Crime in Texas

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This article refers to crime in the American state of Texas.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.

Texas U.S. state in the United States

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Contents

State statistics

Number of crimes (by year)
YearPopulationTotal
crimes
Violent
crimes
Property
crimes
Violent crimesProperty crimes
MurderForcible
rape
RobberyAggravated
assault
BurglaryLarcenyVehicle
theft
19609,579,677212,40715,428196,9798248923,03110,68157,589123,41515,975
197011,196,000467,24840,897426,3511,2992,32915,28021,989129,866251,09145,394
198014,169,829870,45877,978792,4802,3926,70029,54739,339262,600450,79279,088
199016,986,5101,329,494129,3431,200,1512,3898,75044,29773,907314,512731,224154,415
200020,851,8201,033,311113,653919,6581,2387,85630,25774,302188,975637,52293,161
201025,253,4661,064,477113,231951,2461,2497,62232,84371,517228,597654,62668,023
Source: http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/txcrime.htm

In 2014 there were 923,348 crimes reported in Texas, including 1,184 murders and 8,236 rapes. [1]

Crime rates: number of crimes per 100,000 persons (by year)
YearPopulationTotal
crime
rate
Violent
crime
rate
Property
crime
rate
Violent crime ratesProperty crime rates
MurderForcible
rape
RobberyAggravated
assault
BurglaryLarcenyVehicle
theft
19609,579,6772,217.3161.02,056.28.69.331.6111.5601.21,288.3166.8
197011,196,0004,173.3365.33,808.111.620.8136.5196.41,159.92,242.7405.4
198014,169,8296,143.0550.35,592.716.947.3208.5277.61,853.23,181.4558.1
199016,986,5107,826.8761.47,065.314.151.5260.8435.11,851.54,304.7909.0
200020,851,8204,955.5545.14,410.45.937.7145.1356.3906.33,057.4446.8
201025,253,4664,215.2448.43,766.84.930.2130.1283.2905.22,592.2269.4
Source: http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/txcrime.htm

Policing

In 2008, Texas had 1,913 state and local law enforcement agencies. [2] Those agencies employed a total of 96,116 staff. [2] Of the total staff, 59,219 were sworn officers (defined as those with general arrest powers). [2]

Police ratio

In 2008, Texas had 244 police officers per 100,000 residents. [2]

Capital punishment laws

Capital punishment is applied under Texas state law for capital murder if the perpetrator is 2 years and older and the prosecutor seeks the death penalty. [3]

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes, capital offences or capital felonies, and they commonly include serious offences such as murder, mass murder, aggravated cases of rape, child rape, child sexual abuse, terrorism, treason, espionage, offences against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, piracy, aircraft hijacking, drug trafficking and drug dealing, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, and in some cases, the most serious acts of recidivism, aggravated robbery, and kidnapping, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading.

The federal death penalty may also be used in certain circumstances.

Incarceration

In 1974 the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC), since merged into the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ), had about 17,000 prisoners; 44% were black, 39% were non-Hispanic white, 16% were Hispanic and Latino, and 1% were of other races. 96% were male and 4% were female. At the time all 14 prison units of the TDC were in Southeast Texas. [4]

In 1974 the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operated four federal prisons in Texas: FCI Texarkana, FCI Seagoville, FPC Bryan (for women), and FCI La Tuna. These prisons had a combined population of about 2,300. [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act Federal law

The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, H.R. 3355, Pub.L. 103–322 is an Act of Congress dealing with crime and law enforcement; it became law in 1994. It is the largest crime bill in the history of the United States and consisted of 356 pages that provided for 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs, which were designed with significant input from experienced police officers. Sponsored by Representative Jack Brooks of Texas, the bill was originally written by Senator Joe Biden of Delaware and then was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.

Capital punishment in the United States Legal penalty in the United States

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Capital punishment is a legal penalty under the United States federal government criminal justice system.

Texas Department of Public Safety Department of the Texas state government

The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) is a department of the government of the state of Texas. DPS is responsible for statewide law enforcement and vehicle regulation. The Public Safety Commission oversees DPS. However, under state law, the Governor of Texas may assume personal command of the department during a public disaster, riot, insurrection, or formation of a dangerous resistance to enforcement of law, or to perform his constitutional duty to enforce law. The commission's five members are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Texas Senate, to serve without pay for staggered, six-year terms. The commission formulates plans and policies for enforcing criminal, traffic and safety laws, for preventing and detecting crime, for apprehending law violators and for educating citizens about laws and public safety.

Federal Bureau of Prisons Corrections agency of the US federal government

The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is a federal law enforcement agency responsible for the custody, control, and care of individuals incarcerated in the federal prison system of the United States. Staff are credentialed federal law enforcement officers under the Department of Justice with 6c retirement.

Juan Garza American murderer

Juan Raul Garza was an American murderer and drug trafficker who was executed for a federal crime.

Capital murder was a statutory offence of aggravated murder in Great Britain, and Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland, which was later adopted as a legal provision to define certain forms of aggravated murder in the United States. In some parts of the U.S., this term can define certain acts of aggravated murder: a capital murder is any murder that makes the perpetrator eligible for the death penalty.

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the state of Texas, part of the United States.

Texas Department of Criminal Justice Texas Department of Crim. Justice Director: ™Wallace Lee Best -August 02 2019. Tdcj©2019-™00837172™465-696335.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) is a department of the government of the U.S. state of Texas. The TDCJ is responsible for statewide criminal justice for adult offenders, including managing offenders in state prisons, state jails, and private correctional facilities, funding and certain oversight of community supervision, and supervision of offenders released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision. The TDCJ operates the largest prison system in the United States.

Federal Correctional Institution, Marianna

The Federal Correctional Institution, Marianna is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Florida. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also includes an adjacent satellite prison camp for minimum-security female offenders. It lies adjacent to the Marianna Municipal Airport.

California Department of Justice

The California Department of Justice is both a statewide investigative law enforcement agency and state legal department in the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General (AG) which carries out complex criminal & civil investigations, prosecutions, and other legal services throughout the state.

This article refers to crime in the American state of California.

Florida with a population of 20,612,439 in 2016 had 642,512 crimes reported including 1,111 murders, 88,700 violent, 553,812 property crimes, and 5,528 rapes.

This article refers to crime in the U.S. state of Illinois.

This article refers to the situation of crime in the U.S. state of New York.

This article refers to crime in the U.S. state of Ohio.

This article refers to crime in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.

In the United States, the law regarding murder varies by jurisdiction. In most U.S. jurisdictions there is a hierarchy of acts, known collectively as homicide, of which first degree murder and felony murder are the most serious, followed by second degree murder, followed by voluntary manslaughter and involuntary manslaughter which are not as serious, and ending finally in justifiable homicide, which is not a crime. However, because there are at least 52 relevant jurisdictions, each with its own criminal code, this is a considerable simplification.

Capital punishment is no longer used in the U.S. state of Delaware. The state's capital sentencing scheme was declared unconstitutional by the Delaware Supreme Court on August 2, 2016. The ruling will retroactively apply to earlier death sentences. Despite this ruling, the capital statute for first-degree murder under Title 11, Chapter 42, Section 09 of the Delaware Code has yet to be repealed.

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.

References

  1. "Texas Crime Rates 1960 - 2014". disastercenter.com.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "U.S. Department of Justice, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008, p.15" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
  3. "Death Row Facts." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on June 9, 2016.
  4. 1 2 "Behind Bars in Texas: Not All Prisons, Are the Same." Texas Monthly . Emmis Communications, March 1974. Volume 2, No. 3. ISSN 0148-7736. START: p. 42. CITED: p. 42.

Further reading