Gulf Coast of the United States

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Gulf Coast
US map-Gulf Coast.svg
States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red.
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
States Flag of Alabama.svg  Alabama
Flag of Florida.svg  Florida
Flag of Louisiana.svg  Louisiana
Flag of Mississippi.svg  Mississippi
Flag of Texas.svg  Texas
Principal cities Houston
New Orleans
Largest city Houston
Largest metropolitan area Greater Houston
  Total64,008,345 [1]

The Gulf Coast of the United States, also known as the Gulf South or the South Coast, is the coastline along the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico. The coastal states that have a shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and these are known as the Gulf States. [2]


The economy of the Gulf Coast area is dominated by industries related to energy, petrochemicals, fishing, aerospace, agriculture, and tourism. The large cities of the region are (from west to east) Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Houston, Galveston, Beaumont, Lake Charles, Lafayette, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Gulfport, Biloxi, Mobile, Pensacola, Panama City, St. Petersburg, and Tampa. All are the centers or major cities of their respective metropolitan areas and many of which contain large ports.


Houston is the largest city and urban area along the Gulf Coast Aerial views of the Houston, Texas, skyline in 2014 LCCN2014632225.tif
Houston is the largest city and urban area along the Gulf Coast

The Gulf Coast is made of many inlets, bays, and lagoons. The coast is intersected by numerous rivers, the largest of which is the Mississippi River. Much of the land along the Gulf Coast is, or was, marshland. [3] Ringing the Gulf Coast is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which reaches from Southern Texas to the western Florida Panhandle, while the western portions of the Gulf Coast are made up of many barrier islands and peninsulas, including the 130-mile (210 km) Padre Island along the Texas coast. These landforms protect numerous bays and inlets providing as a barrier to oncoming waves. The central part of the Gulf Coast, from eastern Texas through Louisiana, consists primarily of marshland. The eastern part of the Gulf Coast, predominantly Florida, is dotted with many bays and inlets.


Night time astronaut image of the northern Gulf coast ISS Expedition 25 Night Time Image Of The US Northern Gulf Coast.jpg
Night time astronaut image of the northern Gulf coast

The Gulf Coast climate is humid subtropical, although Southwest Florida features a tropical climate. Much of the year is warm to hot along the Gulf Coast, while the three winter months bring periods of cool (or rarely, cold) weather mixed with mild temperatures. The area is highly vulnerable to hurricanes as well as floods and severe thunderstorms. Much of the Gulf Coast has a summer precipitation maximum, with July or August commonly the wettest month due to the combination of frequent summer thunderstorms produced by relentless heat and humidity, and tropical weather systems, including tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes, while winter and early spring rainfall also can be heavy.

This pattern is evident in southern cites as Houston, New Orleans, Mobile, Alabama, and Pensacola, Florida. However, the central and southern Florida peninsula and South Texas has a pronounced winter dry season, as at Tampa and Fort Myers. On the central and southern Texas coast, winter, early spring and mid-summer are markedly drier, and September is the wettest month on average at Corpus Christi and Brownsville, Texas. Tornadoes are infrequent at the coast but do occur; however, they occur more frequently in inland portions of Gulf Coast states. Over most of the Gulf Coast from Houston, Texas, eastward, extreme rainfall events are a significant threat, commonly from tropical weather systems, which can bring 4 to 10 or more inches of rain in a single day. In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall along the central Texas coast, then migrated to and stalled over the greater Houston area for several days, producing extreme, unprecedented rainfall totals of over 40 inches (1,000 mm) in many areas, unleashing widespread flooding. Climate scientists predict more hurricanes for Florida [4] and the Texas coastline in particular. [5] Earthquakes are extremely rare to the area, but a 6.0 earthquake in the Gulf of Mexico on September 10, 2006, could be felt from the cities of New Orleans to Tampa.

