Economy of Texas

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Economy of Texas
Texas flag map.svg
As a stand-alone country, Texas would be the 10th largest economy in the world.
Statistics
GDP $1.645 trillion (2017) [1]
GDP per capita
$58,085 (2017)
Population below poverty line
15.8% (16.5% considering cost of living) [2] [3]
0.474 [4]
Labor force
13,126,900 (January 1, 2015) [5]
Unemployment3.8% (Feb. 2019) [6]
Public finances
Revenues$71.5447 billion [7]
Expenses$71.4094 billion [8]

The economy of Texas is the second largest in the United States. It has a gross state product of $1.645 trillion (2017), [9] the second largest in the U.S. As of 2015, Texas is home to six of the top 50 companies on the Fortune 500 list and 51 overall (third most after New York and California). [10] In 2017, Texas grossed more than $264.5 billion a year in exports—more than the exports of California ($172 billion) and New York ($77.9 billion) combined. [11] [12] [13]

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

<i>Fortune</i> 500 annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine

The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available. The concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more commonly used than its subset Fortune 100 or superset Fortune 1000.

Contents

As a sovereign country (2016), Texas would be the 10th largest economy in the world by GDP (ahead of South Korea and Canada). [14] Texas's household income was $48,259 in 2010 ranking 25th in the nation. The state debt in 2012 was calculated to be $121.7 billion, or $7,400 per taxpayer. [15] Texas has the second largest population in the country after California.

South Korea Republic in East Asia

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea lies in the north temperate zone and has a predominantly mountainous terrain. It comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi). Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million.

Canada Country in North America

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.

Household income in the United States US family income

Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, state, or whole country. It is commonly used by the United States government and private institutions to describe the amount of money coming into households and to track economic trends in the US.

History

Texas compared to other countries GDP is in the same range as Canada, Australia, Russia, the Netherlands, or South Korea (corresponding with the Department of Finance figures in 2005). USA-World Nominal GDP.PNG
Texas compared to other countries GDP is in the same range as Canada, Australia, Russia, the Netherlands, or South Korea (corresponding with the Department of Finance figures in 2005).
Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy. Texas industries timeline.png
Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy.

Historically four major business enterprises shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. [16] The first enterprise to enjoy major success in Texas was cattle and bison. In the early days of Anglo-American settlement furs and hides were the major products derived from cattle. Beef was not particularly popular in the United States. However soon Texas entrepreneurs pioneered the beef industry and demand steadily increased. The cattle industry enjoyed its greatest financial success in the later 1870s and 1880s.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Cotton production, which had been known in Texas since Spanish times, gradually increased throughout the 19th century. By the early 20th century Texas had become the leading cotton producer in the nation. By the 1920s the cotton industry was past its peak as government regulation and foreign competition took their toll. [17]

The forests of Texas have been an important resource since its earliest days and have played an important role in the state's history. The vast woodlands of the region, home to many varieties of wildlife when Europeans first arrived, provided major economic opportunities for early settlers. They today continue to play an important role economically and environmentally in the state.

The densest forest lands lie in the eastern part of the state. In particular the Big Thicket region, just north of Houston and Beaumont, has historically been home to the most dense woodlands. The Big Thicket was mostly uninhabited until heavy settlement from the U.S. began in the mid-19th century, and was even used as a refuge by runaway slaves and other fugitives. The Rio Grande valley in South Texas was home to a large palm tree forest when Spaniards first arrived, though today very little of it remains.

Big Thicket

Big Thicket is the name of a heavily forested area in Southeast Texas, United States. Several attempts to provide boundaries have been made ranging from only a 10 to 15 mile section of Hardin County to an area encompassing over 29 counties and over 3,350,000 acres. Scientific studies have been performed also, but with varying results. In "... 1936, ... Hal B. Parks and Victor L. Cory of the Texas Agriculture Experiment station conducted a biological survey of the Big Thicket region". Their study, based on geology, resulted in over 3,350,000 acres of Southeast Texas and covering 14 counties from Houston in the west to Orange in the east and Huntsville to Wiergate on the north. Claude McLeod, a botany professor at Sam Houston State University, performed a botanical based study, resulting in a region of over 2,000,000 acres. While no exact boundaries exist, the area occupies much of Hardin, Liberty, Tyler, San Jacinto, and Polk Counties and is roughly bounded by the San Jacinto River, Neches River, and Pine Island Bayou. To the north, it blends into the larger Piney Woods terrestrial ecoregion of which it is a part. It has historically been the most dense forest region in what is now Texas, though logging in the 19th and 20th centuries dramatically reduced the forest concentration.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. It is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is similarly not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties.

