Houston County, Texas

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Houston County, Texas
HoustonCountyCourtHouse1.JPG
The Houston County Courthouse in Crockett is located at the intersections of Texas State Highway 21 and U.S. Highway 287.
Map of Texas highlighting Houston County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of USA TX.svg
Texas's location within the U.S.
Founded1837
Named for Sam Houston
Seat Crockett
Largest cityCrockett
Area
  Total1,237 sq mi (3,204 km2)
  Land1,231 sq mi (3,188 km2)
  Water5.7 sq mi (15 km2), 0.5%
Population
  (2010)23,732
  Density19/sq mi (7/km2)
Congressional district 8th
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.co.houston.tx.us

Houston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,732. [1] Its county seat is Crockett. [2] Houston County was one of forty-six prohibition or entirely dry counties in the state of Texas, until voters in a November 2007 special election legalized the sale of alcohol in the county.

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Contents

Houston County was the first new county created under the 9-year Republic of Texas on June 12, 1837. The original boundaries of Houston County also included all of present-day Anderson and Trinity Counties, and portions of present-day Henderson and Polk Counties.

Republic of Texas independent sovereign nation in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846

The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.

Anderson County, Texas County in the United States

Anderson County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 58,458. Its county seat is Palestine. Anderson County was organized in 1846, and was named for Kenneth L. Anderson, who had been the last Vice President of the Republic of Texas.

Trinity County, Texas County in the United States

Trinity County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,585. Its county seat is Groveton. The county is named for the Trinity River.

The county is named for Sam Houston, a president of the Republic of Texas and Governor of Texas. [3] Other than being named for the same person, Houston County is not related to the City of Houston, which is located approximately 100 miles (160 km) to the south, in Harris County.

Sam Houston nineteenth-century American statesman, politician, and soldier, namesake of Houston, Texas

Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. An important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the 1st and 3rd president of the Republic of Texas, and was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate. He also served as the 6th Governor of Tennessee and the seventh governor of Texas, the only American to be elected governor of two different states in the United States.

President of the Republic of Texas

The President of the Republic of Texas was the head of state and head of government while Texas was an independent republic between 1836 and 1845.

Harris County, Texas County in the United States

Harris County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas, located in the southeastern part of the state near Galveston Bay. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 4,092,459, making it the most populous county in Texas and the third most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is Houston, the largest city in Texas and fourth largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1836 and organized in 1837. It is named for John Richardson Harris, who founded the town of Harrisburg on Buffalo Bayou in 1826. According to a July 2018 Census estimate, Harris County's population had grown to 4,698,619, comprising over 16 percent of Texas's population.

A county historical museum is located in a former railroad depot, located on First Street in Crockett.

History Past events and their record

History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

Museum institution that holds artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, historical, or other importance

A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. The largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities, towns and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public. The goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public.

Train station Railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers and/or freight

A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building (depot) providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts".

History

The Houston County Museum is located in a restored railroad depot south of Crockett. Houston County (TX) Museum IMG 1010.JPG
The Houston County Museum is located in a restored railroad depot south of Crockett.

Samuel Cartmill Hiroms (1836–1920) was born in present-day Polk County, his parents having been among Stephen F. Austin's "Old 300" families. Hiroms was an educator and a surveyor who served in the Confederate Army. He and his second wife Emily Ann (née Johnston, 1853–1948) settled in the Creek Community of Houston County. Their homestead was adjacent to what is now the Austonio Baptist Church on State Highway 21 in Austonio, Texas. [4]

Polk County, Texas County in the United States

Polk County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,413. Its county seat is Livingston.

Stephen F. Austin American empresario, slaveholder, namesake of Austin, Texas

Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825.

Surveying The technique, profession, and science of determining the positions of points and the distances and angles between them

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.

Collin Aldrich (1801–1842) was a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto and was the first judge in Houston County, having served during the Republic of Texas from 1837-1841. [5]

Battle of San Jacinto decisive battle of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. A detailed, first-hand account of the battle was written by General Houston from Headquarters of the Texian Army, San Jacinto, on April 25, 1836. Numerous secondary analyses and interpretations have followed, several of which are cited and discussed throughout this entry.

Judge official who presides over court proceedings

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.

