|2018 Atlantic hurricane season|
Season summary map
|First system formed||May 25, 2018|
|Last system dissipated||October 31, 2018|
|• Maximum winds||160 mph (260 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||919 mbar (hPa; 27.14 inHg)|
|Total fatalities||173 total|
|Total damage||> $50.205 billion (2018 USD)|
The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion (2018 USD) in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously (Florence, Helene, Isaac, and Joyce). On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes (Alberto, Beryl, Debby, Ernesto, Joyce, Leslie, and Oscar).
The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.
Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.
Tropical Storm Alberto was a costly and deadly pre-season tropical cyclone. The first storm of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Alberto developed on May 25 near the Yucatán Peninsula as a subtropical cyclone. As it entered the Gulf of Mexico, Alberto intensified and transitioned into a tropical cyclone. Early on May 28, Alberto reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 990 mbar. Afterward, however, dry air caused Alberto to weaken before it made landfall near Laguna Beach, Florida, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). Alberto maintained a compact area of thunderstorms as it progressed through the central United States, entering southern Michigan as a tropical depression on May 31. That day, Alberto weakened further and dissipated over Ontario. Alberto took a near-identical path as Tropical Storm Arlene in 2005.
Most forecasting groups called for a below-average season due to cooler than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and the anticipated development of an El Niño. However, the anticipated El Niño failed to develop in time to suppress activity, and activity exceeded most predictions.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to occur close to four years, however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.
|Average (1981–2010 )||12.1||6.4||2.7|
|Record high activity||28||15||7†|
|Record low activity||4||2†||0†|
|TSR||December 7, 2017||15||7||3|
|CSU||April 5, 2018||14||7||3|
|TSR||April 5, 2018||12||6||2|
|NCSU||April 16, 2018||14–18||7–11||3–5|
|TWC||April 19, 2018||13||7||2|
|NOAA||May 24, 2018||10–16||5–9||1–4|
|UKMO||May 25, 2018||11*||6*||N/A|
|TSR||May 30, 2018||9||4||1|
|CSU||May 31, 2018||14||6||2|
|CSU||July 2, 2018||11||4||1|
|TSR||July 5, 2018||9||4||1|
|CSU||August 2, 2018||12||5||1|
|TSR||August 6, 2018||11||5||1|
|NOAA||August 9, 2018||9–13||4–7||0–2|
|* June–November only.|
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)
Ahead of and during the season, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale) will form during a season and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of University College London, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Colorado State University (CSU). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year. Some of these forecasts also take into consideration what happened in previous seasons and an ongoing La Niña event that had recently formed in November 2017. units.On average, an Atlantic hurricane season between 1981 and 2010 contained twelve tropical storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes, with an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of between 66 and 103
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, and is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, and the largest by postgraduate enrolment.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Colorado State University is a public research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. The university is the state's land grant university and the flagship university of the Colorado State University System.
The first forecast for the year was released by TSR on December 7, 2017, which predicted a slightly above-average season for 2018, with a total of 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. On April 5, 2018, CSU released its forecast, predicting a slightly above-average season with 14 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. TSR released its second forecast on the same day, predicting a slightly-below average hurricane season, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, the reduction in both the number and size of storms compared to its first forecast being due to recent anomalous cooling in the far northern and tropical Atlantic. Several days later, on April 16, North Carolina State University released its predictions, forecasting an above-average season, with 14–18 named storms, 7–11 hurricanes, and 3–5 major hurricanes. On April 19, The Weather Company released its first forecasts, predicting 2018 to be a near-average season, with a total of 13 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes. On May 24, NOAA released their first forecasts, calling for a near to above average season in 2018. On May 25, the UK Met Office released their prediction, predicting 11 tropical storms, 6 hurricanes, and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) value of approximately 105 units. In contrast, on May 30, TSR released their updated prediction, significantly reducing their numbers to 9 named storms, 4 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane, citing a sea surface temperature setup analogous of those observed during the cool phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. On May 31, one day before the season officially began, CSU updated their forecast to include Tropical Storm Alberto, also decreasing their numbers due to anomalous cooling in the tropical and far northern Atlantic.
North Carolina State University is a public research university in Raleigh, North Carolina. It is part of the University of North Carolina system and is a land-, sea-, and space-grant institution. The university forms one of the corners of the Research Triangle together with Duke University in Durham and The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The Weather Company is a weather forecasting and information technology company that owns and operates weather.com, intellicast.com, and Weather Underground. The Weather Company is a subsidiary of the Watson & Cloud Platform business unit of IBM.
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales. While there is some support for this mode in models and in historical observations, controversy exists with regard to its amplitude, and in particular, the attribution of sea surface temperature change to natural or anthropogenic causes, especially in tropical Atlantic areas important for hurricane development. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is also connected with shifts in hurricane activity, rainfall patterns and intensity, and changes in fish populations.
On July 2, CSU updated their forecast once more, lowering their numbers again to 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane, citing the continued cooling in the Atlantic and an increasing chance of El Niño forming later in the year.TSR released their fourth forecast on July 5, retaining the same numbers as their previous forecast. On August 2, CSU updated their forecast again, increasing their numbers to 12 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane, citing the increasing chance of a weak El Niño forming later in the year. Four days later, TSR issued their final forecast for the season, slightly increasing their numbers to 11 named storms, 5 hurricanes and only one major hurricane, with the reason of having two unexpected hurricanes forming by the beginning of July. On August 9, 2018, NOAA revised its predictions, forecasting a below-average season with 9–13 named storms, 4–7 hurricanes, and 0–2 major hurricanes for all of the 2018 season.
