Demographics of Texas

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Texas Population Density Map. Texas population map2.png
Texas Population Density Map.

Texas is the second most populous U.S. state, with an estimated 2017 population of 28.449 million. [1] In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. It is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is similarly not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties.

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.



Historical population
1850 212,592
1860 604,215184.2%
1870 818,57935.5%
1880 1,591,74994.5%
1890 2,235,52740.4%
1900 3,048,71036.4%
1910 3,896,54227.8%
1920 4,663,22819.7%
1930 5,824,71524.9%
1940 6,414,82410.1%
1950 7,711,19420.2%
1960 9,579,67724.2%
1970 11,196,73016.9%
1980 14,229,19127.1%
1990 16,986,51019.4%
2000 20,851,82022.8%
2010 25,145,56120.6%
Est. 201728,304,59612.6%
1910 – 2010 census [2]
2016 Estimate [3]

The 2010 US Census recorded Texas as having a population of 25.1 million—an increase of 4.3 million since the year 2000, involving an increase in population in all three subcategories of population growth: natural increase (births minus deaths), net immigration, and net migration. The state passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

California State of the United States of America

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

Texas' population growth between 2000 and 2010 represents the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during this time period. The large population increase can somewhat be attributed to Texas' relative insulation from the US housing bubble. The state has a bigger population than that of Australia.

United States housing bubble economic bubble

The United States housing bubble was a real estate bubble affecting over half of the U.S. states. Housing prices peaked in early 2006, started to decline in 2006 and 2007, and reached new lows in 2012. On December 30, 2008, the Case–Shiller home price index reported its largest price drop in its history. The credit crisis resulting from the bursting of the housing bubble is an important cause of the 2007–2009 recession in the United States.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

As of 2012, the state has an estimated 4.1 million foreign-born residents, constituting approximately 15% of the state population [4] An estimated 1.7 million people are undocumented immigrants. [5]

U.S. Census data from 2010 indicate that 7.7% of Texas' population is under 5 years old, 27.3% is under 18, and 10.3% is aged 65 and older. Females make up 50.4% of the population.

The center of population of Texas is located at 30°54′19″N97°21′56″W / 30.905244°N 97.365594°W / 30.905244; -97.365594 in Bell County, in the town of Holland. [6]

Center of population

In demographics, the centre of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centrepoint of the region's population. There are several different ways of defining such a "centre point", leading to different geographical locations; these are often confused.

Bell County, Texas County in the United States

Bell County is a county located in the central part of the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 310,235. Its county seat is Belton. The county was founded in 1850 and is named for Peter Hansborough Bell, the third governor of Texas.

Holland, Texas Town in Texas, United States

Holland is a town in Bell County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,121 at the 2010 census. The center of population of Texas is located in Holland. It is part of the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Demographics of Texas (csv)
By race WhiteBlackAIAN*AsianNHPI*
2000 (total population)84.54%12.09%1.09%3.13%0.16%
2000 (Hispanic only)31.14%0.42%0.40%0.13%0.06%
2005 (total population)84.14%12.09%1.10%3.62%0.17%
2005 (Hispanic only)34.16%0.52%0.42%0.15%0.06%
Growth 2000–05 (total population)9.10%9.62%10.56%27.02%21.27%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)2.59%8.66%8.69%27.07%17.81%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)20.26%36.40%13.80%25.99%27.72%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

As of the 2010 US Census, the racial distribution in Texas was as follows: 70.4% of the population of Texas was White American; 11.8% African American; 3.8% Asian American; 0.7% American Indian; 0.1% native Hawaiian or Pacific islander only; 10.5% of the population were of some other race only; and 2.7% were of two or more races. Hispanics (of any race) were 37.6% of the population of the state, while Non-Hispanic Whites composed 45.3%.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

English Americans predominate in eastern, central, and northern Texas; German Americans, in central and western Texas. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in parts of northern, eastern and east-central Texas as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.

As in other Southern states settled largely in the 19th century, the vast majority have European ancestry: Irish, English and German. [7] Texas includes a diverse set of European ancestries, due both to historical patterns of settlement from the Southeastern United States, as well as contemporary dynamics. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels. Many Romanians, Dutch, Germans from Switzerland and Austria, Poles, Russians, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, and French immigrated at least in part because of the European revolutions of 1848. This immigration continued until World War I and the 1920s. The influence of these diverse European immigrants survives in the town names, architectural styles, music, and cuisine in Texas.

Lavaca County, for example, is over one-quarter Czech American, Seguin has a large Slovak American community, and Nederland has many Dutch Americans whose ancestors immigrated from the Netherlands.

Demographics of Texas (csv)
By race WhiteBlackAIAN*AsianNHPI*
2000 (total population)84.54%12.09%1.09%3.13%0.16%
2000 (Hispanic only)31.14%0.42%0.40%0.13%0.06%
2005 (total population)84.14%12.09%1.10%3.62%0.17%
2005 (Hispanic only)34.16%0.52%0.42%0.15%0.06%
Growth 2000–05 (total population)9.10%9.62%10.56%27.02%21.27%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)2.59%8.66%8.69%27.07%17.81%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)20.26%36.40%13.80%25.99%27.72%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English, forming 3,083,323 or 27% of the population. [7] Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry.

The Texas city of San Antonio. Downtown San Antonio.jpg
The Texas city of San Antonio.

As of 2010, 37% of Texas residents had Hispanic ancestry; these include recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as Tejanos, whose ancestors have lived in Texas as early as the 1700s. Tejanos are the largest ancestry group in southern Duval County and amongst the largest in and around Bexar County, including San Antonio, where over one million Hispanics live. The state has the second largest Hispanic population in the United States, behind California.