Eli Coltharp established his Coltharp Hill in Houston County near Kennard. The store, post office, gristmill, cotton gin, blacksmith shop, and millinery shop were located on the stagecoach route west of Nacogcoches in Houston County. When the railroad bypassed the Contharp Community, many of the residents relocated to work at a nearby sawmill. [6]

James Murphy Hager of Kentucky and his wife Nacoma (née Clark) established the Hagerville Community in the 1840s. Hager was a farmer, cabinet maker, and blacksmith. The stagecoach from Nacogdoches to Navasota, ran beside the Hagers' log home. One of the Hager sons donated land for a church and a school. There was a post office at Hagerville from 1891-1905. [6]

The Four C Mill operated in Houston County during the first two decades of the 20th century. R.M. Keith, agent of the Central Coal and Coke Company in Kansas City, Missouri, began buying virgin timber in the fall of 1899. Lumber to construct the new mill was cut by a small sawmill purchased in early 1901 from J.H. Ratcliff. Keith organized the Louisiana and Texas Lumber Company to operate the Four C. The mill was producing 300,000 board feet of lumber per daily by June 1902. Ratcliff Lake, now a United States Department of Interior recreational site, was the millpond for the Four C. The Texas Southeastern Railroad laid track from Lufkin to haul out the lumber. The town of Ratcliff was separated from the Four C by a fence, built to discourage the mill workers from spending their money outside the company town. The 120,000 acres were in time exhausted, and by 1920, the mill shut down. [6]

Geography

Ratcliff Lake Recreation Area is located in the Davy Crockett National Forest in Houston County east of Crockett. Another view of Ratcliff Lake, Ratcliff, TX IMG 0983.JPG
Ratcliff Lake Recreation Area is located in the Davy Crockett National Forest in Houston County east of Crockett.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,237 square miles (3,200 km2), of which 1,231 square miles (3,190 km2) is land and 5.7 square miles (15 km2) (0.5%) is water. [7]

Adjacent counties

National protected area

Demographics

Austonio Baptist Church off Texas State Highway 21 in Houston County Revised Austonio Baptist Church, Houston County, TX IMG 3296.JPG
Austonio Baptist Church off Texas State Highway 21 in Houston County
Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 2,721
1860 8,058196.1%
1870 8,1471.1%
1880 16,702105.0%
1890 19,36015.9%
1900 25,45231.5%
1910 29,56416.2%
1920 28,601−3.3%
1930 30,0175.0%
1940 31,1373.7%
1950 22,825−26.7%
1960 19,276−15.5%
1970 17,855−7.4%
1980 22,29924.9%
1990 21,375−4.1%
2000 23,1858.5%
2010 23,7322.4%
Est. 201622,754 [8] −4.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [9]
1850–2010 [10] 2010–2014 [1]

As of the census [11] of 2000, there were 23,185 people, 8,259 households, and 5,756 families residing in the county. The population density was 19 people per square mile (7/km²); it had the second lowest population density for all counties in Deep East Texas, behind only Newton County. There were 10,730 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 68.57% White, 27.93% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.17% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. 7.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,259 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.90% were married couples living together, 14.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.30% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 114.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $28,119, and the median income for a family was $35,033. Males had a median income of $29,143 versus $19,885 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,525. About 15.60% of families and 21.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.30% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over.

Government and infrastructure

Eastham Unit, a Texas Department of Criminal Justice prison for men, is located in an unincorporated area in the county. [12]

The Crockett State School, a Texas Youth Commission juvenile correctional facility for boys, was located in Crockett. [13] but was closed on August 31, 2011. [14]

Chuck Hopson, a pharmacist from Jacksonville, is the Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives whose District 11 includes Houston County.

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [15]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 74.3%6,20523.7% 1,9782.0% 170
2012 71.6%5,88027.6% 2,2650.8% 69
2008 68.1%5,87230.8% 2,6561.1% 96
2004 66.4%5,84833.2% 2,9210.4% 37
2000 64.5%5,30834.4% 2,8331.2% 95
1996 46.3%3,44345.5% 3,3838.2% 613
1992 38.2% 3,06740.5%3,25021.2% 1,703
1988 50.0%3,88249.5% 3,8460.5% 36
1984 58.0%4,54241.8% 3,2750.2% 17
1980 40.4% 2,88958.5%4,1811.0% 74
1976 41.1% 2,22958.6%3,1790.2% 13
1972 64.0%3,31735.6% 1,8440.5% 26
1968 22.3% 1,39144.6%2,78233.1% 2,064
1964 31.2% 1,67568.6%3,6810.2% 10
1960 36.3% 1,59161.7%2,7032.0% 89
1956 49.0% 1,94150.5%1,9980.5% 19
1952 43.4% 2,22256.6%2,9000.1% 4
1948 17.1% 53264.9%2,01418.0% 558
1944 7.4% 23374.0%2,32918.6% 584
1940 11.7% 47488.2%3,5790.1% 3
1936 3.9% 9996.1%2,4580.1% 2
1932 5.1% 16594.8%3,0870.1% 3
1928 36.4% 76363.7%1,336
1924 12.1% 45786.9%3,2891.0% 38
1920 12.9% 38549.5%1,47537.6% 1,121
1916 16.5% 37376.4%1,7307.2% 162
1912 16.2% 34269.2%1,45714.6% 308