For the fourth consecutive year, activity began early, with the formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25. Alberto went on to attain winds of 65 mph, before making landfall in North Florida with winds of 45 mph. Alberto reached the Great Lakes region as a tropical depression, before dissipating over Lake Michigan on May 31. After a month of inactivity, Beryl formed in the Main Development Region on July 5, attaining hurricane status before dissipating just east of the Caribbean. Beryl redeveloped on July 14 in the Atlantic, before dissipating on July 16. Chris formed a day after Beryl, strengthening to a Category 2 hurricane on July 11, before dissipating over Atlantic Canada on the following day. August featured little activity in the form of Debby and Ernesto, neither of which became a hurricane or affected land. However, Ernesto was the fourth storm of the season that was a subtropical cyclone at some point in its life.
The Caribbean is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".
Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.
The next tropical cyclone, Hurricane Florence, formed on August 31, and became the first major hurricane of the season on September 5, just one day later than the average of September 4. Florence made landfall in North Carolina on September 14, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone on record there and in neighboring South Carolina. Activity would increase dramatically in September with Tropical Storm Gordon forming on September 3, which would go on to cause minor damage and two deaths after making landfall in Mississippi. Hurricanes Helene and Isaac followed suit on September 7, making 2018 the second consecutive year with three hurricanes simultaneously active. Helene killed three people in West Africa, and caused minor damage in the UK as an extratropical cyclone, while Isaac caused negligible damage in the Caribbean. Florence, Helene, Isaac, and Joyce, which formed on September 13, marked the first time four storms were active simultaneously in the Atlantic since 2008. After a brief period of inactivity, Kirk and a tropical depression formed on September 22, and Subtropical Storm Leslie followed suit the following day, marking the first time on record six storms (Alberto, Beryl, Debby, Ernesto, Joyce and Leslie) were designated a subtropical storm.
Activity picked up once again in October, with Michael forming on October 7 and strengthening into a major hurricane over the Gulf of Mexico, before making landfall in the Florida Panhandle at peak intensity, on October 10. On October 9, Tropical Storm Nadine developed in the eastern tropical Atlantic. After fifteen days as a tropical cyclone, on October 13, Leslie transitioned into a powerful extratropical cyclone approximately 120 miles west of the Iberian Peninsula, before making landfall soon afterward. A two-week period of inactivity ensued as the season began to wind down. On October 27, Oscar, the seventh in a record-breaking number of subtropical storms developed in the central Atlantic Ocean. Oscar intensified into a hurricane the next day, making it the eighth hurricane of the season. Oscar's dissipation ended the season on October 31, a month prior to the season's official end. No systems formed in November, making it the first occurrence since 2014.
The Accumulated Cyclone Energy index for the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season is 132.5825 units.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||May 25 – May 31|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 990 mbar (hPa)|
A broad area of low pressure formed over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on May 21, as the result of the interaction between an upper-level low and a weak surface trough. UTC on May 25, the strongly sheared low had organized sufficiently to be classified as Subtropical Storm Alberto while situated about 55 miles (90 km) south of Cozumel, Quintana Roo, which made this season the fourth-consecutive season in which storms formed earlier than the official start of the season on June 1. After remaining nearly stationary for the next day, Alberto began to move northwards. After entering the Gulf of Mexico, where wind shear lessened and sea surface temperatures were above average, Alberto began to intensify. Early on May 28, Alberto fully transitioned into a tropical storm and reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Afterward, due to dry air interaction, Alberto began to weaken as it neared the Gulf Coast, making landfall near Laguna Beach, Florida, at 21:00 UTC with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). The cyclone weakened to a tropical depression shortly after landfall. On May 31, Alberto finally transitioned to a post-tropical cyclone while over northern Michigan. The remnant low was subsequently absorbed by a frontal system over Ontario on the next day.The low drifted slowly westward and then northward through the Caribbean Sea as it gradually organized. By 15:00
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 4 – July 16|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 991 mbar (hPa)|
Late on July 3, the NHC began tracking a vigorous tropical wave over the eastern tropical Atlantic for tropical cyclone development. The tropical wave quickly coalesced as it moved westward, and at 15:00 UTC on July 5, it organized into a tropical depression while situated over the central tropical Atlantic Ocean. Favorable environmental conditions allowed the tiny system to strengthen, becoming Tropical Storm Beryl by 18:30 UTC, and further intensifying into a Category 1 hurricane by 06:00 UTC on July 6 as a pinhole eye became evident. Upon designation as a hurricane, it became the second earliest on record in the Main Development Region (south of 20°N and between 60 ° and 20°W), surpassed only by 1933's Hurricane Two. This intensity was short-lived, as accelerating low-level flow imparted shear on the cyclone and caused it to weaken back to tropical storm strength, by 15:00 UTC on July 7. An Air Force reconnaissance aircraft investigated the system early the next morning, finding that Beryl had degenerated into an open trough; the NHC de-classified Beryl as a tropical cyclone at 21:00 UTC on July 8, accordingly. The remnants were monitored for several days, although little organization occurred during much of that time. However, conditions gradually became more favorable for redevelopment, and on July 14 at 17:00 UTC, Beryl regenerated into a subtropical storm near Bermuda. The rejuvenated storm soon began to lose convection, as dry air infiltrated the system. By 03:00 UTC on July 16, Beryl degenerated into a remnant low once again, after having lacked organized convection for more than twelve hours.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 6 – July 12|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 969 mbar (hPa)|
Late on July 2, the NHC began monitoring the potential for an area of low pressure to form near Bermuda. A non-tropical low formed a few hundred miles south of Bermuda on July 3. Shower and thunderstorm activity gradually became better defined as the low moved generally northwestward into the Gulf Stream. At 12:00 UTC on July 6, the low organized into Tropical Depression Three, while located off the coast of North Carolina. Strengthening of the depression was slow due to the circulation being elongated, and was further hampered by adjacent dry air. Nevertheless, at 06:00 UTC on July 8, Tropical Depression Three was upgraded into Tropical Storm Chris. Pulled slowly southeastwards by a passing cold front, Chris strengthened little throughout the day due to upwelling caused by its slow motion. However, on July 10, a developing trough over the northeastern United States accelerated Chris eastwards into warmer waters, allowing for the formation of an inner core. With a well-defined eye and impressive appearance on satellite imagery, Chris finally strengthened into a hurricane at 12:00 UTC that day. Chris proceeded to rapidly intensify to Category 2 hurricane status, as a convective ring in its core transformed into a full eyewall. However, the hurricane soon crossed the Gulf Stream into cooler waters, which, combined with the effects of a nearby mid-latitude trough, caused Chris to begin to undergo extratropical transition. At 12:00 UTC on July 12, Chris fully transitioned to an extratropical cyclone well southeast of Newfoundland. The low continued northeastwards over the North Atlantic for the next few days, before weakening and finally dissipating south of Iceland on July 17.