Hispanics dominate southern, south-central, and western Texas and form a significant portion of the residents in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and Austin. The Hispanic population contributes to Texas having a younger population than the American average, because Hispanic births have outnumbered non-Hispanic white births since the early 1990s. In 2007, for the first time since the early nineteenth century, Hispanics accounted for more than half of all births (50.2%), while non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 34%.

In 2016 the state had 59,115 persons of Cuban origin. 6,157 of them lived in Travis County. [8]

Houston Downtown Houston 7.jpg

Texas has one of the largest African-American populations in the country. [9] African Americans are concentrated in northern, eastern and east central Texas as well as the Dallas, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.[ citation needed ] African Americans form 24 percent of both the cities of Dallas and Houston, 19% of Fort Worth, 8.1 percent of Austin, and 7.5 percent of San Antonio. They form a majority in sections of eastern San Antonio, southern Dallas, eastern Fort Worth, and southern Houston.[ citation needed ] A strong labor market between 1995 and 2000 contributed to Texas being one of three states in the South receiving the highest numbers of black college graduates in a New Great Migration. [9]

In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in west Houston, Fort Bend County southwest of Houston, the western and northern suburbs of Dallas, and Arlington near Fort Worth. Vietnamese Americans, South Asian Americans, Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas. The Gulf Coast also has large numbers of Asian Americans, because the shrimp fishing industry attracted tens of thousands of Vietnamese, Filipinos, and Chinese from the coast of the South China Sea in the late 1970s and 1980s. [ citation needed ]

As of 2016, there is also an emerging Asian immigrant population in Amarillo consisting primarily of Southeast Asian refugees.

Native American tribes who once lived or resettled inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Coushatta, Hueco, the Karankawa of Galveston, Kiowa, Lipan Apache, Muscogee, Natchez, Quapaw, Seminole, Tonkawa, Wichita, and many others.

Three federally recognized Native American tribes currently are headquartered in Texas:

According to Steve H. Murdock, a demographer with the Hobby Center for the Study of Texas at Rice University and a former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, the White American population is aging, while minority populations remain relatively young. As of 2011, according to Murdock, two out of three children in Texas are not non-Hispanic Whites. Murdock also predicted that, between 2000 and 2040 (assuming that the net migration rate will equal half that of 1990-2000), Hispanic public school enrollment will increase by 213 percent, while non-Hispanic white enrollment will decrease by 15 percent. [12]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013 [13] 2014 [14] 2015 [15] 2016 [16] 2017 [17]
White:318,211 (82.1%)326,480 (81.7%)327,429 (81.1%)......
> Non-Hispanic White 136,608 (35.3%)140,992 (35.3%)140,553 (34.8%)134,262 (33.7%)127,533 (33.4%)
Black 49,039 (12.7%)51,274 (12.4%)53,144 (13.2%)48,562 (12.2%)48,242 (12.6%)
Asian 18,861 (4.9%)20,844 (5.2%)21,775 (5.4%)20,889 (5.2%)20,385 (5.3%)
American Indian 1,229 (0.3%)1,168 (0.3%)1,270 (0.3%)782 (0.2%)664 (0.2%)
Pacific Islander .........498 (0.1%)510 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race)185,467 (47.9%)189,462 (47.4%)191,157 (47.4%)188,393 (47.3%)180,216 (47.2%)
Total Texas387,340 (100%)399,766 (100%)403,618 (100%)398,047 (100%)382,050 (100%)


The most common American English accent spoken was Texan English, which is a mix of Southern American English and Western American English dialects. Louisiana Creole language is spoken mostly in Southeast Texas. Chicano English is also widely spoken, as well as African American Vernacular English, and General American English.

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Texas
LanguagePercentage of population
(as of 2010) [18]
Spanish 29.21%
Vietnamese 0.75%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese)0.56%
German 0.33%
Tagalog 0.29%
French 0.25%
Korean and Urdu (tied)0.24%
Hindi 0.23%
Arabic 0.21%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba)0.15%

As of 2010, 65.80% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 29.21% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75% (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five. [18]

Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137,) Tagalog with 0.29% (73,137) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans. [18]

In total, 34.20% (7,660,406) of Texas's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. [18]


Lakewood Church interior Lakewood worship.jpg
Lakewood Church interior
Jain temple celebrations in Austin. Austin Pratishtha Celebration.jpg
Jain temple celebrations in Austin.

Texas is a part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt. [19] The Dallas-Fort Worth area is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation. [19]

In 2000, the religious demographics of Texas were: [20]

The largest single denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Catholic Church 4,368,969, the Southern Baptist Convention 3,519,459 and the United Methodist Church 1,022,342. [20] Evangelical Protestant Christian influence has had a strong social, cultural, and political impact in Texas throughout its history, but not all Texans share this view of Christian religious doctrine. Austin, the state capital, is perceived as a more secular and liberal community.

Other religious groups in Texas include Jewish Texans. Most of the state's estimated 128,000 Jews live in or around Dallas and Houston. [21] [ citation needed ]


Dallas Dallas Downtown.jpg

Six Texas cities have populations greater than 500,000, including the two global cities of Dallas and Houston. [22] Texas has 25 metropolitan areas, with four having populations over 1 million and two over 6 million. Texas also has 3 of the 10 cities in the U.S. with populations greater than 1 million, and is tied with California for the most of any state. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are also among the top 25 largest U.S. cities.

The Texas Urban Triangle is a region defined by three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas-Fort Worth to San Antonio), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston). The region contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas, as well as nearly 75 percent of Texas' total population. [23]

See also

Related Research Articles

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