Dallas County, Texas

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Dallas County
Dallas 2015 skyline.jpg
Downtown dallas.jpg
Dallas County Courthouse with Texas Flag.jpg
Irving Convention Center View of Las Colinas.jpg
From top, left to right: Dallas panorama, Downtown Dallas, former Dallas County Courthouse with the Texas flag in 2017, Las Colinas in Irving
Flag of Dallas County, Texas.svg
Flag
Map of Texas highlighting Dallas County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Texas in United States.svg
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 32°46′N96°47′W / 32.77°N 96.78°W / 32.77; -96.78
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of Texas.svg  Texas
FoundedMarch 30, 1846
Named for George M. Dallas
Seat Dallas
Largest cityDallas
Area
  Total909 sq mi (2,350 km2)
  Land873 sq mi (2,260 km2)
  Water36 sq mi (90 km2)  4.0%%
Population
  Estimate 
(2019)
2,635,516 [1]
  Density2,999/sq mi (1,139/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts 5th, 24th, 30th, 32nd, 33rd
Website www.dallascounty.org

Dallas County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas, the state's second-most populous county, and the eighth-most populous in the United States. As of the 2010 U.S. census, the population was 2,368,139; [2] in 2019 it was estimated to have 2,635,516 inhabitants. [3]

Contents

Its county seat is the city of Dallas, [4] which is also Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1846 and was possibly named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U.S. President James K. Polk.[ disputed ]

Dallas County is included in the Dallas-Arlington-Fort Worth metropolitan statistical area (colloquially referred to as the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex).

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles (2,350 km2), of which 873 square miles (2,260 km2) is land and 36 square miles (93 km2) (4.0%) is water. [5]

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 2,743
1860 8,665215.9%
1870 13,81459.4%
1880 33,488142.4%
1890 67,042100.2%
1900 82,72623.4%
1910 135,74864.1%
1920 210,55155.1%
1930 325,69154.7%
1940 398,56422.4%
1950 614,79954.3%
1960 951,52754.8%
1970 1,327,32139.5%
1980 1,556,39017.3%
1990 1,852,81019.0%
2000 2,218,89919.8%
2010 2,368,1396.7%
Est. 20192,635,516 [1] 11.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [6]
2019 Estimate [2]

2010

Per the 2010 census [7] , there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile (974/km²). There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi (375/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White (33.12% non-Hispanic white), 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, and 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. [8]

In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, and 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, and the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over.

2014-2018

During the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 2,541,528; non-Hispanic whites made up 713,835 of the county's residents (28.1%); non-Hispanic blacks, 565,020 (22.2%); other non-Hispanics, 197,082 (7.7%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race), 1,065,591 (41.9%). [9]

In 2018, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated Dallas County to have a total of 2,637,772 residents, 1,027,930 housing units, and 917,276 households. [3] [10] 24.3% of the county were foreign born residents. 28.6% of the county was non-Hispanic white, 23.5% Black or African American, 1.1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 6.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from two or more races, and 40.5% Hispanic or Latin American of any race.

The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $161,500 and the monthly cost with a mortgage was $1,539 in 2018. Without a mortgage a monthly housing payment was $575. The median gross rent of county residents was $1,046 and the owner-occupied housing rate was 50.1% from 2014–2018.

There was an average of 2.79 persons per household from 2014–2018. 47.8% of Dallas County was male and 52.2% was female. The median age was 33.5 years. [11]

Dallas County's median household income was $56,854 and about 14.2% of the populace lived below the poverty line.

Government, courts and politics

Government

Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a commissioners' court. This court consists of the county judge (the chairperson of the court), who is elected county-wide, and four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts.

The Commissioners' Court is the policy-making body for the county; in addition, the county judge is the senior executive and administrative position in the county. The Commissioners' Court sets the county tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, and oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner also supervises a Road and Bridge District. The Commissioners Court also approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, which is charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services. [12]

County Commissioners

Office [13] NameParty
 County Judge Clay Jenkins Democratic
 Commissioner, Precinct 1Theresa DanielDemocratic
 Commissioner, Precinct 2J.J. KochRepublican
 Commissioner, Precinct 3 John Wiley Price Democratic
 Commissioner, Precinct 4Elba GarciaDemocratic

County Officials

Office [13] NameParty
 County ClerkJohn WarrenDemocratic
 Criminal District AttorneyJohn CreuzotDemocratic
 District ClerkFelicia PitreDemocratic
 SheriffMarian BrownDemocratic
 Tax Assessor-CollectorJohn AmesDemocratic
 TreasurerPauline MedranoDemocratic