Rising sea levels

Due to the release of greenhouse gas emissions, glaciers and ice sheets are melting and expanding the oceans. The United States coastlines are projected to rise 1 foot in three decades or between 10 and 12 inches on average by 2050. [6] The Gulf Coast will likely see the biggest change, with sea levels expected to rise between 14 and 18 inches. The Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Report predicted more frequent, major and destructive high tide flooding events along with taller storm surges by 2050 after scientists determined high tide flooding has been "increasingly common" over the past few years due to the rising sea levels. [6] The impacts are expected to be dramatic. Low-lying coastal areas are expected to experience multiple factors, including increased levels of flooding, accelerated erosion, loss of wetlands and low-lying terrestrial ecosystems, and seawater intrusion into freshwater sources. Rising sea level and erosion will also imperil critical habitats for many commercially important fisheries that depend on inshore waters for either permanent residence or nursery area. [7] In 2021 alone rising sea levels cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in relief efforts and caused at least seven deaths. [6] By 2051, the cost of flood damage is expected to increase by 61%, or $32 billion. [8]

Economic activities

NOAA map of the 3,856 oil and gas platforms extant off the Gulf Coast in 2006. Gulf Coast Platforms.jpg
NOAA map of the 3,856 oil and gas platforms extant off the Gulf Coast in 2006.

The Gulf Coast is a major center of economic activity. The marshlands along the Louisiana and Texas coasts provide breeding grounds and nurseries for ocean life that drive the fishing and shrimping industries. The Port of South Louisiana (Metropolitan New Orleans in Laplace) and the Port of Houston are two of the ten busiest ports in the world by cargo volume. [9] As of 2004, seven of the top ten busiest ports in the U.S. are on the Gulf Coast. [10]

The discovery of oil and gas deposits along the coast and offshore, combined with easy access to shipping, have made the Gulf Coast the heart of the U.S. petrochemical industry. The coast contains nearly 4,000 oil platforms.

Besides the above, the region features other important industries including aerospace and biomedical research, as well as older industries such as agriculture and — especially since the development of the Gulf Coast beginning in the 1920s and the increase in wealth throughout the United States tourism.


Map of the Louisiana Purchase United States 1803-04-1804-03.png
Map of the Louisiana Purchase

Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita have destroyed a number of museums and archives in the Gulf Coast. In 2008 floods in Iowa destroyed the local Flood Museum which held materials from the Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood of 1993. [11]

Before European settlers arrived in the region, the Gulf Coast was home to several pre-Columbian kingdoms which had extensive trade networks with empires such as the Aztecs and the Mississippi Mound Builders. Shark and alligator teeth and shells from the Gulf have been found as far north as Ohio, in the mounds of the Hopewell culture. [12]

The first Europeans to settle the Gulf Coast were primarily the French and the Spanish. The Louisiana Purchase (1803), Adams–Onís Treaty (1819) and the Texas Revolution (1835-1836) made the Gulf Coast a part of the United States during the first half of the 19th century. As the U.S. population continued to expand its frontiers westward, the Gulf Coast was a natural magnet in the South providing access to shipping lanes and both national and international commerce. The development of sugar and cotton production (enabled by slavery) allowed the South to prosper. By the mid 19th century the city of New Orleans, being situated as a key to commerce on the Mississippi River and in the Gulf, had become the largest U.S. city not on the Atlantic seaboard and the fourth largest in the U.S. overall.

Two major events were turning points in the earlier history of the Gulf Coast region. The first was the American Civil War, which caused severe damage to some economic sectors in the South, including the Gulf Coast. The second event was the Galveston Hurricane of 1900. At the end of the 19th century Galveston was, with New Orleans, one of the most developed cities in the region. The city had the third busiest port in the U.S. [13] and its financial district was known as the "Wall Street of the South". [14]

Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina August 28 2005 NASA.jpg
Hurricane Katrina

Since then the Gulf Coast has been hit with numerous other hurricanes. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast as a Category 3 hurricane. It was the most damaging storm in the history of the United States, causing upwards of $80 billion in damages, and leaving over 1,800 dead. Again in 2008 the Gulf Coast was struck by a catastrophic hurricane. Due to its immense size, Hurricane Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy County, Texas, region near Corpus Christi. [15] In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippi coastline and the Florida Panhandle [16] Ike killed 112 people and left upwards of 300 people missing, never to be found. [17] Hurricane Ike was the third most damaging storm in the history of the United States, causing more than $25 billion [18] in damage along the coast, leaving hundreds of thousands of people homeless, and sparking the largest search-and-rescue operation in U.S. history. [19]