Beaumont, Texas City in Texas, United States

Beaumont is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Texas, in the United States, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located in Southeast Texas on the Neches River about 85 miles (137 km) east of Houston, Beaumont had a population of 117,267 at the time of the 2010 census, making it the thirtieth-most populous city in the state of Texas.

The development of railroads in the eastern part of the state during the mid-19th century led to a boom in lumber production in the 1880s. This era of financial success lasted approximately 50 years finally coming to an end as Texas' forests were decimated and the Great Depression dropped prices. [18]

In 1901 the Gladys City Oil, Gas, and Manufacturing Company struck oil on Spindletop Hill in Beaumont. Though petroleum production was not new, this strike was by far the largest the world had ever seen. The find led to widespread exploration throughout Texas and neighboring states. By 1940 Texas was firmly established as the leading oil producer in the U.S. [19]

The headquarters of Texas Instruments Texas instruments gate3 dallas tx usa 2009-08-07.jpg
The headquarters of Texas Instruments

Texas remained largely rural until World War II though the success of the petroleum industry rapidly expanded the economy with heavy industry of many types taking root. The second world war created tremendous demand for petroleum and a variety of products that Texas was in a unique position to provide. By the end of the war Texas was one of the leading industrial states and the population had become predominantly urban. Additionally the economy had diversified sufficiently that, though petroleum was still the largest sector by the end of the war, the business community in the state was truly diverse.

The Texas economy today relies largely on information technology, oil and natural gas, aerospace, defense, biomedical research, fuel processing, electric power, agriculture, and manufacturing.

Fortune 500 companies
based in Texas for 2011

according to revenues
with State and U.S. rankings
StateCorporationUS
1 ExxonMobil 2
2 ConocoPhillips 4
3 AT&T 12
4 Valero Energy 24
5 Marathon Oil 29
6 Dell 41
7 Sysco 67
8 Enterprise Products 80
9 Plains All American Pipeline 99
10 AMR 118
11 Fluor 124
12 Tesoro 128
13 Kimberly-Clark 130
14 Halliburton 144
15 USAA 145
16 J. C. Penney 146
17 Baker Hughes 170
18 Texas Instruments 175
19 Waste Management 196
20 National Oilwell Varco 202
21 Dean Foods 203
22 Southwest Airlines 205
23 Apache Corp. 206
24 Anadarko Petroleum 223
25 KBR 242
26 GameStop 262
27 Tenet Healthcare 266
28 Whole Foods Market 273
29 CenterPoint Energy 279
30 HollyFrontier 289
31 Energy Future Holdings 292
32 Kinder Morgan 294
33 Western Refining 298
34 Enbridge Energy Partners 309
35 Calpine 349
36 Energy Transfer Equity 351
37 Commercial Metals 361
38 Cameron International 375
39 EOG Resources 377
40 Celanese 388
41 Frontier Oil 389
42 CC Media Holdings 391
43 Dr Pepper Snapple Group 404
44 Group 1 Automotive 413
45 Targa Resources 416
46 Spectra Energy 441
47 Atmos Energy 473
48 El Paso Corp. 481
49 RadioShack 492
50 NuStar Energy 497
51 D. R. Horton 499
Further information:
List of Texas companies

Source: Fortune [20]