Constables

Office [13] NameParty
 Constable, Precinct 1Tracey GulleyDemocratic
 Constable, Precinct 2Bill Gipson, IIDemocratic
 Constable, Precinct 3Ben AdamcikRepublican
 Constable, Precinct 4Edward WrightDemocratic
 Constable, Precinct 5Michael OrozcoDemocratic

Justices of the Peace

Office [13] NameParty
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 1, Place 1Thomas G. JonesDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 1, Place 2Valencia NashDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 2, Place 1Margaret O’BrienDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 2, Place 2Katina WhitfieldDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 3, Place 1Al CerconeRepublican
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 3, Place 2Steven L. SeiderRepublican
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 4, Place 1Mike JonesDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 4, Place 2Sasha MorenoDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 5, Place 1Sara MartinezDemocratic
 Justice of the Peace, Precinct 5, Place 2Juan JassoDemocratic

Courts

County Criminal Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 County Criminal Court No. 1Dan PattersonDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 2Julia HayesDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 3Doug SkempDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 4Nancy MulderDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 5Lisa GreenDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 6Angela M. KingDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 7Elizabeth CrowderDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 8Tina Yoo ClintonDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 9Peggy HoffmanDemocratic
 County Criminal Court No. 10Roberto Canas, Jr.Democratic
 County Criminal Court No. 11Shequitta KellyDemocratic

County Criminal Courts of Appeals

Office [13] NameParty
 County Criminal Court of Appeals No. 1Kristin WadeDemocratic
 County Criminal Court of Appeals No. 2Jeff RosenfieldDemocratic

County Civil Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 County Court at Law No. 1D'Metria BensonDemocratic
 County Court at Law No. 2Melissa BellanDemocratic
 County Court at Law No. 3Sally MontgomeryDemocratic
 County Court at Law No. 4Paula RosalesDemocratic
 County Court at Law No. 5Mark GreenbergDemocratic

County Probate Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 County Probate Court No. 1Brenda Hull ThompsonDemocratic
 County Probate Court No. 2Ingrid Michelle WarrenDemocratic
 County Probate Court No. 3Margaret Jones-JohnsonDemocratic

Criminal District Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 Criminal District Court No. 1Robert BurnsDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 2Nancy KennedyDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 3Gracie LewisDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 4Dominique CollinsDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 5Carter ThompsonDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 6Jeanine HowardDemocratic
 Criminal District Court No. 7Vacant
 194th District CourtErnest White IIIDemocratic
 195th District CourtHector GarzaDemocratic
 203rd District CourtTeresa HawthorneDemocratic
 204th District CourtTammy KempDemocratic
 265th District CourtJennifer BennettDemocratic
 282nd District CourtAmber Givens-DavisDemocratic
 283rd District CourtVacant
 291st District CourtStephanie MitchellDemocratic
 292nd District CourtBrandon BirminghamDemocratic
 363rd District CourtTracy HolmesDemocratic

Civil District Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 14th District CourtEric MoyéDemocratic
 44th District CourtBonnie Lee GoldsteinDemocratic
 68th District CourtMartin HoffmanDemocratic
 95th District CourtDavid EvansDemocratic
 101st District CourtStaci WilliamsDemocratic
 116th District CourtTonya ParkerDemocratic
 134th District CourtDale TilleryDemocratic
 160th District CourtAiesha RedmondDemocratic
 162nd District CourtMaricela MooreDemocratic
 191st District CourtGena SlaughterDemocratic
 192nd District CourtCraig SmithDemocratic
 193rd District CourtBridgett WhitmoreDemocratic
 298th District CourtEmily TobolowskyDemocratic

Family District Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 254th District CourtDarlene EwingDemocratic
 255th District CourtKim CooksDemocratic
 256th District CourtDavid LopezDemocratic
 301st District CourtMary BrownDemocratic
 302nd District CourtTena CallahanDemocratic
 303rd District CourtDennise GarciaDemocratic
 330th District Court Andrea Plumlee Democratic

Juvenile District Courts

Office [13] NameParty
 304th District CourtAndrea MartinDemocratic
 305th District CourtCheryl Lee ShannonDemocratic

County services

The Parkland Health & Hospital System (Dallas County Hospital District) operates the Parkland Memorial Hospital and various health centers.