While offshore, Hurricane Chris brought large swells to the East Coast of the United States, sparking hundreds of water rescues especially along the coasts of North Carolina, New Jersey, and Maryland. 7, a man drowned in rough seas attributed to the storm at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. A vacation home in Rodanthe, North Carolina was declared uninhabitable after swells generated by Chris eroded away the base of the building. As an extratropical cyclone, the system brought locally heavy rain and gusty winds to Newfoundland and Labrador. Rainfall accumulations peaked at 3.0 in (76 mm) in Gander, while gusts reached 60 mph (96 km/h) in Ferryland. Rainfall accumulations were highest on Sable Island, at 4.39 in (111.6 mm).On July
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 7 – August 9|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
On August 4, the NHC began monitoring a non-tropical low over the northern Atlantic Ocean for tropical or subtropical development. mph (85 km/h) while a few hundred miles southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Although Debby's passage over a warm Gulf Stream eddy allowed it to maintain its intensity for a short time, the entrainment of dry air into its circulation and passage over cooler waters caused its deep convection to dissipate. The cyclone degenerated into a remnant low at 18:00 UTC on August 9 and transitioned to an extratropical cyclone early on August 10 before becoming absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone later that day.Initially, convection remained very limited, with the system consisting mostly of a convectionless swirl interacting with an upper-level low. However, as the system moved into a more favorable environment it gradually began to acquire subtropical characteristics. A large band of convection with tropical storm-force winds developed far from the center of the strengthening circulation, leading to the formation of Subtropical Storm Debby at 06:00 UTC on August 7. Moving northward along the western side of a mid-level ridge, deep convection increased near the center of the cyclone, and Debby transitioned to a tropical storm at 00:00 UTC on August 8. Throughout the day, despite moving over marginal sea surface temperatures, Debby strengthened while turning north-northeastward to northeastward. The tropical storm reached its peak intensity at 00:00 UTC on August 9 with maximum sustained winds of 50
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 15 – August 17|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1003 mbar (hPa)|
A complex non-tropical low pressure system formed over the northern Atlantic on August 12. UTC that same day, the depression became Subtropical Storm Ernesto. On August 16, the storm attempted to transition into a fully tropical cyclone—as convection started to form near the center—however, it soon decayed. Nevertheless, another burst of convection formed near the center a few hours later, indicating that Ernesto successfully transitioned into a tropical cyclone. On August 17, Ernesto began accelerating towards the northeast, as the system was caught up in the jet stream. The next day, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants of Ernesto impacted Ireland and the United Kingdom on August 19.As the low drifted southeastward and slowly weakened, a new low formed to the east of the system on August 14. The new low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics, and by 09:00 UTC on August 15, the low had organized sufficiently to be classified as a subtropical depression. At 15:00
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 31 – September 17|
|Peak intensity||150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min) 937 mbar (hPa)|
On August 28, the NHC first mentioned the possibility of tropical cyclone formation from a tropical wave expected to exit western Africa. Two days later, the tropical wave moved off the coast of Senegal, with disorganized thunderstorms and a well-defined low-pressure area. Due to the system's threat to the Cape Verde islands, the NHC initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Six at 15:00 UTC on August 30. The system organized into Tropical Depression Six at 21:00 UTC on August 31. Early on September 1, Tropical Depression Six strengthened into Tropical Storm Florence. Gradual intensification occurred as Florence continued west-northwestward across the central Atlantic, and at 15:00 UTC on September 4, it intensified into the third hurricane of the season. On September 5, Florence unexpectedly underwent rapid intensification into a Category 3 major hurricane. Rapid intensification continued and at 21:00 UTC, Florence intensified into a Category 4 hurricane at , farther northeast than any previous Category 4 hurricane in the Atlantic during the satellite era. However, rapid intensification caused the now-stronger storm to veer northwards into a zone of greater vertical wind shear. Over the next 30 hours, Florence rapidly weakened into a tropical storm due to the strong wind shear, with the storm's cloud pattern becoming distorted. After entering a zone of less shear and crossing into warmer waters, Florence restrengthened into a hurricane on September 9. On the next day, Florence underwent a second period of rapid intensification and reintensified into a major hurricane. At 16:00 UTC on the same day, Florence reintensified into a Category 4 hurricane. Florence continued strengthening into the next day, reaching its peak intensity at 18:00 UTC on September 11, with 1-minute sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 937 millibars (27.7 inHg). Before impacting the coast however, Florence underwent an eyewall replacement cycle and encountered moderate wind shear, weakening it to a Category 2 hurricane. Florence quickly weakened into a tropical depression inland, and the NHC issued its last advisory at 10:00 UTC on September 16, passing on responsibility to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC). At that point, Florence had also begun to gradually accelerate westward. On September 17, Florence slowly turned to the northeast, while continuing to weaken. Late on the same day, Florence weakened into a remnant low, while situated over West Virginia. Florence still posed a threat inland, as it dumped tremendous amounts of rain on the Eastern Seaboard. The system finally dissipated in the open Atlantic on September 19.