Transportation

Major highways

Houston County is served by US Highway 287 and State Highways 7, 19 and 21. All of these highways intersect at the Courthouse Square in downtown Crockett. SH 21 follows the 300-year-old route of the El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail.

Texas State Highway Loop 304 circles the city of Crockett.

Rail

Freight rail service is provided by Union Pacific Railroad. The Crockett Depot, built in 1909, has been restored and now serves as the Houston County Museum.

Air

Houston County Airport (KDKR), located 3 miles east of Crockett on SH 7, features a 4,000-foot runway. On site aircraft services are provided by East Texas Aircraft.

Public transportation

Demand and Response public transportation within Houston County is provided by Brazos Transit District.

Communities

Cities

Unincorporated communities

Ghost towns

Education

There are five school districts located entirely in the county:

In addition, small portions of Groveton Independent School District and Elkhart Independent School District, located in Trinity County and Anderson County respectively, extend into Houston County.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Austin County, Texas County in the United States

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Archer County, Texas County in the United States

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Crockett, Texas City in Texas, United States

Crockett is a city in Houston County, Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 6,950. It is the fifth oldest city and the county seat of Houston County, the oldest county in Texas.

Kennard, Texas City in Texas, United States

Kennard is a city in Houston County, Texas, United States. The population was 337 at the 2010 census. The main street is Texas State Highway 7.

Latexo, Texas City in Texas, United States

Latexo is a city in Houston County, Texas, United States. The population was 322 at the 2010 census.

Lovelady, Texas City in Texas, United States

Lovelady is a town in Houston County, Texas, United States. The population was 649 at the 2010 census.

Gladewater, Texas City in Texas, United States

Gladewater is a city in Gregg and Upshur counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 6,441 at the 2010 census. U.S. Route 80 traverses the city.

Ratcliff, Texas Unincorporated community in Texas, United States

Ratcliff is an unincorporated community in Houston County in east Texas, United States.

Belott, Texas Unincorporated community in Texas, United States

Belott is an unincorporated community in Houston County, Texas, United States. It is located along the route of the Old San Antonio Road, about twelve miles northeast of Crockett. The population was 101 according to the 2000 census.

Richard H. Keith (1842–1905), also known as R.H. Smith, was a coal and lumber businessman. He arrived in Kansas City, Missouri in 1871 with forty dollars and started a small coal yard. From that beginning evolved an empire spanning several states, that included coal, timber, sawmills, railroads, and even the building of towns.

Wheeler Springs is an unincorporated community in Houston County, Texas.

Randolph, also known as Old Randolph, was an unincorporated area in Houston County, Texas.

Coltharp was an Unincorporated area in Houston County, Texas. It was located on the Cochino Bayou 20 miles east of Crockett, approximately where the intersection of Farm to Market Road 513 and Forrest Service Road 521 A is located.

References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 161.
  4. Texas Historical Commission, Historic Marker, Autonio, Texas
  5. Texas Historical Commission, Historic Marker, Houston County, State Highway 21
  6. 1 2 3 Texas Historical Commission, Historic Marker, Houston County, Texas, east of Kennard, Texas
  7. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  8. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  9. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  10. "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  11. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2011-05-14.
  12. "Eastham Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 16, 2010.
  13. "Crockett State School Archived 2011-02-20 at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Youth Commission. Retrieved on August 8, 2010,
  14. "TYC Announces Closure of Three Facilities Archived 2012-03-05 at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Youth Commission. Retrieved on July 3, 2011.
  15. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-07-25.

Coordinates: 31°19′N95°26′W / 31.32°N 95.43°W / 31.32; -95.43