Other than the hurricanes, the Gulf Coast has redeveloped dramatically over the course of the 20th century. The gulf coast is highly populated. The petrochemical industry, launched with the major discoveries of oil in Texas and spurred on by further discoveries in the Gulf waters, has been a vehicle for development in the central and western Gulf which has spawned development on a variety of fronts in these regions. Texas in particular has benefited tremendously from this industry over the course of the 20th century and economic diversification has made the state a magnet for population and home to more Fortune 500 companies than any other U.S. state. Florida has grown as well, driven to a great extent by its long established tourism industry but also by its position as a gateway to the Caribbean and Latin America. As of 2006, these two states are the second and fourth most populous states in the nation, respectively (see this article). Other areas of the Gulf Coast have benefited less, though economic development fueled by tourism has greatly increased property values along the coast, and is now a severe danger to the valuable but fragile ecosystems of the Gulf Coast.

Metropolitan areas

The following table lists the 11 largest core-based statistical areas along the Gulf Coast.

Metropolitan statistical areas on the United States Gulf Coast
RankMetropolitan statistical area2020 pop. (est.)
1 Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area 7,340,823
2 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area 3,243,963
3 New Orleans-Metairie-Hammond, LA-MS Combined Statistical Area 1,510,672
4 Cape Coral-Fort Myers-Naples, FL Combined Statistical Area 1,226,553
5 North Port-Sarasota, FL Combined Statistical Area 1,087,915
6 McAllen-Edinburg, TX Combined Statistical Area 939,466
7 Baton Rouge, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area 858,571
8 Mobile-Daphne-Fairhope, AL Combined Statistical Area 661,964
9 Lafayette-Opelousas-Morgan City, LA Combined Statistical Area 619,529
10 Pensacola-Ferry Pass, FL-AL Combined Statistical Area 547,784
11 Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice, TX Combined Statistical Area 536,258



Major Interstates

I-45 and I-10/U.S. 90 near Downtown Houston 45intoI-10 2.jpg
I-45 and I-10/U.S. 90 near Downtown Houston
HighwaySignificant cities served
I-2.svg Interstate 2 Harlingen, McAllen
I-4.svg Interstate 4 Tampa
I-10.svg Interstate 10 Houston, Baytown, Beaumont, Lake Charles, Lafayette, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Slidell, Gulfport, Biloxi, Mobile, Pensacola
I-12.svg Interstate 12 Baton Rouge, Hammond, Slidell
I-37.svg Interstate 37 Corpus Christi
I-45.svg Interstate 45 Galveston, Houston
I-49.svg Interstate 49 New Orleans (future), Houma (future), Thibodaux (future), Lafayette
I-55.svg Interstate 55 Hammond
I-59.svg Interstate 59 Slidell
I-65.svg Interstate 65 Mobile
I-69.svg Interstate 69 Victoria (future), Houston
I-69E.svg Interstate 69E Brownsville, Harlingen, Corpus Christi, Victoria (future)
I-69W.svg Interstate 69W Victoria (future)
I-75.svg Interstate 75 Naples, Fort Myers, North Port, Sarasota, Bradenton, St. Petersburg, Tampa