Florence posed a major threat to the East Coast of the United States, especially North Carolina and South Carolina, which declared states of emergency, along with Virginia, Maryland,and Washington, D.C. The NHC issued its first hurricane watches at 9:00 UTC on September 11. Hurricane Florence killed 54 people in the U.S., and caused an estimated $24.23 billion in damages.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 3 – September 6|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 996 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave departed the west coast of Africa on August 26 and moved quickly across the tropical Atlantic with little convective activity. UTC on September 2, it was designated Potential Tropical Cyclone Seven, as it was forecasted to impact land areas as a tropical storm within two days. At 06:00 UTC the following day, a tropical depression developed from the disturbance, and just three hours later it strengthened into Tropical Storm Gordon. Moving west-northwestward to northwestward around a strong subtropical ridge, Gordon continued to quickly strengthen, reaching an initial peak intensity with sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) as it made landfall near Tavernier, Florida at 11:15 UTC. After making a second landfall near Flamingo at 13:15 UTC, Gordon emerged into the Gulf of Mexico. An eye-like feature briefly appeared late on September 3 as the small tropical cyclone continued to strengthen. At 18:00 UTC on September 4, Gordon reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h), making landfall at that intensity at 03:15 UTC the following day near the Alabama-Mississippi border. The tropical storm quickly weakened to a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC, degenerating into a remnant low at 18:00 UTC on September 6 near Pine Bluff, Arkansas. The remnant low degenerated into a trough early on September 8 before merging with a developing extratropical low later that day.On August 30, an increase in cloudiness and showers occurred as the wave approached the Caribbean Sea, at which time the NHC began monitoring it for tropical cyclone development. Gradual organization occurred as the system moved northwestward toward the Bahamas, and at 18:00
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 7 – September 16|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 967 mbar (hPa)|
On September 7, the NHC began monitoring an area of disturbance near Senegal, developing from a tropical wave emerging from the coast of West Africa. The system had been forecast to develop a tropical depression in the previous days. mph (140 km/h) at , trailing 2015's Hurricane Fred as the easternmost hurricane to form in the main development region (MDR) during the satellite era. Helene strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane at 15:00 UTC on September 10, but quickly weakened into a tropical storm at 15:00 UTC on September 13. Tropical storm watches were issued for the Azores at 21:00 UTC on September 13, which were upgraded to tropical storm warnings at 09:00 UTC on September 14. From September 13–14, Helene interacted with the smaller Tropical Storm Joyce to the west, due to the Fujiwhara effect, steering Joyce counter-clockwise around the larger system. Afterward, Helene began accelerating toward the northeast, passing over the Azores late on September 15. On September 16, Helene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone while accelerating toward the British Isles, becoming the first named storm of the 2018–19 European windstorm season. On September 18, Helene moved across the northern periphery of Ireland, before drifting into the Norwegian Sea. On September 22, Helene's remnant was absorbed into another extratropical storm approaching from the southwest.The system rapidly organized near the west coast of Africa and was designated as Potential Tropical Cyclone Eight, at 12:00 UTC on September 7, just off the coast of Africa, as it was threatening to impact the Cape Verde Islands. The system continued to organize, and on the same day, it became Tropical Depression Eight. The system later strengthened into Tropical Storm Helene on the same day. On September 9, Helene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane, with winds of 85
Heavy rainfall from the precursor tropical wave in Guinea triggered flooding, which claimed three lives in Doko on September 6. mph (100 km/h) on September 15. After completing an extratropical transition, Ex-Hurricane Helene continued onwards to impact Ireland and the United Kingdom. Weather warnings forecasting winds of up to 65 mph (105 km/h) were issued for southern and western areas of the United Kingdom; however, Helene weakened considerably as it approached the British Isles, and all weather warnings were discontinued on September 18, as Helene was crossing northern England with only minimal impacts.As a tropical cyclone, Helene passed close to Flores Island in the Azores with winds of up to 62
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 7 – September 15|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)|
On September 2, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave situated over West Africa.On September 7, the tropical wave was forecast to have a 90% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone within the next few days. Later on the same day, the storm developed into Tropical Depression Nine simultaneously with Tropical Depression Eight, which would go on to become Tropical Storm Helene. On September 8, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Isaac. Early on September 10, Isaac strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane, following Helene, and was noted to be quite small. The system weakened into a tropical storm at 03:00 UTC on September 11. At 09:00 UTC on September 14, the system weakened into a tropical depression. However, at 21:00 UTC on the same day, Isaac briefly restrengthened into a tropical storm, although it soon weakened once more, degenerating into an elongated trough at 10:00 UTC on September 15.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 12 – September 18|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)|