Exports

Houston Ship Channel Houston Ship Channel Barbours Cut.jpg
Houston Ship Channel

In 2014, for the thirteenth year in a row, Texas led the United States in export revenues. Texas exports for 2008 totaled $192.2 billion. [21] In 2002, the Port of Houston was 6th among the top sea ports in the world in terms of total cargo volume; [22] Air Cargo World rated Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport as "the best air cargo airport in the world". [23] The ship channel at the Port of Houston the largest in the U.S. in international commerce and the sixth-largest port in the world. [24]

Taxes

According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens are among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally, with state and local taxes costing $3,580 per capita, or 8.7% of resident incomes. [25] Texas is one of only 7 states not to have a state income tax. [25] [26] The state sales tax rate, 6.25%, is above the national medium, with localities adding up to 2% (8.25% total). [27] Texas does have a "back to school" sales tax holiday once a year (generally around the first weekend in August) on clothing and footwear under $100. [28]

As for Texas's business tax climate, the state ranks 8th in the nation. [25] Property taxes are exclusively collected at the local level in the state, and are generally at rates above the national average. [25] As a whole, Texas is a "tax donor state" with Texans receiving back approximately $0.94 per every dollar of federal income taxes collected in 2005. [25]

Tax burden

Texas is one of the seven states of the United States with no personal state income tax. In addition, Texas does not allow any lower level of government (counties, cities, etc.) to impose an income tax. This means that, for the residents of Texas, the maximum rate of income taxation is the top rate set by the US Government. Businesses, except for sole proprietorships and partnerships, are subject to a gross margins tax. [29]

The state sales tax is set at 6.25 percent. [30] Cities are allowed to impose an additional 1% tax, and additional taxes not to exceed 1% may be approved by voters for any combination of county sales tax, transportation districts, economic development, and/or crime prevention. The average sales tax in Texas amounts to 8.25 percent. The state determines the items subject to sales tax, which all other entities must follow. Motor vehicle sales are subject only to the 6.25% state sales tax. Food, except for prepared food, and non-prescription medicines are among the major items exempt from sales tax.[ citation needed ]

While property taxes are among the highest in the nation, property costs are also among the lowest in the nation. Property taxes constitute the majority of revenue and are collected and kept by local governments, as the Texas Constitution specifically prohibits a state property tax. For real property, counties, cities, and school districts (along with other special districts, such as for a community college or public hospital) can also impose taxes. All property is assessed uniformly throughout the county via the county "appraisal district", and taxes are assessed based on 100% of the property's assessed value. While larger personal property items such as cars, boats, and airplanes can be subject to local taxes as well, it is far less common.[ citation needed ]

Industries

Agriculture

Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background Baumwoll-Erntemaschine.jpeg
Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background

Texas has the most farms of all United States both in terms of number and acreage. Texas leads the nation in number of cattle, usually exceeding 16 million head. The sprawling 320,000 deeded acre (1,200 km²) La Escalera Ranch, located 20 miles (32 km) south of Fort Stockton, Texas, is one of the largest cattle ranches in the Southwestern United States.

The state leads nationally in production of sheep and goat products. Texas is king of cotton leading the nation in cotton production, its leading crop and second-most-valuable farm product. [31] Texas is a leader in cereal crop production. Three counties in the state Colorado, Wharton and Matagorda take advantage of water from the Lower Colorado River Authority to grow rice and are responsible for about 5% of annual U.S. rice production. [32] Texas is also a large producer of watermelons, grapefruits, and cantaloupes. [31]

Aeronautics

Headquarters of American Airlines and AMR Corporation in Fort Worth AMRHeadquartersFortWorth0.jpg
Headquarters of American Airlines and AMR Corporation in Fort Worth
Southwest Airlines headquarters in Dallas Southwest airlines hq from east 2009-06-22.jpg
Southwest Airlines headquarters in Dallas

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, the center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is located in Houston. It is a leading hub for the Aeronautics industry. The National Space and Biomedical Research Institute is headquartered in Houston.

Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, located nearly equidistant from downtown Dallas and downtown Fort Worth, is the largest airport in the state, the second-largest in the US, and the fourth-largest in the world. [33] In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, the third-busiest in the nation, and the sixth-busiest in the world. [ citation needed ] The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 40 international. DFW is the largest and main hub for American Airlines, one of the world's largest in terms of total passengers-miles transported and passenger fleet size.

Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), the largest hub of United Airlines. IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport. IAH is currently ranked second among all U.S. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service.

Headquartered in Fort Worth, American Airlines is the world's largest airline by passenger miles, passengers carried, and revenue. Southwest Airlines, also a leader in the commercial passenger market, is based near Love Field airport in Dallas. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, the aviation division of Lockheed Martin, is also headquartered in Fort Worth, and the company's Missiles and Fire Control division is based in nearby Grand Prairie, along with the American division of Airbus Helicopters, Airbus Helicopters, Inc.. Bell Helicopter is headquartered in Fort Worth as well.

Defense

Texas is home to two of the United States Army's largest facilities (in terms of geographic size), Fort Hood in Central Texas near Killeen and Fort Bliss near El Paso. In addition, Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio is home to the Brooke Army Medical Center, one of the Army's major hospitals and its only burn facility, and the Corpus Christi Army Depot in Corpus Christi, Texas is home to the world's largest helicopter repair and maintenance facility.

The United States Air Force operates several bases in the state Sheppard (Wichita Falls), Dyess (Abilene), Goodfellow (San Angelo), Laughlin (Del Rio), and Lackland and Randolph (San Antonio) Ellington Airport, (Houston).

The United States Navy operates Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth (the former Carswell Air Force Base facility) as well as NAS Corpus Christi and NAS Kingsville.

Defense contracting

Texas (specifically Dallas and Houston) has a large number of defense contractors which creates sizable employment for the state.

Two divisions of Lockheed Martin have their divisional headquarters in the DFW area Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Fort Worth (where the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, [34] is manufactured, as well as its successor, the F-35 Lightning II and the F-22 Raptor) and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Grand Prairie.

Fort Worth is also the home of Bell Helicopter Textron, which manufactures several helicopters for the military, including the V-22 and the H-1, on which final assembly is performed in Amarillo. Furthermore, three major defense service contractors (DynCorp, AECOM, and DXC Technology) have substantial operations in Fort Worth.

Other major defense contractors with DFW presence include Boeing (Richardson), Rockwell Collins (Richardson), Vought Corporation (headquarters in Dallas; facilities in Dallas and Grand Prairie), Raytheon (plants in Garland, Dallas, and McKinney), L-3 Communications (plants in Arlington, Carrollton, and Greenville; also has a facility in Waco), BAE Systems (facility in Fort Worth), Leonardo DRS (Dallas), Hewlett Packard Enterprise and NTT Data (Plano), Alliant Techsystems (facility in Fort Worth), and Elbit Systems (facility and US headquarters in Fort Worth). The Defense Contract Audit Agency maintains its Central Region office in Irving.

Outside the DFW area, KBR (the former Halliburton subsidiary) maintains its headquarters in Houston, while the Southwest Research Institute is located in San Antonio. BAE Systems also manufactures the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles at its facility in Sealy, Texas.

Computer technology

Hewlett-Packard United States offices near Houston, previously the Compaq headquarters HewlettPackardHarrisCoTX.JPG
Hewlett-Packard United States offices near Houston, previously the Compaq headquarters
Dell headquarters in Round Rock Dell headquarters.jpg
Dell headquarters in Round Rock

Texas is one of the major hubs in the U.S. for development of computer components, systems, software and information infrastructure. Austin, Dallas, and Houston are the major centers for this industry in Texas. The Austin area is often nicknamed "Silicon Hills" because of the concentration of semiconductor design companies including AMD, Cirrus Logic, Freescale Semiconductor, Intel and Silicon Labs. Dell's headquarters is located in the city's suburb, Round Rock, and major offices for Google, Facebook, EA Games, and Apple are also open in the Austin area. Austin is also the home of the Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas at Austin. Dallas is the birthplace of the integrated circuit.[ citation needed ]

The North Dallas area is called the "Telecom Corridor" or the "Silicon Prairie"[ citation needed ] for the area's high concentration of information technology companies such as Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, and EDS, as well as telecommunications giant AT&T. San Antonio is the home of cloud computing giant Rackspace, as well as computing pioneer Datapoint. Harris County-based Compaq, [35] was once one of the world's largest computer companies.[ citation needed ] After Compaq's merger with Hewlett-Packard, the new owner currently employs more employees in the Houston area than anywhere else in the world.[ citation needed ]

Energy

An oil well. Oil well.jpg
An oil well.
The Enron Complex, formerly Enron's headquarters, now has Chevron as a major tenant. Enron Complex.jpg
The Enron Complex, formerly Enron's headquarters, now has Chevron as a major tenant.