Major U.S. routes

HighwaySignificant cities served
US 11.svg U.S. 11 New Orleans
US 17.svg U.S. 17 Punta Gorda
US 19.svg U.S. 19 St. Petersburg, Tampa
US 29.svg U.S. 29 Pensacola
US 31.svg U.S. 31 Spanish Fort
US 41.svg U.S. 41 Naples, Fort Myers, Sarasota, Bradenton, St. Petersburg, Tampa
US 43.svg U.S. 43 Mobile
US 45.svg U.S. 45 Mobile
US 49.svg U.S. 49 Biloxi, Gulfport
US 51.svg U.S. 51 Hammond
US 59.svg U.S. 59 Houston, Victoria
US 61.svg U.S. 61 New Orleans
US 69.svg U.S. 69 Beaumont, Port Arthur
US 77.svg U.S. 77 Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Harlingen, Victoria
US 83.svg U.S. 83 Brownsville, Harlingen
US 87.svg U.S. 87 Port Lavaca, Victoria
US 90.svg U.S. 90 Beaumont, Biloxi, Crestview, Houma, Houston, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Mobile, New Orleans, Pascagoula, Pensacola, Thibodaux
US 92.svg U.S. 92 St. Petersburg, Tampa
US 96.svg U.S. 96 Beaumont, Port Arthur
US 98.svg U.S. 98 Fort Walton Beach, Mobile, Pensacola, Panama City

Other significant routes

HighwaySignificant cities served
Louisiana 1.svg LA 1 Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, Thibodaux
Florida 85.svg S.R. 85 Crestview, Fort Walton Beach
Texas 35.svg S.H. 35 Houston, Bay City, Port Lavaca, Rockport, Corpus Christi
Texas 288.svg S.H. 288 Houston, Lake Jackson, Freeport


International service

Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport ArmstrongAirportJune2007.jpg
Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport

International destinations

George Bush Intercontinental Airport - Houston Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina, Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas, Flag of Belize.svg Belize, Flag of Bonaire.svg Bonaire, Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil, Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada, Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands, Flag of Chile.svg Chile, Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China, Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia, Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica, Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic, Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador, Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala, Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras, Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica, Flag of Japan.svg Japan, Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand, Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua, Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria, Flag of Norway.svg Norway, Flag of Panama.svg Panama, Flag of Peru.svg Peru, Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar, Flag of Russia.svg Russia, Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore, Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago, Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey, Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands, Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg UAE, Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom, Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela
Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras, Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico, Flag of Panama.svg Panama, Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Southwest Florida International Airport Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada, Flag of Germany.svg Germany
Tampa International Airport Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas, Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada, Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands, Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba, Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland, Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica, Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico, Flag of Panama.svg Panama, Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland, Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
William P. Hobby Airport - Houston Flag of Aruba.svg Aruba, Flag of Belize.svg Belize, Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands, Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica, Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic, Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica, Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico


Amtrak service

Sunset Limited at Houston. Amtrak 146 GE P42DC.jpg
Sunset Limited at Houston.
TrainRouteGulf Coast cities served
City of New Orleans Chicago to New Orleans New Orleans
Crescent New York City to New Orleans New Orleans, Picayune, MS, Slidell, LA
Silver Star New York City to Miami Tampa, with connection available to Amtrak Thruway to Clearwater, FL, Bradenton, FL, Sarasota, FL, Port Charlotte, FL and Fort Myers, FL
Sunset Limited Los Angeles to Orlando (temporarily New Orleans) Bay St. Louis, MS, Beaumont, TX, Biloxi, Crestview, FL, Gulfport, MS, Houston, Lafayette, LA, Lake Charles, LA, Baton Rouge, LA, Mobile, New Orleans, Panama City, FL, Scriever, LA, Pascagoula, MS, Pensacola, FL

