownsville Herald (June 1, 1965). Hurricane Season Officially Opened.
  11. United Press International (May 30, 1966). "Hurricane Season Opens This Week". The News and Courier. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  12. National Hurricane Center (2011). "Atlantic Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  13. United States Department of Commerce (2006). Assessment: Hurricane Katrina, August 23–31, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. Christopher W. Landsea, Hurricane Research Division (May 8, 2010). "Subject: E11) How many tropical cyclones have there been each year in the Atlantic basin? What years were the greatest and fewest seen?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
  16. Christoper W. Landsea, Hurricane Research Division (March 26, 2014). "HURDAT Re-analysis Original vs. Revised HURDAT". NOAA. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
  17. Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2007". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  18. Indianola, Texas
  19. Dorst, Neal (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. Slides 49–51.
  20. Wang and Gillies (2011). "Observed Change in Sahel Rainfall, Circulations, African Easterly Waves, and Atlantic Hurricanes Since 1979". International Journal of Geophysics. 2011: 1–14. doi: 10.1155/2011/259529 .CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)