The Commissioners' Court meets the first and third Tuesday at the Commissioners' Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St., corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory.

Acts of the commissioners court are known as 'court orders'. These orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, and managing county resources and departments. Most importantly, the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners also set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital.

The commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections, Health and Human Services, Facilities Management, Parks and Open Space Program, I.T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, Sheriff, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer. The commissioners also set the budget for each of the District, County, and Justice courts.

Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator who is responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court. The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin who was hired by the commissioners in 2008.

Dallas County Jail, 111 West Commerce Street Dallas County Jail 111 W Commerce Street.jpg
Dallas County Jail, 111 West Commerce Street

Dallas County operates several jail facilities. They include: [14]

  • 111 Riverfront Blvd (Dallas)
    • North Tower Jail
    • South Tower Jail - also known as the "Suzanne Kays Tower"
    • West Tower Jail
  • Government Center Jail - 600 Commerce Street (Dallas)
  • Decker Detention Center - 899 North Stemmons Freeway (Dallas)
  • (formerly) Suzanne Kays Jail - 521 North Industrial Boulevard (Dallas) - population integrated into the South Tower; demolished to clear way for the Trinity River Project [15]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Hutchins State Jail for men in an unincorporated area adjacent to Hutchins. [16] Corrections Corporation of America operates the Dawson Unit, a co-gender state jail in Downtown Dallas, under contract. [17]

Federal Correctional Institution, Seagoville, is located in Seagoville.

Politics

Dallas County's post-war growth transformed it from a Democratic Solid South stronghold into a conservative sunbelt county that voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election from 1952 to 2004, except when Texas native Lyndon B. Johnson successfully ran for a full term as President on the Democratic ticket in 1964. In the 2004 election, Democrats won their first countywide administrative office since 1986 by electing Lupe Valdez to the office of Dallas County Sheriff. The last Democratic countywide administrator was D. Connally elected County Surveyor prior to the office's abolition. Democrats also won three district court benches in 2004. Two years later in 2006, Democrats swept every contested countywide race including County Judge, District Clerk, County Clerk, District Attorney and County Treasurer as well as every contested judicial seat.

Starting in 1992, Dallas County began voting more Democratic than the state of Texas as a whole, with relatively narrow wins from 1992 to 2004 even as the Republican nominee won Texas easily. This trend culminated in 2008 when Barack Obama won Dallas County with a substantial margin. Obama's coattails allowed Democrats to win the remaining Republican held judicial seats. In 2012, Obama won Dallas County by virtually the same margin as he had done in 2008. In 2016, Hillary Clinton increased the Democratic margin of victory even further. She became the first Democrat to win 60% of Dallas County since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, whilst under Donald Trump the Republicans failed to win 40% of the vote in the county for the first time since 1948.

Presidential election results
Presidential election results [18]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 34.3% 262,94560.2%461,0805.4% 41,657
2012 41.6% 295,81357.0%405,5711.4% 10,228
2008 41.9% 310,00057.2%422,9891.0% 7,085
2004 50.4%346,24649.0% 336,6410.7% 4,822
2000 52.6%322,34544.9% 275,3082.5% 15,386
1996 46.8%260,05846.0% 255,7667.2% 40,129
1992 38.7%256,00735.0% 231,41226.3% 173,833
1988 58.4%347,09440.9% 243,1980.7% 4,246
1984 66.4%405,44433.4% 203,5920.2% 1,460
1980 59.2%306,68236.8% 190,4594.1% 21,072
1976 56.7%263,08142.3% 196,3031.1% 5,001
1972 69.5%305,11229.6% 129,6620.9% 4,021
1968 50.7%184,19334.1% 123,80915.3% 55,552
1964 45.1% 137,06554.7%166,4720.2% 621
1960 62.2%149,36937.0% 88,8760.9% 2,054
1956 65.1%125,36134.0% 65,4721.0% 1,862
1952 62.7%118,21836.8% 69,3940.5% 850
1948 37.8% 35,66450.3%47,46411.9% 11,216
1944 22.4% 21,09964.8%60,90912.8% 12,028
1940 25.1% 16,57474.7%49,4310.2% 131
1936 14.5% 7,20484.9%42,1530.6% 300
1932 19.1% 8,91980.1%37,3630.8% 371
1928 60.9%27,27238.9% 17,4370.2% 78
1924 21.6% 8,61875.8%30,2072.5% 1,012
1920 23.4% 4,98467.4%14,3909.2% 1,973
1916 15.7% 2,55482.5%13,4101.8% 289
1912 6.1% 59079.8%7,72514.1% 1,367