See also


  1. "Gulf States 2020" . Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  2. For example: "Gulf Coast Energy Outlook" (PDF) (Spring 2017 ed.). Center for Energy Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 14, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2018 via Economics & Policy Research Group., p. 1 (" Unless stated otherwise, Gulf Coast hereafter specifically refers to the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida").
  3. "Gulf Coast Wetlands Rapidly Declining • The National Wildlife Federation Blog". The National Wildlife Federation Blog. January 8, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  4. See "Projected change in U.S. hurricane risk based on Risk Analysis Framework for Tropical Cyclones (RAFT)." Fig. 1 op cit
  5. Karthik Balaguru et al. , "Increased U.S. coastal hurricane risk under climate change." Science Advances. 9,(2023). 14. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.adf0259. website Retrieved 17 Aug 2023.
  6. 1 2 3 B. Powell, Tori (February 19, 2022). "Sea levels along U.S. coastlines to rise more than a foot by 2050, study projects". CBS News. Retrieved August 30, 2023.
  7. "Predicting Impacts of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico". Retrieved August 30, 2023.
  8. Jacobo, Julia (February 22, 2021). "Climate change, rising sea levels to increase cost of flood damage by $34 billion in coming decades: Report". ABC News. Retrieved August 30, 2023.
  9. Rosenberg, Matt (June 14, 2003). "Busiest Ports in the World" . Retrieved October 15, 2006.
  10. Rosenberg, Matt (June 14, 2003). "Waterborne Commerce Statistics: Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports in 2004". Archived from the original on November 17, 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2006.
  11. Sarah S. Brophy; Elizabeth Wylie (2013). The Green Museum: A Primer on Environmental Practice. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 7. ISBN   9780759123229.
  12. Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early North America Los Angeles 2015 p. 6
  13. "The 1900 Storm". Archived from the original on July 11, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
  14. "Galveston, Texas History". Retrieved October 15, 2007.
  15. "Evacuation and Devastation in Southern Texas". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  16. "Flooding in Miss. and FL". USA Today. September 11, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  17. "Ike missing". Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  18. Robbie Berg (January 23, 2009). "Hurricane Ike Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). NHC. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  19. Ike Evacuation and Rescue Operation Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Alicia</span> Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1983

Hurricane Alicia was a small but powerful tropical cyclone that caused significant destruction in the Greater Houston area of Southeast Texas in August 1983. Although Alicia was a relatively small hurricane, its track over the rapidly growing metropolitan area contributed to its $3 billion damage toll, making it the costliest Atlantic hurricane at the time. Alicia spawned from a disturbance that originated from the tail-end of a cold front over the northern Gulf of Mexico in mid-August 1983. The cyclone was named on August 14 when it became a tropical storm, and the combination of weak steering currents and a conducive environment allowed Alicia to quickly intensify as it drifted slowly westward. On August 17, Alicia became a hurricane and continued to strengthen, topping out as a Category 3 major hurricane as it made landfall on the southwestern end of Galveston Island. Alicia's eye passed just west of Downtown Houston as the system accelerated northwestwards across East Texas; Alicia eventually weakened into a remnant area of low pressure over Oklahoma on August 20 before they were last noted on August 21 over eastern Nebraska.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Galveston Bay</span> Estuary bay near Houston on the Texas Gulf Coast

Galveston Bay is a bay in the western Gulf of Mexico along the upper coast of Texas. It is the seventh-largest estuary in the United States, and the largest of seven major estuaries along the Texas Gulf Coast. It is connected to the Gulf of Mexico and is surrounded by sub-tropical marshes and prairies on the mainland. The water in the bay is a complex mixture of sea water and fresh water, which supports a wide variety of marine life. With a maximum depth of about 10 feet (3 m) and an average depth of only 6 feet (2 m), it is unusually shallow for its size.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Rita</span> Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Rita was the most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Gulf of Mexico and the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded. Part of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which included three of the top ten most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of barometric pressure ever recorded, Rita was the seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the 2005 season. It was also the earliest-forming 17th named storm in the Atlantic until Tropical Storm Rene in 2020. Rita formed near The Bahamas from a tropical wave on September 18, 2005 that originally developed off the coast of West Africa. It moved westward, and after passing through the Florida Straits, Rita entered an environment of abnormally warm waters. Moving west-northwest, it rapidly intensified to reach peak winds of 180 mph (285 km/h), achieving Category 5 status on September 21. However, it weakened to a Category 3 hurricane before making landfall in Johnson's Bayou, Louisiana, between Sabine Pass, Texas and Holly Beach, Louisiana, with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Rapidly weakening over land, Rita degenerated into a large low-pressure area over the lower Mississippi Valley by September 26th.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Juan (1985)</span> Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1985