The NHC began monitoring a non-tropical area of low pressure forming along a trough of low pressure on September 11.Contrary to forecasts of gradual organization, the low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics as it moved southwestward. At 21:00 UTC on September 12, the low strengthened into Subtropical Storm Joyce. From September 13–14, Joyce interacted with the larger Hurricane Helene, due to the Fujiwhara effect, with Joyce being steered counter-clockwise around Helene. At 03:00 UTC on September 14, Joyce transitioned into a tropical storm. Later that day, Joyce began turning eastward. Late on September 14, Joyce reached its peak intensity, with a more organized appearance on satellite. Afterward, Joyce began to weaken, due to the increasing wind shear. At 15:00 UTC on September 16, Joyce weakened into a tropical depression. At 00:00 UTC on September 19, Joyce weakened into a remnant low, and the NHC issued their last advisory on the system.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 21 – September 22|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on September 14, with signs of rotation. As the wave traversed the Tropical Atlantic, rotation slightly weakened. After a few days moving westward, convection and organization gradually improved. 18, a large area of disturbed weather in association with a tropical wave developed far to the east-southeast of the Lesser Antilles. The system initially lacked a surface circulation, and though a weak one formed on September 20, strong upper-level winds and dry air were expected to limit further development. Deep convection, despite being displaced east of the center, became persistent throughout the day, leading to the formation of a tropical depression by 18:00 UTC on September 21. However, the depression failed to strengthen further within an increasingly hostile environment, eventually degenerating into an elongated trough on the following day.On September
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 22 – September 29|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa near Sierra Leone early on September 21. UTC later that day.Contrary to forecasts of slow organization, the wave quickly organized amidst a favorable environment as it moved swiftly westward across the far eastern Atlantic. By 15:00 UTC on September 22, the wave had organized sufficiently to be classified as Tropical Storm Kirk. Kirk became a named storm at 8.3°N, marking the lowest latitude for a system of tropical storm strength or higher in the north Atlantic since an unnamed hurricane in 1902. For comparison, the lowest-latitude formation for a tropical cyclone of tropical depression strength in the north Atlantic basin was Hurricane Isidore in 1990, which formed at just 7.2°N. Little change in strength occurred as Kirk accelerated across the tropical Atlantic, possibly owing to its high forward speed, and it weakened to a tropical depression early on September 24, before degenerating into an open trough at 15:00
The remnant trough continued westward and quickly reorganized, and at 09:00 UTC on September 26, the remnants of Kirk reacquired a well-defined circulation and became a tropical storm once again. mph (95 km/h). Strong wind shear would cause the storm to weaken slightly over the next day as it continued its approach toward the Lesser Antilles, and around 00:30 UTC on September 28, the storm made landfall on St. Lucia. Weakening continued as Kirk continued westward through the Caribbean Sea, and the surface circulation became exposed to the west of the main convection. Early on September 29, Kirk degenerated into an open tropical wave over the eastern Caribbean Sea. Kirk's remnants continued drifting westward for the next couple of days. On October 2, the remnants of Tropical Storm Kirk were absorbed by a developing area of low pressure over the southwest Caribbean Sea, which would later become Hurricane Michael.Tropical storm watches and warnings were issued at 09:00 UTC on September 26. The newly-reformed storm started intensifying, and at 18:00 UTC on the same day, Kirk reached its peak intensity with sustained winds of 60
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 23 – October 13|
|Peak intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 968 mbar (hPa)|
In the midst of an active September, the NHC began monitoring an area southwest of the Azores for tropical or subtropical development within the next several days on September 19. A non-tropical area of low pressure formed on September 22, quickly transitioning into a subtropical storm by 15:00 UTC on the next day, with the NHC assigning the storm the name Leslie. After little change in strength had occurred in two days, Leslie began to weaken, first into a subtropical depression early on September 25, before becoming post-tropical later that day as the system began to merge with an approaching frontal system. Leslie subsequently merged with the frontal system and began a cyclonic loop to the west, intensifying during this time, and becoming a powerful extratropical cyclone with hurricane-force winds early on September 27.
After reaching its extratropical peak, Post-Tropical Cyclone Leslie gradually weakened, as the storm began to lose its frontal structure. However, Leslie simultaneously began to reacquire subtropical characteristics, and by 21:00 UTC on September 28, Leslie became a subtropical storm once again.A day after regenerating, Leslie became fully tropical. Over the next several days, Leslie slowly drifted to the south-southwest, while gradually intensifying. At 09:00 UTC on October 3, Leslie strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane, the sixth hurricane of the season. However, Leslie weakened back into a tropical storm late on the next day, with satellite data indicating that Leslie may have been trying to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle, albeit with a very large eye. For the next few days, Leslie slowly continued to drift northeastward, without much change in intensity. On October 7, Leslie began turning to the east-southeast. After a period of weakening, Leslie started restrengthening late on October 8. Early on October 10, Leslie intensified into a Category 1 hurricane for the second time and executed a sharp turn to the east-northeast. At 18:00 UTC on October 13, Leslie transitioned into a powerful extratropical cyclone 120 miles west-northwest of Lisbon, before making landfall soon afterward.
On October 11, a tropical storm warning was issued for Madeira for the first time in the island's history, and Leslie became the first tropical cyclone to pass within 100 miles (160 km) of the archipelago since reliable record-keeping began in 1851. Prior to Leslie, Hurricane Vince in 2005 passed closer to the islands than any other tropical cyclone.