The Democratic gains in the county are primarily due to the exurban migration of disproportionately conservative, Republican-voting residents to the neighboring counties of Collin, Denton and Rockwall [19] As a result, those counties have become more solidly Republican. The tremendous growth in these neighboring counties was part of a larger explosion in exurban growth throughout the nation over the last decade which coincided with the real estate bust in 2007. [20] In North Texas, exurban growth was accelerated by transportation infrastructure expansion including the extensions of U.S. 75 north and the Dallas North Tollway in the mid 1990s, and the completion of the George Bush Turnpike after 2001. These and other enhancements opened up vast tracts of farmland to new housing developments. [21]

Dallas County has three openly LGBT elected county officials. Lupe Valdez elected Sheriff in 2004 and a candidate for reelection in 2012; Jim Foster, elected county judge in 2006 serving one term then defeated in the Democratic primary in 2010; and Gary Fitzsimmons, elected District Clerk in 2006. [22]

Although Dallas County has become much friendlier to Democrats in Presidential and Senate elections since 1992, it remains a mostly Republican county in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Texas Legislature as a result of the legislature having engaged in what a federal district court has found to be illegal gerrymandering [23] the districts to pack heavily Democratic non-whites into very few districts and split the rest of them with more conservative white areas in Dallas and surrounding counties.

State Board of Education members

DistrictNameParty
 District 11Patricia HardyRepublican
 District 12Geraldine MillerRepublican
 District 13Erika BeltranDemocratic

Texas State Representatives

DistrictNamePartyResidence
 District 100Vacant
 District 102Ana-Maria RamosDemocraticDallas
 District 103Rafael AnchiaDemocraticDallas
 District 104Jessica GonzálezDemocraticDallas
 District 105Terry MezaDemocratIrving
 District 107Victoria NeaveDemocraticDallas
 District 108Morgan MeyerRepublicanDallas
 District 109Carl Sherman Sr.DemocraticDe Soto
 District 110Toni RoseDemocraticDallas
 District 111Yvonne DavisDemocraticDallas
 District 112Angie Chen ButtonRepublicanRichardson
 District 113Rhett Andrews BowersDemocraticGarland
 District 114John TurnerDemocraticDallas
 District 115Julie JohnsonDemocraticIrving

Texas State Senators

DistrictNamePartyResidence
 District 2Bob HallRepublicanEdgewood (Van Zandt County)
 District 8Angela PaxtonRepublicanMcKinney (Collin County)
 District 9Kelly HancockRepublicanFort Worth
 District 16Nathan JohnsonDemocraticDallas
 District 23Royce WestDemocraticDallas

United States Representatives

DistrictNamePartyResidence
  Texas's 5th congressional district Lance Gooden RepublicanTerrell
  Texas's 24th congressional district Kenny Marchant RepublicanCoppell
  Texas's 30th congressional district Eddie Bernice Johnson DemocraticDallas
  Texas's 32nd congressional district Colin Allred DemocraticDallas
  Texas's 33rd congressional district Marc Veasey DemocraticFort Worth

Education

The following school districts serve Dallas County:

White flight meant the decrease of non-Hispanic white students in Dallas County K-12 school districts from 1997 until the 2014–2015 school year. The number was 138,760 in the former and 61,538 in the latter; during 2014-2015 county charter schools had about 5,000 non-Hispanic white students. In 2016 Eric Nicholson of the Dallas Observer wrote that the bulk of white K-12 enrollment is shifting to more distant suburban areas beyond Dallas County, and that "Teasing out causation is tricky" but that the perception of poverty, which many white families wish to avoid, is tied with race. [24]

Transportation

Dallas Area Rapid Transit provides bus and rail service to many cities in Dallas County, with Dallas being the largest.

The Trinity Railway Express provides commuter rail service to Tarrant County, including downtown Fort Worth.

Major highways

NOTE: US 67 and US 77 are not signed fully along their routes in Dallas County.

Airports

Love Field, located in Dallas and in Dallas County, serves only domestic passengers.

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is partially located in the city of Irving in Dallas County, and Grapevine and Euless in Tarrant County.

Communities

Cities (multiple counties)

Cities

Towns

Unincorporated community

Historical communities

See also

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Coordinates: 32°46′N96°47′W / 32.77°N 96.78°W / 32.77; -96.78