Hurricane Juan was a large and erratic tropical cyclone that looped twice near the Louisiana coast, causing widespread flooding. It was the tenth named storm of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, forming in the central Gulf of Mexico in late October. Juan moved northward after its formation, and was subtropical in nature with its large size. On October 27, the storm became a hurricane, reaching maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Due to the influence of an upper-level low, Juan looped just off southern Louisiana before making landfall near Morgan City on October 29. Weakening to tropical storm status over land, Juan turned back to the southeast over open waters, crossing the Mississippi River Delta. After turning to the northeast, the storm made its final landfall just west of Pensacola, Florida, late on October 31. Juan continued quickly to the north and was absorbed by an approaching cold front, although its moisture contributed to a deadly flood event in the Mid-Atlantic states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Ella (1958)</span> Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1958

Hurricane Ella brought flooding to the Greater Antilles and Texas in September 1958. The fifth named storm and third hurricane of the annual season, Ella developed from a tropical wave located just east of the Lesser Antilles on August 30. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Ella six hours later. The system crossed the Leeward Islands and entered the Caribbean Sea late on August 30. Ella headed westward and by August 31, intensified into a Category 1 hurricane. Hours later, it strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The storm curved northwestward while south of Hispaniola and as a result, struck the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti on September 1. Flooding in that country killed 30 people in Aux Cayes and left 3 other missing. Additionally, thousands were left homeless, about one-third of crops were washed out, and numerous cattle were killed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Audrey</span> Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1957

Hurricane Audrey was one of the deadliest hurricanes in U.S. history, killing at least 416 people as it devastated the southwestern Louisiana coast in 1957. Along with Hurricane Alex in 2010, it was also the strongest June hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin as measured by pressure. The rapidly developing storm struck southwestern Louisiana as an intense Category 3 hurricane, destroying coastal communities with a powerful storm surge that penetrated as far as 20 mi (32 km) inland. The first named storm and hurricane of the 1957 hurricane season. Audrey formed on June 24 from a tropical wave that moved into the Bay of Campeche. Situated within ideal conditions for tropical development, Audrey quickly strengthened, reaching hurricane status a day afterwards. Moving north, it continued to strengthen and accelerate as it approached the United States Gulf Coast. On June 27, the hurricane reached peak sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), making it a major hurricane. At the time, Audrey had a minimum barometric pressure of 946 mbar. The hurricane made landfall with the same intensity between the mouth of the Sabine River and Cameron, Louisiana, later that day, causing unprecedented destruction across the region. Once inland, Audrey weakened and turned extratropical over West Virginia on June 29. Audrey was the first major hurricane to form in the Gulf of Mexico since 1945.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Fern</span> Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1971

Hurricane Fern was the sixth named storm and fourth hurricane of the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season. It formed from a tropical wave which interacted with a large trough of low pressure to form Fern, as well as Hurricane Ginger, Tropical Storm Heidi, and a system later designated as Tropical Depression Sixteen, which moved into South Carolina. Fern crossed southeastern Louisiana as a tropical depression on September 4 before swinging back out over the Gulf of Mexico. Fern reached hurricane status on September 8, reaching a peak intensity of 90 mph (140 km/h) before making landfall near Freeport, Texas, two days later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tropical Storm Cindy (1963)</span> Atlantic tropical storm in 1963

Tropical Storm Cindy was a strong tropical storm which impacted portions of the United States Gulf Coast in September 1963. The third named storm of the 1963 Atlantic hurricane season, Cindy developed within a trough as a tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico on 16 September. The disturbance quickly intensified, with a distinct eye becoming visible on satellite imagery as it drifted north-northwestwards toward the Texas coastline. After peaking with 1-minute maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), it made landfall at High Island on the morning of 17 September at peak strength with an atmospheric pressure of 997 mbar. Cindy remained nearly stationary for almost a day, dropping copious rainfall over the Texas coastal plain, before finally turning west-southwestward and dissipating west of Corpus Christi on 20 September.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1987 Gulf Coast tropical storm</span> Atlantic tropical storm in 1987