Madeira officials closed beaches and parks. sports matches on the island were canceled, more than half of them affecting the Madeira Football Association.The threat of the storm caused eight airlines to cancel flights into Madeira. More than 180
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 7 – October 11|
|Peak intensity||160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min) 919 mbar (hPa)|
On October 1, a broad area of low pressure formed over the southwestern Caribbean Sea, absorbing the remnants of Tropical Storm Kirk by the next day. 5 hurricane with sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 919 millibars (27.1 inHg), becoming the strongest storm of the season and also the third-strongest landfalling hurricane in the U.S. on record in terms of central pressure. After crossing through the southeastern United States, Michael started restrengthening early on October 12 as a result of baroclinic forcing while transitioning into an extratropical cyclone.Early on October 2, the NHC began monitoring the disturbance for tropical development. While strong upper-level winds initially inhibited development, the disturbance gradually became better organized as it drifted generally northward and then eastward toward the Yucatán Peninsula. On October 6, the NHC deemed the system an imminent threat to land, and thus initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Fourteen. Early on the next morning, the system organized into a tropical depression, before intensifying into Tropical Storm Michael several hours later. Michael quickly became a hurricane around midday on October 8 as a result of rapid intensification. Michael continued rapidly intensifying over the next two days, and at 17:30 UTC on October 10, Michael made landfall at its peak intensity, as a Category
The combined effects of the precursor low to Michael and a disturbance over the Pacific Ocean caused significant flooding across Central America. homes in Nicaragua suffered damage and 1,115 people evacuated. A total of 253 and 180 homes were damaged in El Salvador and Honduras, respectively. More than 22,700 people were directly affected throughout the three countries. Catastrophic damage occurred in Mexico Beach, Florida, where the storm made landfall at peak intensity. Michael killed at least 74 people; at least 15 fatalities occurred across Central America: 8 in Honduras, 4 in Nicaragua, and 3 in El Salvador. In the United States, at least 59 were killed across Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia, mostly in the state of Florida. Michael caused at least $25 billion (2018 USD) in property damage in the U.S., along with an additional $100 million (2018 USD) in damages in Central America.Nearly 2,000
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 9 – October 12|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)|
Early on October 6, a tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa. The wave soon fractured as it moved into the tropical Atlantic, with the northern portion moving over cool waters and the southern portion continuing westward over warm waters. mph (100 km/h) around 06:00 UTC on October 10. At that time, a well-defined eye feature was evident in microwave imagery. However, an abrupt increase in westerly wind shear brought an end to the strengthening trend, and Nadine began to weaken later that day. Turning sharply west-northwestward, Nadine encountered hostile environmental conditions which resulted in the cyclone weakening to a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC on October 12. The weakening cyclone degenerated into an open wave six hours later. The wave continued to move westward for the next several days, finally dissipating just east of the Lesser Antilles early on 16 October.Convection associated with the southern portion increased and became more organized, and a well-defined circulation developed on October 7, at which time the NHC began monitoring it for tropical cyclone development. The disturbance continued to organize over the next day as a well-defined surface low developed. At 06:00 UTC on October 9, while located southwest of Cape Verde, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, and six hours later strengthened into Tropical Storm Nadine. . Upon its designation as a tropical storm at the longitude of 30°W, Nadine became the easternmost named storm to develop in the tropical Atlantic so late in the calendar year. Located within a very favorable environment with low wind shear, warm sea surface temperatures, and abundant atmospheric moisture, the small tropical cyclone quickly intensified, reaching its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 26 – October 31|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 966 mbar (hPa)|
On October 23, the NHC began forecasting an area with potential for tropical or subtropical development over the central Atlantic. A large area of disturbed weather associated with a surface trough developed later that day. Gradual organization ensued as the low drifted northward, with the shower and thunderstorm activity becoming better defined, although by October 25 it still lacked a well-defined surface circulation. By 18:00 UTC on October 26, however, the circulation of the broad low had become sufficiently defined for it to be classified as Subtropical Storm Oscar. Oscar continued to strengthen as it accelerated southward around the northern side of a mid to upper-level low, transitioning into a tropical storm at 05:00 UTC on October 28. A small eye briefly became evident on satellite imagery in the evening of October 28, and Oscar strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane at 21:00 UTC that day. Continued intensification followed, and Oscar reached its peak intensity as a strong Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) early on October 30. Soon afterward, the cyclone accelerated northeastward over increasingly colder waters, while a cold front approached the system from the northwest. On October 31, Oscar underwent extratropical transition, a process it completed by 21:00 UTC that day.
The following list of names was used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 2018. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2024 season. This was the same list used in the 2012 season, with the exception of the name Sara, which replaced Sandy. No names were used for the first time in 2018.
On March 20, 2019, at the 41st session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the World Meteorological Organization retired the names Florence and Michael from its rotating naming lists due to the number of deaths and amount of damage they caused, and they will not be used again for another Atlantic hurricane. They will be replaced with Francine and Milton, respectively, for the 2024 season.
This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), denoted in parentheses, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in USD. Potential tropical cyclones are not included in this table.