Texans consume the most energy in the nation both in per capita and as a whole. [36] Since 2002, Texas has operated under a mostly deregulated electricity market (however, areas where electricity is provided by either a municipality or a utility cooperative are not always subject to deregulation).

The known petroleum deposits of Texas are about 8 billion barrels (1.3×109 m3), which makes up approximately one-third of the known U.S. supply. Texas has 4.6 billion barrels (730,000,000 m3) of proven crude oil reserves. [36] As wells are depleted in the eastern portions of the state, drilling in state has moved westward. [31]

Several of the major oil companies have headquarters in Texas, including BP (Houston), ConocoPhillips, Marathon Oil (Houston), Exxon-Mobil (Irving), Tesoro, and Valero (San Antonio).

Texas is a global leader in the energy industry and Houston is the energy capital of the world.[ citation needed ] Since 2003, Texas state officials have created various initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund to develop the economy of Texas. Texas is a leader in alternative energy sources, producing the most wind power of any state, as well as small solar powered efforts and the experimental installation of wave powered generators. Texas also is home to many of the world's largest oilfield services firms including Halliburton, Schlumberger and Dresser. The state has a number of pipeline operators, such as El Paso and Dynegy, along with diversified energy firms such as TXU and Reliant Energy.

Tourism

The San Antonio River Walk Riverwalk Christmas 05-2.jpg
The San Antonio River Walk

Texas has a large tourism industry. The state tourism slogan is "Texas: It's like a whole other country." Tourists might enjoy San Antonio and El Paso's Hispanic culture, or Fort Worth western attractions. Galveston, Corpus Christi, and Padre Island are some of the popular Texas resort areas located on the Gulf of Mexico. Houston is Texas' leading convention city along with its Southern culture. Dallas is also one of the nation's leading convention cities as well as San Antonio. Professional and college sports are dominant in both Dallas and Houston.

Entertainment

Texas is a top filmmaking state. Austin is now one of the leading filmmaking locations in the country. The exteriors for the popular soap opera Dallas were filmed on Southfork Ranch, a location near Plano, Texas. From 1995 to 2004, more than $2.75 billion was spent in Texas for film and television production.

The Texas Film Commission was founded for free services to filmmakers, from location research to traveling. [37] Also many Hollywood studios are relocating parts of their production divisions to the Austin, Houston, and Dallas areas. [37]

The media conglomerate iHeartMedia is based in San Antonio, Texas. Video game developers Robot Entertainment, Gearbox Software, and 3D Realms are based in the Dallas Fort Worth area, while Retro Studios, Armature Studio, and Ghostfire Games are based in Austin. Cinemark Theatres which is one of the largest movie theater chains is also based in the Dallas Fort Worth area.

Healthcare

Healthcare is a growing industry in the state of Texas. The Texas Medical Center, located in southwest Houston, is the largest medical center in the world. [38] [39] It is home to The University of Texas Health Science Center which trains medical students and residents and includes The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, a global leader of cancer research and treatment. [40] The medical complex also hosts a private medical college, The Baylor College of Medicine. [41]

The University of Texas medical system [42] has additional branches in Dallas, San Antonio, Tyler, and Galveston. The South Texas Medical Center in San Antonio with nearly 27,000 employees [43] has a $14.3 Billion economic impact on the state of Texas. [44] In addition to these facilities, the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, the Texas A&M Health Science Center,[ citation needed ], and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock and El Paso provide the state with a total of nine centers of medical research.