The 1987 Gulf Coast tropical storm caused flooding along the Gulf Coast of the United States. The second tropical cyclone and first tropical storm of the 1987 Atlantic hurricane season, it originated from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of Texas, on August 9. Initially a tropical depression, the cyclone moved north-northwestward and slightly intensified into a tropical storm later that day. By August 10, it made landfall between Galveston and Beaumont. The system weakened after moving inland and turned towards the east and later southeast. Briefly reemerging over the Gulf on August 15, the depression moved onshore a second time in Florida, before dissipating over eastern Georgia on August 17.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tropical Storm Edouard (2008)</span> Atlantic tropical storm in 2008

Tropical Storm Edouard brought coastal and minor inland flooding to Louisiana and Texas in August 2008. The fifth tropical cyclone and fifth named storm of the hurricane season, Edouard developed from a trough in the northern Gulf of Mexico on August 3. After developing into a tropical depression, it gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Edouard on August 4. However, northerly wind shear initially halted any further significant intensification and also caused the storm to struggle to maintain deep convection over the center. Edouard eventually intensified further and peaked as a strong tropical storm with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) on August 5. Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall near Gilchrist, Texas later that day. Edouard quickly weakened and was downgraded to tropical depression by early on August 6, six hours before degenerated into a remnant low pressure area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Ike</span> Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2008

Hurricane Ike was a powerful tropical cyclone that swept through portions of the Greater Antilles and Northern America in September 2008, wreaking havoc on infrastructure and agriculture, particularly in Cuba and Texas. Ike took a similar track to the 1900 Galveston hurricane. The ninth tropical storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, Ike developed from a tropical wave west of Cape Verde on September 1 and strengthened to a peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane over the open waters of the central Atlantic on September 4 as it tracked westward. Several fluctuations in strength occurred before Ike made landfall on eastern Cuba on September 8. The hurricane weakened prior to continuing into the Gulf of Mexico, but increased its intensity by the time of its final landfall in Galveston, Texas, on September 13 before becoming an extratropical storm on September 14. The remnants of Ike continued to track across the United States and into Canada, causing considerable damage inland, before dissipating on the next day.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tropical Storm Arlene (1959)</span> Atlantic tropical storm in 1959

Tropical Storm Arlene was a short lived, pre-season tropical storm which made landfall on the central Louisiana coastline on May 30, 1959, causing minor damages and one fatality. Arlene, the first named storm of the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season, developed out of a tropical wave which was first noted near the Dominican Republic on May 23. Development of the system was slow before it gained enough convection to be declared Tropical Storm Arlene on May 28. The storm slowly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 60 mph (97 km/h) on May 30. Rapid weakening took place as the storm neared land and Arlene made landfall with winds of 45 mph (72 km/h) later that night. Arlene weakened to what is now classified as a Tropical Depression early the next morning. The system degenerated into a remnant low on the afternoon of May 31 and fully dissipated late on June 2 while located over South Carolina.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coast Guard Air Station Houston</span> US Coast Guard base near Houston, Texas

United States Coast Guard Air Station Houston is a United States Coast Guard Air Station located 15 miles (24 km) southeast of downtown Houston, Texas on board the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base (JRB).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Debra (1959)</span> Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1959

Hurricane Debra was a destructive tropical cyclone that developed during the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm and third hurricane of the season, Debra originated from the interaction of a cold-core low and a tropical wave on July 15. The system was designated a tropical depression on July 23 when it was south of Louisiana and meandered westward while it swiftly intensified into a tropical storm along the Gulf Coast of the United States. A turn towards the northwest became evident as it attained Category 1 hurricane status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale the following day while it organized into a developed storm. As the hurricane curved northward at a slow forward speed, strength was maintained as it approached the coast of Texas as a minimal hurricane. It came ashore during the evening of July 24 local time between Freeport and Galveston, Texas. It rapidly weakened into a tropical storm and later a depression as it moved inland, and dissipated on July 28 while it turned northwestward. The remnant moisture later sparked upper-level thunderstorms in late July and early August.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1920 Louisiana hurricane</span> Category 2 Atlantic hurricane