|Dates active||Storm category |
at peak intensity
|Alberto||May 25 – 31||Tropical storm||65 (100)||990||Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Gulf Coast of the United States, Southeastern United States, Midwestern United States, Ontario||$125 million||18|
|Beryl||July 4 – 16||Category 1 hurricane||80 (130)||991||Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Atlantic Canada||Minimal||None|
|Chris||July 6 – 12||Category 2 hurricane||105 (165)||969||Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada, Iceland||Minimal||1|
|Debby||August 7 – 9||Tropical storm||50 (85)||998||None||None||None|
|Ernesto||August 15 – 17||Tropical storm||45 (75)||1003||Ireland, United Kingdom||None||None|
|Florence||August 31 – September 17||Category 4 hurricane||150 (240)||937||West Africa, Cape Verde, Bermuda, Southeastern United States (especially The Carolinas), Mid-Atlantic States, Atlantic Canada||$24.2 billion||24 (30)|
|Gordon||September 3 – 6||Tropical storm||70 (110)||996||Greater Antilles, The Bahamas, Florida, Gulf Coast of the United States, Eastern United States, Ontario||$200 million||3 (1)|
|Helene||September 7 – 16||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||967||West Africa, Cape Verde, Azores, Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway||Unknown||3|
|Isaac||September 7 – 15||Category 1 hurricane||75 (120)||995||West Africa, Lesser Antilles, Haiti, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba||Minimal||None|
|Joyce||September 12 – 18||Tropical storm||50 (85)||995||None||None||None|
|Eleven||September 21 – 22||Tropical depression||35 (55)||1007||None||None||None|
|Kirk||September 22 – 29||Tropical storm||60 (95)||998||Lesser Antilles||$444,000||2|
|Leslie||September 23 – October 13||Category 1 hurricane||90 (150)||968||Azores, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Madeira, Iberian Peninsula, France||>$500 million||2 (15)|
|Michael||October 7 – 11||Category 5 hurricane||160 (260)||919||Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Southeastern United States (especially the Florida Panhandle), East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada, Iberian Peninsula||$25.1 billion||31 (43)|
|Nadine||October 9 – 12||Tropical storm||65 (100)||995||None||None||None|
|Oscar||October 26 – 31||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||966||None||None||None|
|16 systems||May 25 – October 31||160 (260)||919||>$50.2 billion||84 (89)|
The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season that is generally considered to be the start of an ongoing era of high-activity tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic basin. It is tied with 1887, 2010, 2011, and 2012 for having the third most number of named storms. The season produced twenty-one tropical cyclones, nineteen named storms, as well as eleven hurricanes and five major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The first tropical cyclone, Hurricane Allison, developed on June 2, while the season's final storm, Hurricane Tanya, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 1.
The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season without a tropical cyclone in the month of July since 1993. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.
The 2005 Pacific hurricane season continued the trend of generally below-average activity that began a decade prior. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it lasted until November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Activity began with the formation of Hurricane Adrian, the fourth-earliest-forming tropical storm on record in the basin at the time. Adrian led to flash flooding and several landslides across Central America, resulting in five deaths and $12 million in damage. Tropical storms Calvin and Dora caused minor damage along the coastline, while Tropical Storm Eugene led to one death in Acapulco. In early October, Otis produced tropical storm-force winds and minor flooding across the Baja California peninsula. The remnants of Tropical Depression One-C in the central Pacific, meanwhile, caused minor impacts in Hawaii. The strongest storm of the period was Hurricane Kenneth, which attained peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) over the open Pacific. Cooler than average ocean temperatures throughout the year aided in below-average activity through the course of the season, which ended with 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes, 2 major hurricanes, and an Accumulated cyclone energy index of 75 units.
The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near average hurricane season. It officially started May 15, 2008 in the eastern Pacific, started on June 1, 2008 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2008. This season is the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. Activity this year was near average, with 16 storms forming in the Eastern Pacific proper and an additional 1 in the Central Pacific. There were 7 hurricanes, a low number compared to the typical 9, and only 2 major hurricanes, unlike the typical 5. There were only a few notable storms this year. Tropical Storm Alma made landfall along the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, becoming the first known storm to do so. It killed 9 and did US$35 million in damage. It also became the first tropical storm to be retired in the Eastern Pacific basin. Hurricane Norbert became the strongest hurricane to hit the western side of the Baja Peninsula on record, killing 25.
The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season and was the first season since 2009 that featured no depressions or named storms in the month of May. It had six major hurricanes which was above average for a Pacific hurricane season. The season officially started on May 15, 2011, for the eastern Pacific, and started on June 1, 2011, for the central Pacific, both of which ended on November 30, 2011. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. A total of 11 named storms were observed, which is below average.
The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.
The 1972 Atlantic hurricane season is one of five Atlantic hurricane seasons not to have any major hurricanes, the others being 1968, 1986, 1994, and 2013. Although Subtropical Storm Alpha formed on May 23, the season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, Subtropical Storm Delta, dissipated on November 7.
The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was the first in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. It is tied alongside 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012 with 19 tropical storms, the third highest count in recorded history. It featured 12 hurricanes, tied with 1969 for the second highest total. Only the quintessential 2005 season saw more activity. The overall tropical cyclone count in the Atlantic exceeded that in the West Pacific for only the second time on record. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year when tropical cyclone formation is most likely. The first cyclone, Alex intensified into the first June hurricane since Allison in 1995. The month of September featured eight named storms, tying 2002 and 2007 for the record. October featured five hurricanes, just short of the record set in 1870. Finally, Hurricane Tomas became the latest hurricane on record to move through the Windward Islands in late October. Activity was represented with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value of 165 units, which was the eleventh highest value on record at the time.
Tropical Depression Sixteen-E was the final tropical cyclone of the 2004 Pacific hurricane season. The storm developed out of a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa on October 8. The wave crossed the Atlantic Ocean and entered the eastern Pacific on October 18. The system began to gradually organize, and on October 25 it was classified as a tropical depression. The storm did not significantly intensify, as wind shear prevented it from attaining tropical storm status. The short-lived depression moved northward, and made landfall in Mexico on October 26. Quickly deteriorating, the system dissipated shortly thereafter, although its remnants persisted for a couple more days. The depression had no major effects on land. However, it produced heavy rainfall in parts of Mexico, and the remnants triggered thunderstorms over the southwestern United States.
The 2016 Pacific hurricane season was tied as the fifth-most active season on record, alongside the 2014 season. Throughout the course of the year, a total of 22 named storms, 13 hurricanes and six major hurricanes were observed within the basin. Although the season was very active, it was considerably less active than the previous season, with large gaps of inactivity at the beginning and towards the end of the season. It officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, as illustrated by Hurricane Pali, which became the earliest Central Pacific tropical cyclone on record, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. After Pali, however, the active season had a slow start, becoming the first season since 2011 in which no tropical cyclones occurred in May, and also the first since 2007 in which no named storms formed in the month of June.