Wealthiest places in Texas

  1. Southlake, Texas town, Texas $176,427
  2. Barton Creek CDP, Texas $110,504
  3. Westover Hills town, Texas $98,573
  4. Highland Park town, Texas $97,008
  5. Hunters Creek Village city, Texas $88,821
  6. Bunker Hill Village city, Texas $86,434
  7. Hill Country Village city, Texas $77,374
  8. Mustang town, Texas $75,692
  9. West University Place city, Texas $69,674
  10. Hilshire Village city, Texas $66,620
  11. Olmos Park city, Texas $65,697
  12. University Park city, Texas $63,414
  13. The Hills village, Texas $61,363
  14. Southside Place city, Texas $57,021
  15. West Lake Hills city, Texas $55,651
  16. Onion Creek CDP, Texas $54,758
  17. Tiki Island village, Texas $54,611
  18. Parker city, Texas $54,099
  19. Lakeshore Gardens-Hidden Acres CDP, Texas $52,512
  20. Rollingwood city, Texas $52,280
  21. Hedwig Village city, Texas $52,153
  22. Lost Creek CDP, Texas $52,147
  23. Heath city, Texas $51,049
  24. Colleyville city, Texas $50,418
  25. Shavano Park city, Texas $47,705
  26. Sugar Land, Texas city, Texas $47,597
  27. Bellaire city, Texas $46,674
  28. Lakeway city, Texas $45,765
  29. Ransom Canyon town, Texas $45,675
  30. Alamo Heights city, Texas $45,640

See also

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This article is about transportation systems in and around Dallas, Texas (USA).

Economy of Houston

The economy ofHouston is based primarily on the energy industry, particularly oil. However, health care, biomedical research, and aerospace also constitute large sectors. In 2012, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was $449 billion, the fourth-largest of any metro area in the United States. The Houston metropolitan area comprises the largest concentration of petrochemical manufacturing in the world, including for synthetic rubber, insecticides, and fertilizers. It is the world's leading center for oilfield equipment construction, with the city of Houston home to more than 3,000 energy-related businesses, including many of the top oil and gas exploration and production firms and petroleum pipeline operators. As of 2011, 23 companies on the Fortune 500 list have their headquarters in, or around, Houston.

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is a governmental agency and its purpose is to "provide safe, effective, and efficient movement of people and goods" throughout the state. Though the public face of the agency is generally associated with maintenance of the state's immense highway system, the agency is also responsible for aviation in the state and overseeing public transportation systems.

Education in Texas

Texas has over 1,000 public school districts—all but one of the school districts in Texas are independent, separate from any form of municipal government. School districts may cross city and county boundaries. Independent school districts have the power to tax their residents and to assert eminent domain over privately owned property. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) oversees these districts, providing supplemental funding, but its jurisdiction is limited mostly to intervening in poorly performing districts.

Demographics of Texas

Texas is the second most populous U.S. state, with an estimated 2017 population of 28.449 million. In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

Lone Star Airlines was an American regional airline that operated both domestic and international flights. For much of the airline's life its headquarters were located in the Fort Worth Stockyards in Fort Worth, Texas. The airline's largest hub was located at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. The airline filed for bankruptcy in August, 1998 and was liquidated in October, 1998.

The architecture of the U.S. state of Texas comes from a wide variety of sources. Many of the state's buildings reflect Texas' Spanish and Mexican roots; in addition, there is considerable influence from mostly the American South as well as the Southwest. Rapid economic growth since the mid twentieth century has led to a wide variety of contemporary architectural buildings.

Metro Airlines

Metro Airlines, originally Houston Metro Airlines, was a commuter airline that was originally headquartered in Houston, Texas, United States,. Metro subsequently moved its headquarters to north Texas. The airline had an operational base located on the grounds of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and also had offices on the airport property and in Grapevine, Texas. Metro evolved into an airline holding company with the acquisition or creation of a number of different airlines, including the banner carrier operating for Eastern Airlines named Eastern Metro Express which was based in Atlanta, GA and Metroflight Airlines which operated American Eagle service from the Dallas/Ft. Worth Airport. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1993, and the assets were acquired by AMR Simmons Airlines.

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