The 1920 Louisiana hurricane was a strong tropical cyclone that caused significant damage in parts of Louisiana in September 1920. The second tropical storm and hurricane of the annual hurricane season, it formed from an area of disturbed weather on September 16, 1920, northwest of Colombia. The system remained a weak tropical depression as it made landfall on Nicaragua, but later intensified to tropical storm strength as it moved across the Gulf of Honduras, prior to making a second landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, the storm quickly intensified as it moved towards the north-northwest, reaching its peak intensity as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) prior to making landfall near Houma, Louisiana with no change in intensity. Afterwards, it quickly weakened over land, before dissipating on September 23 over eastern Kansas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1940 Louisiana hurricane</span> Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1940

The 1940 Louisiana hurricane caused record flooding across much of the Southern United States in August 1940. The second tropical cyclone and hurricane of the annual hurricane season, it formed from a frontal low off the west coast of Florida on August 3. Initially a weak disturbance, it moved generally westward, slowly gaining in intensity. Early on August 4, the depression attained tropical storm intensity. Ships in the vicinity of the storm reported a much stronger tropical cyclone than initially suggested. After reaching hurricane strength on August 5 south of the Mississippi River Delta, the storm strengthened further into a Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 100 mph and a minimum barometric pressure of 972 mbar at 0600 UTC on August 7. The hurricane moved ashore near Sabine Pass, Texas later that day at peak strength. Once inland, the storm executed a sharp curve to the north and quickly weakened, degenerating into a tropical storm on August 8 before dissipating over Arkansas on August 10.

<i>Racer</i><span class="nowrap" style="padding-left:0.1em;">s</span> hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1837

Racer's hurricane was a destructive tropical cyclone that had severe effects in northeastern Mexico, the Republic of Texas, and the Gulf Coast of the United States in early October 1837. It was named after the Royal Navy ship HMS Racer, which encountered the cyclone in the northwestern Caribbean. Termed "one of the most famous and destructive hurricanes of the century" by meteorology historian David Ludlum, the storm first affected Jamaica with flooding rainfall and strong winds on September 26 and 27, before entering the Gulf of Mexico by October 1. As the hurricane struck northern Tamaulipas and southern Texas, it slowed to a crawl and turned sharply northeastward. The storm battered the Gulf Coast from Texas to the Florida Panhandle between October 3 and 7. After crossing the Southeastern United States, it emerged into the Atlantic shipping lanes off the Carolinas by October 9.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Effects of the 1919 Florida Keys hurricane in Texas</span>

The effects of the 1919 Florida Keys hurricane in Texas were the deadliest of any tropical cyclone in the Texas Coastal Bend, killing at least 284 people. The hurricane produced a widespread swath of devastation across the region, exacerbated by the large extent of its winds. The city of Corpus Christi bore the brunt of the hurricane's impacts, contributing to the largest portion of the damage toll in Texas; nearly all of the confirmed fatalities were residents of the city. The storm originated from the Leeward Islands early in September 1919 and took a generally west-northwestward course, devastating the Florida Keys en route to the Gulf of Mexico. On the afternoon of September 14, the center of the hurricane made landfall upon the Texas coast at Baffin Bay. The storm's winds were estimated at 115 mph (185 km/h) at landfall, making it a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. After slowly moving ashore, it weakened and straddled the Rio Grande before dissipating on September 16 over West Texas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurricane Nicholas</span> Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2021

Hurricane Nicholas was a slow-moving and erratic Category 1 hurricane that made landfall in the U.S. state of Texas in mid-September 2021. The fourteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season, Nicholas originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the west coast of Africa on August 28. The system developed into a tropical storm on September 12, with the National Hurricane Center (NHC) naming the cyclone Nicholas. Nicholas gradually intensified initially, due to adverse effects of strong wind shear. However, late on September 13, Nicholas began intensifying at a faster rate, and at 03:00 UTC on September 14, Nicholas intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 988 mbar (29.2 inHg). At 5:30 UTC on the same day, Nicholas made landfall in Texas at peak intensity. Afterward, the system gradually weakened, weakening into a tropical storm several hours later, and weakening further into a tropical depression on the next day. The system proceeded to drift slowly over Louisiana. On September 15, Nicholas degenerated into a remnant low, before being absorbed into another extratropical system on September 20.