The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season, featuring eighteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes, though the season was significantly less active than the previous three seasons. Despite the considerable amount of activity, most of the storms were weak and short-lived. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. This was demonstrated when the first storm, Tropical Storm Adrian, was named on May 10, and became the earliest-known tropical storm in the East Pacific since the advent of satellite imagery. The season saw near-average activity in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), in stark contrast to the extremely active seasons in 2014, 2015, and 2016; and for the first time since 2012, no tropical cyclones formed in the Central Pacific basin. However, for the third year in a row, the season featured above-average activity in July, with the ACE value being the fifth highest for the month.
The 2012 Atlantic hurricane season was the final year in a consecutive string of three very active seasons, although many of the storms were weak. It is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011 for having the third-most named storms on record. It was also the third-costliest season, behind 2005 and 2017. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. However, Alberto, the first system of the year, developed on May 19 – the earliest date of formation since Tropical Storm Ana in 2003. A second tropical cyclone, Beryl, developed later that month. This was the first occurrence of two pre-season named storms in the Atlantic basin since 1951. It moved ashore in North Florida on May 29 with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), making it the strongest pre-season storm to make landfall in the Atlantic basin. This season marked the first time since 2009 where no tropical cyclones formed in July. Another record was set by Hurricane Nadine later in the season; the system became the fourth-longest-lived tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic, with a total duration of 22.25 days. The final storm to form, Tony, dissipated on October 25 – however, Hurricane Sandy, which formed before Tony, became extratropical on October 29.
The 2015 Atlantic hurricane season was the last of three consecutive below average Atlantic hurricane seasons. It produced twelve tropical cyclones, eleven named storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for the season was 68% of the long-term median value. It officially began on June 1, 2015, and ended on November 30, 2015. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the first named storm, Ana, developed on May 8, nearly a month before the official start of the season, the first pre-season cyclone since Beryl in 2012 and the earliest since Ana in 2003. The season concluded with Kate transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on November 11, almost three weeks before the official end.
The 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was a well below average Atlantic hurricane season and the first since 1994 with no major hurricanes. It was also the first season since 1968 with no storms of at least Category 2 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first tropical cyclone of this hurricane season, Andrea, developed on June 5, while the final cyclone, an unnamed subtropical storm, dissipated on December 7. Throughout the year, only two storms—Humberto and Ingrid—reached hurricane intensity; this was the lowest seasonal total since 1982.
The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average season in terms of named storms, and an average season in terms of both hurricanes and major hurricanes. It produced nine tropical cyclones, eight named storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, six hurricanes and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1, 2014, and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first storm of the season, Arthur, developed on July 1, while the final storm, Hanna, dissipated on October 28, about a month prior to the end of the season.
The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive and catastrophic hurricane season that, with a damage total of at least $282.28 billion (USD), was the costliest tropical cyclone season on record. With over 3,300 deaths, 2017 was the deadliest season since 2005 and also featured the highest total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since the same year. Most of the season's damage was due to three major hurricanes – Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Another notable hurricane, Nate, was the worst natural disaster in Costa Rican history; Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate had their names retired due to their high damage costs and loss of life. Featuring 17 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 6 major hurricanes, the 2017 season ranks alongside 1936 as the fifth-most active season since reliable records began in 1851. The 2017 season had the most major hurricanes since 2005. This season is also one of only six years on record to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes and the only season other than 2007 with two hurricanes making landfall at that intensity. All ten of the season's hurricanes occurred in a row, the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes in the satellite era, and tied for the highest number of consecutive hurricanes ever observed in the Atlantic basin. Additionally, this season is the only season on record in which three hurricanes each had an ACE of over 40: Irma, Jose, and Maria.
Tropical Storm Trudy was a short-lived tropical cyclone in October 2014 that caused significant flooding in southern Mexico. The storm originated from an area of low pressure associated with a monsoon trough near Central America in early October. A slow-moving system, the low eventually consolidated into a tropical depression on October 17 near the Mexican coastline. Favorable environmental conditions aided rapid development of Trudy. Within 15 hours of its designation, an eye formed over the storm's center. Trudy ultimately achieved its peak as a strong tropical storm with 65 mph (100 km/h) winds as it made landfall just southeast of Marquelia, Mexico. The region's mountainous terrain quickly weakened Trudy and the cyclone dissipated early on October 19. Though the cyclone dissipated, its remnant energy later contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Hanna in the Atlantic.
Tropical Storm Emily was a rapidly-forming tropical cyclone that made landfall on the west coast of Florida. The fifth named storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Emily formed from a small area of low pressure that developed along a cold front in late July 2017. Unexpectedly, the low rapidly organized and strengthened into a tropical depression on July 30, and then into a tropical storm early the next day. Emily continued to intensify as it moved eastward, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) as it made landfall near Longboat Key on the western Florida coast. The cyclone weakened quickly into a tropical depression shortly after landfall as its circulation became increasingly disrupted. Emerging into the Atlantic Ocean on August 1, Emily continued to weaken as it accelerated northeastward, becoming post-tropical early on August 2.
The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.
Hurricane Leslie was the strongest cyclone of tropical origin to strike the Iberian Peninsula since 1842. A large, long-lived, and very erratic tropical cyclone, Leslie was the twelfth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm had a non-tropical origin, developing from an extratropical cyclone that situated over the northern Atlantic on 22 September. The low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics and was classified as Subtropical Storm Leslie on the following day. The cyclone meandered over the northern Atlantic and gradually weakened, before merging with a frontal system on 25 September, which later intensified into a powerful hurricane-force extratropical low over the northern Atlantic.
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